sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

MEMS and NEMS Sensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 33656

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Interests: terahertz quantum tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes for quantum electronics; memristors; opto-nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems (O-N/MEMS); photo-electro-chemical systems; nano-biosensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The manufacturing and integration of autonomous and embedded sensors through a combination of micro- and nano-system technologies have been revolutionizing self-powered, high bandwidth devices for advance manufacturing (AM), artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), and health technologies.

More specifically, nano- and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (N/MEMS) sensors are the building blocks for a vast range of applications, from continuous real-time health (wearable) and environmental monitoring (gas, biomolecules, pressure, temperature, etc.) to enabling embedded mobile Internet services (wireless), including smart/connected cars and unattended vehicles (UAV) (inertial). As these devices have numbered in the tens of billions, the potential for disruptive innovation has been immense.

Integration of nano- and micro-sensors-which are functionalized using emerging materials to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) and microfluidics systems, and their electro-mechanical packing are very challenging. Because, the integration and packing require the multiple deposition of layers of different dielectrics and metals, the atomic mismatch between these layers, acting as electron trap, increases ohmic resistance, and creates noise and reduces sensitivity, selectivity and responsivity; and increases detection time.

This Special Issue aims to introduce the manufacturing, packaging and integration of autonomous and embedded sensors through a combination of micro- and nano-system. Topics in general include, but are not limited, to:

- Autonomous and embedded sensors: design, manufacture, packaging and reliability
- Biosensors (photonic, electrical, chemical) and their integration to MEMS, CMOS and microfluidic systems for COVID-19 and other (future) pandemics’ roteins/metabolites/analytes
- Sensor interconnectors/interfaces and their testing
- Graphene-based nano-sensors
- Electronic circuits for MEMS nano-sensor modulation
- Nano-electro-mechanical sensors

Prof. Dr. Mustafa Yavuz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • N/MEMS-sensors
  • sensor integration to N/MEMS
  • CMOS and microfluidic systems
  • electronic circuits for N/MEMS nano-sensor modulation
  • bifurcation sensing
  • sensor functionalization
  • Nano-electro-mechanical sensors
  • PeCOD
  • COVID-19

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

13 pages, 3466 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Harmonic Distortion of Seismic-Grade Sigma-Delta MEMS Accelerometers Using a Multiple Degree-of-Freedom Model
by Xuefeng Wang, Penghao Zhang and Shijin Ding
Sensors 2023, 23(19), 8222; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23198222 - 2 Oct 2023
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Harmonic distortion is one of the dominant factors limiting the overall signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of seismic-grade sigma-delta MEMS accelerometers. This study investigates harmonic distortion based on the multiple degree-of-freedom model (MDM) established in our previous study. The main advantage of using an [...] Read more.
Harmonic distortion is one of the dominant factors limiting the overall signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of seismic-grade sigma-delta MEMS accelerometers. This study investigates harmonic distortion based on the multiple degree-of-freedom model (MDM) established in our previous study. The main advantage of using an MDM is that the effect of finger flexibility on harmonic distortion is considered. Initially, the nonlinear relationship between the input acceleration and output signal is derived using the MDM. Then, harmonic distortion is simulated and described in terms of the nonlinear input–output relationship. It is found that finger flexibility and parasitic capacitance mismatch both decrease harmonic distortion. Finally, the experimental testing of harmonic distortion is implemented. By reducing the finger length to realize a higher stiffness and compensating for the parasitic capacitance mismatch, the total harmonic distortion decreases from −66.8 dB to −86.9 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 8736 KiB  
Article
Positioning System of Infrared Sensors Based on ZnO Thin Film
by Chia-Yu Tsai, Yan-Wen Lin, Hong-Ming Ku and Chia-Yen Lee
Sensors 2023, 23(15), 6818; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23156818 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
Infrared sensors incorporating suspended zinc oxide (ZnO) pyroelectric films and thermally insulated silicon substrates are fabricated using conventional MEMS-based thin-film deposition, photolithography, and etching techniques. The responsivity of the pyroelectric film is improved via annealing at 500 °C for 4 h. The voltage [...] Read more.
Infrared sensors incorporating suspended zinc oxide (ZnO) pyroelectric films and thermally insulated silicon substrates are fabricated using conventional MEMS-based thin-film deposition, photolithography, and etching techniques. The responsivity of the pyroelectric film is improved via annealing at 500 °C for 4 h. The voltage response of the fabricated sensors is evaluated experimentally for a substrate thickness of 1 µm over a sensing range of 30 cm. The results show that the voltage signal varies as an inverse exponential function of the distance. A positioning system based on three infrared sensors is implemented in LabVIEW. It is shown that the position estimates obtained using the proposed system are in excellent agreement with the actual locations. In general, the results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for the further development of MEMS-based pyroelectric infrared sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5202 KiB  
Article
Built-In Packaging for Single Terminal Devices
by Ahmet Gulsaran, Bersu Bastug Azer, Samed Kocer, Sasan Rahmanian, Resul Saritas, Eihab M. Abdel-Rahman and Mustafa Yavuz
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5264; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145264 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
An alternative packaging method, termed built-in packaging, is proposed for single terminal devices, and demonstrated with an actuator application. Built-in packaging removes the requirements of wire bonding, chip carrier, PCB, probe station, interconnection elements, and even wires to drive single terminal devices. Reducing [...] Read more.
An alternative packaging method, termed built-in packaging, is proposed for single terminal devices, and demonstrated with an actuator application. Built-in packaging removes the requirements of wire bonding, chip carrier, PCB, probe station, interconnection elements, and even wires to drive single terminal devices. Reducing these needs simplifies operation and eliminates possible noise sources. A micro resonator device is fabricated and built-in packaged for demonstration with electrostatic actuation and optical measurement. Identical actuation performances are achieved with the most conventional packaging method, wire bonding. The proposed method offers a compact and cheap packaging for industrial and academic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4995 KiB  
Article
Research on Random Drift Model Identification and Error Compensation Method of MEMS Sensor Based on EEMD-GRNN
by Yonglei Shi, Liqing Fang, Zhanpu Xue and Ziyuan Qi
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5225; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145225 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Random drift error is one of the important factors of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) sensor output error. Identifying and compensating sensor output error is an important means to improve sensor accuracy. In order to reduce the impact of white noise on neural network modeling, the [...] Read more.
Random drift error is one of the important factors of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) sensor output error. Identifying and compensating sensor output error is an important means to improve sensor accuracy. In order to reduce the impact of white noise on neural network modeling, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method was used to separate white noise from the original signal. The drift signal after noise removal is modeled by GRNN (general regression neural network). In order to achieve a better modeling effect, cross-validation and parameter optimization algorithms were designed to obtain the optimal GRNN model. The algorithm is used to model and compensate errors for the generated random drift signal. The results show that the mean value of original signal decreases from 0.1130 m/s2 to −1.2646 × 107 m/s2, while the variance decreases from 0.0133 m/s2 to 1.0975 × 105 m/s2. In addition, the displacement test was carried out by MEMS acceleration sensor. Experimental results show that the displacement measurement accuracy is improved from 95.64% to 98.00% by compensating the output error of MEMS sensor. By comparing the GA-BP (genetic algorithm-back propagation) neural network and the polynomial fitting method, the EEMD-GRNN method proposed in this paper can effectively identify and compensate for complex nonlinear drift signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5613 KiB  
Article
Compact Sphere-Shaped Airflow Vector Sensor Based on MEMS Differential Pressure Sensors
by Kotaro Haneda, Kenei Matsudaira, Ryusuke Noda, Toshiyuki Nakata, Satoshi Suzuki, Hao Liu and Hidetoshi Takahashi
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031087 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3522
Abstract
This paper presents an airflow vector sensor for drones. Drones are expected to play a role in various industrial fields. However, the further improvement of flight stability is a significant issue. In particular, compact drones are more affected by wind during flight. Thus, [...] Read more.
This paper presents an airflow vector sensor for drones. Drones are expected to play a role in various industrial fields. However, the further improvement of flight stability is a significant issue. In particular, compact drones are more affected by wind during flight. Thus, it is desirable to detect air current directly by an airflow sensor and feedback to the control. In the case of a drone in flight, the sensor should detect wind velocity and direction, particularly in the horizontal direction, for a sudden crosswind. In addition, the sensor must also be small, light, and highly sensitive. Here, we propose a compact spherical airflow sensor for drones. Three highly sensitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) differential pressure (DP) sensor chips were built in the spherical housing as the sensor elements. The 2D wind direction and velocity can be measured from these sensor elements. The fabricated airflow sensor was attached to a small toy drone. It was demonstrated that the sensor provided an output corresponding to the wind velocity and direction when horizontal wind was applied via a fan while the drone was flying. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor will be helpful for directly measuring the air current for a drone in flight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3285 KiB  
Article
Inertial Motion Capture-Based Whole-Body Inverse Dynamics
by Mohsen M. Diraneyya, JuHyeong Ryu, Eihab Abdel-Rahman and Carl T. Haas
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7353; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217353 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
Inertial Motion Capture (IMC) systems enable in situ studies of human motion free of the severe constraints imposed by Optical Motion Capture systems. Inverse dynamics can use those motions to estimate forces and moments developing within muscles and joints. We developed an inverse [...] Read more.
Inertial Motion Capture (IMC) systems enable in situ studies of human motion free of the severe constraints imposed by Optical Motion Capture systems. Inverse dynamics can use those motions to estimate forces and moments developing within muscles and joints. We developed an inverse dynamic whole-body model that eliminates the usage of force plates (FPs) and uses motion patterns captured by an IMC system to predict the net forces and moments in 14 major joints. We validated the model by comparing its estimates of Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs) to the ground truth obtained from FPs and comparing predictions of the static model’s net joint moments to those predicted by 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP). The relative root-mean-square error (rRMSE) in the predicted GRF was 6% and the intraclass correlation of the peak values was 0.95, where both values were averaged over the subject population. The rRMSE of the differences between our model’s and 3DSSPP predictions of net L5/S1 and right and left shoulder joints moments were 9.5%, 3.3%, and 5.2%, respectively. We also compared the static and dynamic versions of the model and found that failing to account for body motions can underestimate net joint moments by 90% to 560% of the static estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2417 KiB  
Communication
Characterization of Shear Horizontal Waves Using a 1D Laser Doppler Vibrometer
by Alaa Elhady and Eihab M. Abdel-Rahman
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072467 - 2 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
We developed a new technique for the detection of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) using a one-dimensional laser-based Doppler vibrometer. It measures the out-of-plane surface deformation at the fingertip of an interdigitated transducer (the boundary of the wave aperture) and uses it [...] Read more.
We developed a new technique for the detection of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) using a one-dimensional laser-based Doppler vibrometer. It measures the out-of-plane surface deformation at the fingertip of an interdigitated transducer (the boundary of the wave aperture) and uses it to estimate the instantaneous in-plane displacement field given the substrate Poisson ratio. It can also estimate the degree of surface confinement (wave decay rate). The proposed approach was first verified using finite element analysis (FEA) and demonstrated experimentally using a Bleustein–Gulyaev resonator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1982 KiB  
Article
Defect Filling Method of Sensor Encapsulation Based on Micro-Nano Composite Structure with Parylene Coating
by Jialin Yao, Wenjiang Qiang, Xingqi Guo, Hanshui Fan, Yushuang Zheng, Yan Xu and Xing Yang
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041107 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3087
Abstract
The demand for waterproofing of polymer (parylene) coating encapsulation has increased in a wide variety of applications, especially in the waterproof protection of electronic devices. However, parylene coatings often produce pinholes and cracks, which will reduce the waterproof effect as a protective barrier. [...] Read more.
The demand for waterproofing of polymer (parylene) coating encapsulation has increased in a wide variety of applications, especially in the waterproof protection of electronic devices. However, parylene coatings often produce pinholes and cracks, which will reduce the waterproof effect as a protective barrier. This characteristic has a more significant influence on sensors and actuators with movable parts. Thus, a defect filling method of micro-nano composite structure is proposed to improve the waterproof ability of parylene coatings. The defect filling method is composed of a nano layer of Al2O3 molecules and a micro layer of parylene polymer. Based on the diffusion mechanism of water molecules in the polymer membrane, defects on the surface of polymer encapsulation will be filled and decomposed into smaller areas by Al2O3 nanoparticles to delay or hinder the penetration of water molecules. Accordingly, the dense Al2O3 nanoparticles are utilized to fill and repair the surface of the organic polymer by low-rate atomic layer deposition. This paper takes the pressure sensor as an example to carry out the corresponding research. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very effective and the encapsulated sensors work properly in a saline solution after a period of time equivalent to 153.9 days in body temperature, maintaining their accuracy and precision of 2 mmHg. Moreover, the sensors could improve accuracy by about 43% after the proposed encapsulation. Therefore, the water molecule anti-permeability encapsulation would have broad application prospects in micro/nano-device protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5419 KiB  
Article
Design, Analysis and Simulation of a MEMS-Based Gyroscope with Differential Tunneling Magnetoresistance Sensing Structure
by Cheng Li, Bo Yang, Xin Guo and Xinru Chen
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4919; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174919 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4617
Abstract
The design, analysis, and simulation of a new Micro-electromechanical System (MEMS) gyroscope based on differential tunneling magnetoresistance sensing are presented in this paper. The device is driven by electrostatic force, whereas the Coriolis displacements are transferred to intensity variations of magnetic fields, further [...] Read more.
The design, analysis, and simulation of a new Micro-electromechanical System (MEMS) gyroscope based on differential tunneling magnetoresistance sensing are presented in this paper. The device is driven by electrostatic force, whereas the Coriolis displacements are transferred to intensity variations of magnetic fields, further detected by the Tunneling Magnetoresistance units. The magnetic fields are generated by a pair of two-layer planar multi-turn copper coils that are coated on the backs of the inner masses. Together with the dual-mass structure of proposed tuning fork gyroscope, a two-stage differential detection is formed, thereby enabling rejection of mechanical and magnetic common-mode errors concurrently. The overall conception is described followed by detailed analyses of proposed micro-gyroscope and rectangle coil. Subsequently, the FEM simulations are implemented to determine the mechanical and magnetic characteristics of the device separately. The results demonstrate that the micro-gyroscope has a mechanical sensitivity of 1.754 nm/°/s, and the micro-coil has a maximum sensitivity of 41.38 mOe/µm. When the detection height of Tunneling Magnetoresistance unit is set as 60 µm, the proposed device exhibits a voltage-angular velocity sensitivity of 0.131 mV/°/s with a noise floor of 7.713 × 10−6°/s/Hz in the absence of any external amplification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 4950 KiB  
Letter
Characteristics Research of a High Sensitivity Piezoelectric MOSFET Acceleration Sensor
by Chunpeng Ai, Xiaofeng Zhao and Dianzhong Wen
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4988; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174988 - 3 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4367
Abstract
In order to improve the output sensitivity of the piezoelectric acceleration sensor, this paper proposed a high sensitivity acceleration sensor based on a piezoelectric metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). It is constituted by a piezoelectric beam and an N-channel depletion MOSFET. [...] Read more.
In order to improve the output sensitivity of the piezoelectric acceleration sensor, this paper proposed a high sensitivity acceleration sensor based on a piezoelectric metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). It is constituted by a piezoelectric beam and an N-channel depletion MOSFET. A silicon cantilever beam with Pt/ZnO/Pt/Ti multilayer structure is used as a piezoelectric beam. Based on the piezoelectric effect, the piezoelectric beam generates charges when it is subjected to acceleration. Due to the large input impedance of the MOSFET, the charge generated by the piezoelectric beam can be used as a gate control signal to achieve the purpose of converting the output charge of the piezoelectric beam into current. The test results show that when the external excitation acceleration increases from 0.2 g to 1.5 g with an increment of 0.1 g, the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage of the proposed sensors increases from 0.327 V to 2.774 V at a frequency of 1075 Hz. The voltage sensitivity of the piezoelectric beam is 0.85 V/g and that of the proposed acceleration sensor was 2.05 V/g, which is 2.41 times higher than the piezoelectric beam. The proposed sensor can effectively improve the voltage output sensitivity and can be used in the field of structural health monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3445 KiB  
Letter
Measurement of In-Plane Motions in MEMS
by Mohamed Arabi, Mary Gopanchuk, Eihab Abdel-Rahman and Mustafa Yavuz
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123594 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3712
Abstract
We report a technique to measure in-plane and out-of-plane motions of MEMS using typical out-of-plane (single-axis) Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDVs). The efficacy of the technique is demonstrated by evaluating the in-plane and out-of-plane modal response and frequency response of an interdigitated comb-drive actuator. [...] Read more.
We report a technique to measure in-plane and out-of-plane motions of MEMS using typical out-of-plane (single-axis) Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDVs). The efficacy of the technique is demonstrated by evaluating the in-plane and out-of-plane modal response and frequency response of an interdigitated comb-drive actuator. We also investigate the validity of observing planar modes of vibration outside their dominant plane of motion and find that it leads to erroneous results. Planar modes must be evaluated in their plan of motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and NEMS Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop