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Special Issue "Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari

Director, Institute of Advanced Materials, Secretary-General, International Association of Advanced Materials, Teknikringen 4A, 583 30 Linköping, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (+46) 0700-89 5671
Fax: (+46) 013-13 7568
Interests: smart materials; advanced theranostics; superthin biodevices; responsive bio-interfaces
Guest Editor
Dr. Hongyun Liu

Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Electrochemical biosensors; Stimuli-responsive films or membranes in biosensing; Biocomputing based on enzymatic electrocatalysis
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yu Lei

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biosensor; chemical sensor; bionanotechnology; environmental biotechnology; nanomaterials-based high temperature gas sensing; microfluidic-based (bio)sensor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first report of a biosensor by Clark and Lyon in 1962, biosensors have been attracting more and more research interest all over the world and have also been playing increasingly important roles in various applications, which range from public health and environmental monitoring to homeland security and food safety. In recent years, the development of biotechnology and nanotechnology has been further stimulating extensive research into the development of unique biosensors with enhanced sensing performances. Currently, various biological recognition elements, including cofactors, enzymes, antibodies, microorganisms, organelles, tissues, and cells from higher organisms, have been widely used in the fabrication of biosensors. Among these biological elements, microbes and enzymes are the most widely used recognition elements; therefore, this Special Issue aims to bring the state-of-the-art research in microbial and enzymatic biosensors to the sensor and biosensor communities.

In this Special Issue, we solicit review articles, original research papers, and short communications covering all aspects of microbial biosensors and enzymatic biosensors. Topics of primary interest include, but are not limited to, all kinds of microbial biosensors and enzyme biosensors that detect chemical and biological species. Papers discussing the integration of microbes/enzymes with various nanomaterials and novel sensing technologies for chemical and biological detection are also welcome.

Dr. Yu Lei
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
Dr. Hongyun Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Biosensor
  • Microbes
  • Enzymes
  • Nanomaterials
  • Bionanotechnology

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Stimuli-Responsive Biosensor of Glucose on Layer-by-Layer Films Assembled through Specific Lectin-Glycoenzyme Recognition
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040563
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The research on intelligent bioelectrocatalysis based on stimuli-responsive materials or interfaces is of great significance for biosensors and other bioelectronic devices. In the present work, lectin protein concanavalin A (Con A) and glycoenzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) were assembled into {Con A/GOD}n layer-by-layer [...] Read more.
The research on intelligent bioelectrocatalysis based on stimuli-responsive materials or interfaces is of great significance for biosensors and other bioelectronic devices. In the present work, lectin protein concanavalin A (Con A) and glycoenzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) were assembled into {Con A/GOD}n layer-by-layer (LbL) films by taking advantage of the biospecific lectin-glycoenzyme affinity between them. These film electrodes possess stimuli-responsive properties toward electroactive probes such as ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2) by modulating the surrounding pH. The CV peak currents of Fc(COOH)2 were quite large at pH 4.0 but significantly suppressed at pH 8.0, demonstrating reversible stimuli-responsive on-off behavior. The mechanism of stimuli-responsive property of the films was explored by comparative experiments and attributed to the different electrostatic interaction between the films and the probes at different pH. This stimuli-responsive films could be used to realize active/inactive electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose by GOD in the films and mediated by Fc(COOH)2 in solution, which may establish a foundation for fabricating novel stimuli-responsive electrochemical biosensors based on bioelectrocatalysis with immobilized enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020243
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB) through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using [...] Read more.
In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB) through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010135
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the [...] Read more.
A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010035
Received: 8 November 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 28 December 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. [...] Read more.
The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Carbon-Microsphere-Modified Electrodes for Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin and Electrocatalytic Sensing of Trichloroacetic Acid
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010006
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 28 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By using the hydrothermal method, carbon microspheres (CMS) were fabricated and used for electrode modification. The characteristics of CMS were investigated using various techniques. The biocompatible sensing platform was built by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on the micrometer-sized CMS-modified electrode with a layer of [...] Read more.
By using the hydrothermal method, carbon microspheres (CMS) were fabricated and used for electrode modification. The characteristics of CMS were investigated using various techniques. The biocompatible sensing platform was built by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on the micrometer-sized CMS-modified electrode with a layer of chitosan membrane. On the cyclic voltammogram, a couple of quasi-reversible cathodic and anodic peaks appeared, showing that direct electrochemistry of Hb with the working electrode was achieved. The catalytic reduction peak currents of the bioelectrode to trichloroacetic acid was established in the linear range of 2.0~70.0 mmol·L−1 accompanied by a detection limit of 0.30 mmol·L−1 (3σ). The modified electrode displayed favorable sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability, which suggests that CMS is promising for fabricating third-generation bioelectrochemical sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
NiCu Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Carbon Nanofibers for Phenolic Biosensor Applications
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29419-29433; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129419
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to [...] Read more.
NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to form a novel biosensor. NiCuCNFs successfully achieved the direct electron transfer of Lac. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were used to study the electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The finally prepared biosensor showed favorable electrocatalytic effects toward hydroquinone. The detection limit was 90 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 1.5 µA µM−1, the detection linear range was 4 × 10−7–2.37 × 10−6 M. In addition, this biosensor exhibited satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference properties and stability. Besides, the sensor achieved the detection of hydroquinone in lake water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
“Stable-on-the-Table” Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23868-23885; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150923868
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, M [...] Read more.
In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, MW 450k), and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17–20 psi) without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at −0.279 and −0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060780
Received: 13 March 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 30 May 2016
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (2091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the [...] Read more.
Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
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