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Special Issue "Mobile Communications in 5G Networks"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 4523

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Peppino Fazio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre, Italy
Interests: mobile communications; channel modeling; vehicular protocols; predictive algorithms; mobility analysis; wireless communications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Miroslav Voznak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: non-intrusive speech quality evaluation methods; quality of service (QoS); quality of experience (QoE) and security of real-time applications in networks; Traffic modeling; wireless communication; internet of things; energy harvesting; network security; big data analytics in networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Miralem Mehić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Interests: quantum cryptography; network security; network simulations; routing protocols; quality of service; steganography; authentication and VoIP

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the last few decades, the paradigm of mobile communications redefined the way users take advantage of technology, both from a comfort and performance point of view. The deployment of the new protocols and technologies for mobile scenarios, such as 5G, HetNets, UAVs, and Autonomous Vehicles, and the integration of different heterogeneous research fields with them, has led to the enhancement of life quality, and the way human actions are conceived. In fact, in 5G environments, the pervasive nature of IP, e.g., IoT, gives us the possibility to put under observation several aspects of our life (environment, health, energy consumption, etc.), in a completely transparent way, especially if mobility is taken into consideration, and having the possibility to exploit the main benefits of new generation networks.

For these reasons, it is important to contribute to the scientific community, with solid ideas regarding the exploiting of new mobile TLC/IT technologies, and their integration with the last available technologies (such as 5G), along with several devices and/or sensors, generally used in heterogeneous research fields. So, the main aim of this SI is to collect solid works related to the aforementioned concepts; in particular, the possible research topics of interest include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Integration of different and recent mobile communications technologies with 5G standards;
  • Protocols and algorithms for environmental sensing suitable for 5G networks;
  • LPWAN technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks and IoT;
  • Applications of mobile and/or wearable sensing for healthcare based on 5G connectivity;
  • Ultra-low latency and real time applications in 5G networks;
  • Vehicular protocols and their integration with other technologies (VANETs, 4G, 5G, mobile IP, etc.);
  • Network planning and network slicing in the context of 5G networks;
  • Applications and Protocols related to sustainable computing in the context of 5G;
  • Beyond 5G: 6G enabling technologies.

Prof. Dr. Peppino Fazio
Prof. Dr. Carlos Tavares Calafate
Prof. Dr. Miroslav Voznak
Prof. Dr. Miralem Mehić
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Insights into the Issue of Deploying a Private LoRaWAN
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052042 - 05 Mar 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
The last decade has transformed wireless access technologies and crystallized a new direction for the internet of things (IoT). The modern low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies have been introduced to deliver connectivity for billions of devices while keeping the costs and consumption low, [...] Read more.
The last decade has transformed wireless access technologies and crystallized a new direction for the internet of things (IoT). The modern low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies have been introduced to deliver connectivity for billions of devices while keeping the costs and consumption low, and the range of communication high. While the 5G (fifth generation mobile network) LPWAN-like radio technologies, namely NB-IoT (narrowband internet of things) and LTE-M (long-term evolution machine type communication) are emerging, the long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN) remains extremely popular. One unique feature of this technology, which distinguishes it from the competitors, is the possibility of supporting both public and private network deployments. In this paper we focus on this aspect and deliver original results comparing the performance of the private and public LoRAWAN deployment options; these results should help understand the LoRaWAN technology and give a clear overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the private versus public approaches. Notably, we carry the comparison along the three dimensions: the communication performance, the security, and the cost analysis. The presented results illustratively demonstrate the differences of the two deployment approaches, and thus can support selection of the most efficient deployment option for a target application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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Article
Moment-Based Parameter Estimation for the Γ-Parameterized TWDP Model
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030774 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 290
Abstract
Two-wave with diffuse power (TWDP) is one of the most promising models for description of a small-scale fading effects in the emerging wireless networks. However, its conventional parameterization based on parameters K and Δ is not in line with model’s underlying physical mechanisms. [...] Read more.
Two-wave with diffuse power (TWDP) is one of the most promising models for description of a small-scale fading effects in the emerging wireless networks. However, its conventional parameterization based on parameters K and Δ is not in line with model’s underlying physical mechanisms. Accordingly, in this paper, we first identified anomalies related to usage of conventional TWDP parameterization in moment-based estimation, showing that the existing Δ-based estimators are unable to provide meaningful estimates in some channel conditions. Then, we derived moment-based estimators of recently introduced physically justified TWDP parameters K and Γ and analyzed their performance through asymptotic variance (AsV) and Cramer–Rao bound (CRB) metrics. Performed analysis has shown that Γ-based estimators managed to overcome all anomalies observed for Δ-based estimators, simultaneously improving the overall moment-based estimation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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Article
Analysis of Asymmetry in Active Split-Ring Resonators to Design Circulating-Current Eigenmode: Demonstration of Beamsteering and Focal-Length Control toward Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020681 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
In this work, toward an intelligent radio environment for 5G/6G, design methodologies of active split-ring resonators (SRRs) for more efficient dynamic control of metasurfaces are investigated. The relationship between the excitation of circulating-current eigenmode and the asymmetric structure of SRRs is numerically analyzed, [...] Read more.
In this work, toward an intelligent radio environment for 5G/6G, design methodologies of active split-ring resonators (SRRs) for more efficient dynamic control of metasurfaces are investigated. The relationship between the excitation of circulating-current eigenmode and the asymmetric structure of SRRs is numerically analyzed, and it is clarified that the excitation of the circulating-current mode is difficult when the level of asymmetry of the current path is decreased by the addition of large capacitance such as from semiconductor-based devices. To avoid change in the asymmetry, we incorporated an additional gap (slit) in the SRRs, which enabled us to excite the circulating-current mode even when a large capacitance was implemented. Prototype devices were fabricated according to this design methodology, and by the control of the intensity/phase distribution, the variable focal-length and beamsteering capabilities of the transmitted waves were demonstrated, indicating the high effectiveness of the design. The presented design methodology can be applied not only to the demonstrated case of discrete varactors, but also to various other active metamaterials, such as semiconductor-integrated types for operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency bands as potential candidates for future 6G systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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Article
An Efficient 5G Data Plan Approach Based on Partially Distributed Mobility Architecture
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010349 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 397
Abstract
Reaching a flat network is the main target of future evolved packet core for the 5G mobile networks. The current 4th generation core network is centralized architecture, including Serving Gateway and Packet-data-network Gateway; both act as mobility and IP anchors. However, this architecture [...] Read more.
Reaching a flat network is the main target of future evolved packet core for the 5G mobile networks. The current 4th generation core network is centralized architecture, including Serving Gateway and Packet-data-network Gateway; both act as mobility and IP anchors. However, this architecture suffers from non-optimal routing and intolerable latency due to many control messages. To overcome these challenges, we propose a partially distributed architecture for 5th generation networks, such that the control plane and data plane are fully decoupled. The proposed architecture is based on including a node Multi-session Gateway to merge the mobility and IP anchor gateway functionality. This work presented a control entity with the full implementation of the control plane to achieve an optimal flat network architecture. The impact of the proposed evolved packet Core structure in attachment, data delivery, and mobility procedures is validated through simulation. Several experiments were carried out by using NS-3 simulation to validate the results of the proposed architecture. The Numerical analysis is evaluated in terms of total transmission delay, inter and intra handover delay, queuing delay, and total attachment time. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture performance-enhanced end-to-end latency over the legacy architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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Article
Performance Analyses of Energy Detection Based on Square-Law Combining in MIMO-OFDM Cognitive Radio Networks
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7678; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227678 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 443
Abstract
Cognitive radio (CR) technology has the potential to detect and share the unutilized spectrum by enabling dynamic spectrum access. To detect the primary users’ (PUs) activity, energy detection (ED) is widely exploited due to its applicability when it comes to sensing a large [...] Read more.
Cognitive radio (CR) technology has the potential to detect and share the unutilized spectrum by enabling dynamic spectrum access. To detect the primary users’ (PUs) activity, energy detection (ED) is widely exploited due to its applicability when it comes to sensing a large range of PU signals, low computation complexity, and implementation costs. As orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission has been proven to have a high resistance to interference, the ED of OFDM signals has become an important local spectrum-sensing (SS) concept in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In combination with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmissions, MIMO-OFDM-based transmissions have started to become a widely accepted air interface, which ensures a significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Taking into account the future massive implementation of MIMO-OFDM systems in the fifth and sixth generation of mobile networks, this work introduces a mathematical formulation of expressions that enable the analysis of ED performance based on the square-law combining (SLC) method in MIMO-OFDM systems. The analysis of the ED performance was done through simulations performed using the developed algorithms that enable the performance analysis of the ED process based on the SLC in the MIMO-OFDM systems having a different number of transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) communication branches. The impact of the distinct factors including the PU Tx power, the false alarm probability, the number of Tx and Rx MIMO branches, the number of samples in the ED process, and the different modulation techniques on the ED performance in environments with different levels of signal-to-noise ratios are presented. A comprehensive analysis of the obtained results indicated how the appropriate selection of the analyzed factors can be used to enhance the ED performance of MIMO-OFDM-based CRNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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Communication
An Alternative Statistical Characterization of TWDP Fading Model
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7513; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227513 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 454
Abstract
Two-wave with diffuse power (TWDP) is one of the most promising models for the description of small-scale fading effects in 5G networks, which employs mmWave band, and in wireless sensor networks deployed in different cavity environments. However, its current statistical characterization has several [...] Read more.
Two-wave with diffuse power (TWDP) is one of the most promising models for the description of small-scale fading effects in 5G networks, which employs mmWave band, and in wireless sensor networks deployed in different cavity environments. However, its current statistical characterization has several fundamental issues. Primarily, conventional TWDP parameterization is not in accordance with the model’s underlying physical mechanisms. In addition, available TWDP expressions for PDF, CDF, and MGF are given either in integral or approximate forms, or as mathematically untractable closed-form expressions. Consequently, the existing TWDP statistical characterization does not allow accurate evaluation of system performance in all fading conditions for most modulation and diversity techniques. In this regard, physically justified TWDP parameterization is proposed and used for further calculations. Additionally, exact infinite-series PDF and CDF are introduced. Based on these expressions, the exact MGF of the SNR is derived in a form suitable for mathematical manipulations. The applicability of the proposed MGF for derivation of the exact average symbol error probability (ASEP) is demonstrated with the example of M-ary PSK modulation. The derived M-ary PSK ASEP expression is further simplified for large SNR values in order to obtain a closed-form asymptotic ASEP, which is shown to be applicable for SNR > 20 dB. All proposed expressions are verified by Monte Carlo simulation in a variety of TWDP fading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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Article
PHY, MAC, and RLC Layer Based Estimation of Optimal Cyclic Prefix Length
Sensors 2021, 21(14), 4796; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144796 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
This work is motivated by growing evidence that the standard Cyclic Prefix (CP) length, adopted in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) physical layer (PHY) specifications, is oversized in propagation environments ranging from indoor to typical urban. Although this ostensibly seems to be addressed [...] Read more.
This work is motivated by growing evidence that the standard Cyclic Prefix (CP) length, adopted in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) physical layer (PHY) specifications, is oversized in propagation environments ranging from indoor to typical urban. Although this ostensibly seems to be addressed by 5G New Radio (NR) numerology, its scalable CP length reduction is proportionally tracked by the OFDM symbol length, which preserves the relative CP overhead of LTE. Furthermore, some simple means to optimize fixed or introduce adaptive CP length arose from either simulations or models taking into account only the bit-oriented PHY transmission performance. On the contrary, in the novel crosslayer analytical model proposed here, the closed-form expression for the optimal CP length is derived such as to minimize the effective average codeblock length, by also considering the error recovery retransmissions through the layers above PHY—the Medium Access Control (MAC) and the Radio Link Control (RLC), in particular. It turns out that, for given protective coding, the optimal CP length is determined by the appropriate rms delay spread of the channel power delay profile part remaining outside the CP span. The optimal CP length values are found to be significantly lower than the corresponding industry-standard ones, which unveils the potential for improving the net throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Communications in 5G Networks)
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