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Special Issue "Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Miroslav Voznak
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: wireless sensor networks; low-power WAN; energy harvesting; green communications; internet of things; Quality of Service; Ad hoc networks and routing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ray-Guang Cheng
Website
Guest Editor
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
Interests: Internet of Things; transmission technology; IoT platform technology; 5G new radio protocol technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Low-power WANs have become a hot topic for M2M and IoT applications in recent years. This happened thanks to low-power consumption, secure data transmission and advanced protocols for wireless sensor networks. We expect energy efficient cellular networks in coming generations (5G) and ecological concerns along with economic issues lead to the evolution of new technologies for green communications in cellular networks. In this matter, energy harvesting and the capabilities of wireless sensor nodes to harvest energy is a promising way to achieve green communication.

This Special Issue will especially cover aspects of energy harvesting, green communication, low-power WANs, IoT, M2M, and related issues (Selected extended papers from WMNC 2018 and INCoS 2018).

Prof. Dr. Miroslav Voznak
Prof. Dr. Ray-Guang Cheng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Low-Power WANs
  • Internet of Things
  • Machine to machine communication
  • Green Communication
  • Energy harvesting
  • Low energy computing in WSNs
  • Security of IoT and M2M communication
  • WSN routing algorithms and protocols
  • Wireless signal propagation
  • Novel industrial IoT/M2M applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
High Performance SDN WLAN Architecture
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081880 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) infrastructure is a dominant technology for direct access to the Internet and for cellular mobile data traffic offloading to WLANs. Additionally, the enterprise infrastructure can be used to provide functionality for the Internet of Things and Machine to [...] Read more.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) infrastructure is a dominant technology for direct access to the Internet and for cellular mobile data traffic offloading to WLANs. Additionally, the enterprise infrastructure can be used to provide functionality for the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine scenarios. This work is focused on improvements of radio resources control scalability similar to mobile networks via handover between cells. We introduce an improved IEEE 802.11 architecture utilizing Software-Defined Networks (SDNs). The proposed architecture allows communications during device movements without losing a quality of service (QoS). The fast seamless handover with QoS enables efficient usage of radio resources in large networks. Our improvements consist of integrating wireless management to OpenFlow protocol, separating encryption and decryption from an access point. In parallel, this feature as a side effect unloads processing at the Access Points (APs). Finally, the functionality of architecture design and scalability was proven by Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). The second proof of our concept was performed on two scenarios. The first scenario was applied to a delay sensitive use case. The second scenario considers a network congestion in real world conditions. Client’s mobility was integrated into both scenarios. The design was developed to demonstrate SDN WLAN architecture efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploiting Impact of Hardware Impairments in NOMA: Adaptive Transmission Mode in FD/HD and Application in Internet-of-Things
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061293 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this paper, a cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system is studied for the Internet-of-Things (IoT) in which a master node intends to serve multiple client nodes. The adaptive transmission strategy is proposed at the relay node, i.e., the relay can be half-duplex [...] Read more.
In this paper, a cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system is studied for the Internet-of-Things (IoT) in which a master node intends to serve multiple client nodes. The adaptive transmission strategy is proposed at the relay node, i.e., the relay can be half-duplex (HD) and/or full duplex (FD). In practical terms, numerous low-cost devices are deployed in such IoT systems and it exhibits degraded performance due to hardware imperfections. In particular, the effects of hardware impairments in the NOMA users are investigated. Specifically, the closed-form expressions are derived for the outage probability. Moreover, the ergodic capacity is also analysed. This study also comparatively analyzes the orthogonal multiple access (OMA) and NOMA with HD and/or FD relaying. The numerical results are corroborated through Monte Carlo simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Overhead Routing in Short-Range Low-Power and Lossy Wireless Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051240 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper we present enhanced routing protocol for low-lower and lossy networks (ERPL), a reduced overhead routing protocol for short-range low-power and lossy wireless networks, based on RPL. ERPL enhances peer-to-peer (P2P) route construction and data packet forwarding in RPL’s storing and [...] Read more.
In this paper we present enhanced routing protocol for low-lower and lossy networks (ERPL), a reduced overhead routing protocol for short-range low-power and lossy wireless networks, based on RPL. ERPL enhances peer-to-peer (P2P) route construction and data packet forwarding in RPL’s storing and non-storing modes of operation (MoPs). In order to minimize source routing overhead, it encodes routing paths in Bloom Filters (BF). The salient features of ERPL include the following: (i) optimized P2P routing and data forwarding; (ii) no additional control messages; and (iii) minimized source routing overhead. We extensively evaluated ERPL against RPL using emulation, simulation, and physical test-bed based experiments. Our results demonstrate that ERPL outperforms standard RPL in P2P communication and its optimized P2P route construction and data forwarding algorithms also positively impact the protocol’s performance in multi-point to point (MP2P) and point to multi-point (P2MP) communications. Our results demonstrate that the BF-based approach towards compressed source routing information is feasible for the kinds of networks considered in this paper. The BF-based approach results in 65% lower source routing control overhead compared to RPL. Our results also provide new insights into the performance of MP2P, P2MP, and P2P communications relative to RPL’s destination-oriented directed a-cyclic graph (DODAG) depth, i.e., a deeper DODAG negatively impacts the performance of MP2P and P2MP communications, however it positively impacts P2P communication, while the reverse holds true for a relatively shallow DODAG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method for Polar Form of Any Degree of Multivariate Polynomials with Applications in IoT
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040903 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Identification schemes based on multivariate polynomials have been receiving attraction in different areas due to the quantum secure property. Identification is one of the most important elements for the IoT to achieve communication between objects, gather and share information with each other. Thus, [...] Read more.
Identification schemes based on multivariate polynomials have been receiving attraction in different areas due to the quantum secure property. Identification is one of the most important elements for the IoT to achieve communication between objects, gather and share information with each other. Thus, identification schemes which are post-quantum secure are significant for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. Various polar forms of multivariate quadratic and cubic polynomial systems have been proposed for these identification schemes. There is a need to define polar form for multivariate dth degree polynomials, where d 4 . In this paper, we propose a solution to this need by defining constructions for multivariate polynomials of degree d 4 . We give a generic framework to construct the identification scheme for IoT and RFID applications. In addition, we compare identification schemes and curve-based cryptoGPS which is currently used in RFID applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
NOMA-Assisted Multiple Access Scheme for IoT Deployment: Relay Selection Model and Secrecy Performance Improvement
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030736 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 40
Abstract
In this paper, an Internet-of-Things (IoT) system containing a relay selection is studied as employing an emerging multiple access scheme, namely non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). This paper proposes a new scheme to consider secure performance, to be called relay selection NOMA (RS-NOMA). In [...] Read more.
In this paper, an Internet-of-Things (IoT) system containing a relay selection is studied as employing an emerging multiple access scheme, namely non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). This paper proposes a new scheme to consider secure performance, to be called relay selection NOMA (RS-NOMA). In particular, we consider metrics to evaluate secure performance in such an RS-NOMA system where a base station (master node in IoT) sends confidential messages to two main sensors (so-called NOMA users) under the influence of an external eavesdropper. In the proposed IoT scheme, both two NOMA sensors and an illegal sensor are served with different levels of allocated power at the base station. It is noticed that such RS-NOMA operates in two hop transmission of the relaying system. We formulate the closed-form expressions of secure outage probability (SOP) and the strictly positive secure capacity (SPSC) to examine the secrecy performance under controlling setting parameters such as transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the number of selected relays, channel gains, and threshold rates. The different performance is illustrated as performing comparisons between NOMA and orthogonal multiple access (OMA). Finally, the advantage of NOMA in secure performance over orthogonal multiple access (OMA) is confirmed both analytically and numerically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Effective Mode Selection for Ensuring Spectrum Efficiency with Massive MIMO in IoT Systems
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030706 - 09 Feb 2019
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) based on Internet of Things (IoT) applications are increasing day by day. These applications include healthcare, infrastructure monitoring, smart homes, wearable devices and smart cars. However, considering the fact that many different application areas will emerge in next generation [...] Read more.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) based on Internet of Things (IoT) applications are increasing day by day. These applications include healthcare, infrastructure monitoring, smart homes, wearable devices and smart cars. However, considering the fact that many different application areas will emerge in next generation wireless communication systems, efficient use of frequency spectrum is important. Because the whole frequency spectrum is now very crowded, it is important to ensure maximum spectrum efficiency for effective WSNs based on IoT. This study sought to determine which mode more effectively achieves spectrum efficiency for the performance of effective IoT systems under given conditions with respect to the length of the pilot sequence, Time Division Duplexing (TDD) or Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD). The results were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. To the best of our knowledge, a study of effective mode selection analysis for spectrum efficiency in IoT based systems has not been available in the literature yet. The results of this study are useful for determining the appropriate design conditions for WSNs based on IoT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Cost Indoor Activity Monitoring System for Detecting Frailty in Older Adults
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030452 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Indoor localization systems have already wide applications mainly for providing localized information and directions. The majority of them focus on commercial applications providing information such us advertisements, guidance and asset tracking. Medical oriented localization systems are uncommon. Given the fact that an individual’s [...] Read more.
Indoor localization systems have already wide applications mainly for providing localized information and directions. The majority of them focus on commercial applications providing information such us advertisements, guidance and asset tracking. Medical oriented localization systems are uncommon. Given the fact that an individual’s indoor movements can be indicative of his/her clinical status, in this paper we present a low-cost indoor localization system with room-level accuracy used to assess the frailty of older people. We focused on designing a system with easy installation and low cost to be used by non technical staff. The system was installed in older people houses in order to collect data about their indoor localization habits. The collected data were examined in combination with their frailty status, showing a correlation between them. The indoor localization system is based on the processing of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements by a tracking device, from Bluetooth Beacons, using a fingerprint-based procedure. The system has been tested in realistic settings achieving accuracy above 93% in room estimation. The proposed system was used in 271 houses collecting data for 1–7-day sessions. The evaluation of the collected data using ten-fold cross-validation showed an accuracy of 83% in the classification of a monitored person regarding his/her frailty status (Frail, Pre-frail, Non-frail). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Cost and Data Anonymised City Traffic Flow Data Collection to Support Intelligent Traffic System
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020347 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
There are many methods of collecting traffic flow data, especially using smart phone apps. However, few current solutions balance the need for collecting full route data whilst respecting privacy and remaining low-cost. This project looks into the creation of a wireless sensor network [...] Read more.
There are many methods of collecting traffic flow data, especially using smart phone apps. However, few current solutions balance the need for collecting full route data whilst respecting privacy and remaining low-cost. This project looks into the creation of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that can balance these requirements in an attempt to negate some of the concerns that come with this type of technology. Our proposed system only collects location data within a defined city area. This data is collected with a randomized identifier, which limits repeated identification of the source vehicle and its occupants. Data collected is shared between vehicle and roadside base stations when the two are in range. To deal with the fluid nature of this scenario, a purposely designed Media Access Control (MAC) protocol was designed and implemented using the beacon-slotted ALOHA (Advocates of Linux Open-source Hawaii Association) mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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