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Sensing in Supramolecular Chemistry

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 5847

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Chemical Sensors and Optical Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: physicochemical basis of sensors; chemical sensors; physical sensors; metrology; supramolecular chemistry; molecular recognition; molecular imprinting; anisotropic phases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Molecular sensors have been recognized as smart ‘devices’ capable of solving a variety of problems related to environment and health. With the booming of supramolecular chemistry as a new scientific area, it has enabled us to promote deep insights into the mechanistic understanding of chemical sensors in recent years. Molecular recognition is one of the most important events in biology and an important paradigm in supramolecular sensing. Supramolecular chemistry is the intersection of chemistry, biology, and diagnostics, which is the study of non-covalent bonds between molecules and/or ions. Sensing applications of supramolecular chemistry, in which molecules are chosen for their size, shape, and charge complementarity with the desired analyte, rely on exploiting the forces involved in the formation of non-covalent 'host–guest' complexes. The principles of this chemical sensor design include the separation of analytes, the capture of a specific guest, and the output signal from 'host–guest' complexes. In all cases, the requirements of the sensor are the same: the host must bind to the guest in preference to all competing species, and it must register the binding event in a measurable form.

This Special Issue encourages authors to submit their research and contributions on recent advances in analytical supramolecular chemistry.

Prof. Dr. Franz L. Dickert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 2145 KiB  
Communication
Calixarene-Based Supramolecular Sensor Array for Pesticide Discrimination
by Yeye Chen, Jia-Hong Tian, Han-Wen Tian, Rong Ma, Ze-Han Wang, Yu-Chen Pan, Xin-Yue Hu and Dong-Sheng Guo
Sensors 2024, 24(12), 3743; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24123743 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The identification and detection of pesticides is crucial to protecting both the environment and human health. However, it can be challenging to conveniently and rapidly differentiate between different types of pesticides. We developed a supramolecular fluorescent sensor array, in which calixarenes with broad-spectrum [...] Read more.
The identification and detection of pesticides is crucial to protecting both the environment and human health. However, it can be challenging to conveniently and rapidly differentiate between different types of pesticides. We developed a supramolecular fluorescent sensor array, in which calixarenes with broad-spectrum encapsulation capacity served as recognition receptors. The sensor array exhibits distinct fluorescence change patterns for seven tested pesticides, encompassing herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. With a reaction time of just three minutes, the sensor array proves to be a rapid and efficient tool for the discrimination of pesticides. Furthermore, this supramolecular sensing approach can be easily extended to enable real-time and on-site visual detection of varying concentrations of imazalil using a smartphone with a color scanning application. This work not only provides a simple and effective method for pesticide identification and quantification, but also offers a versatile and advantageous platform for the recognition of other analytes in relevant fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing in Supramolecular Chemistry)
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11 pages, 3656 KiB  
Article
Selective Detection of Erythrocytes with QCMs—ABO Blood Group Typing
by Usman Latif, Alexandra Seifner and Franz L. Dickert
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7533; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23177533 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Blood transfusion, as well as organ transplantation, is only possible after prior blood group (BG) typing and crossmatching. The most important blood group system is that of Landsteiner’s ABO classification based on antigen presence on the erythrocyte surfaces. A mass sensitive QCM (quartz [...] Read more.
Blood transfusion, as well as organ transplantation, is only possible after prior blood group (BG) typing and crossmatching. The most important blood group system is that of Landsteiner’s ABO classification based on antigen presence on the erythrocyte surfaces. A mass sensitive QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) sensor for BG typing has been developed by utilizing molecular imprinting technology. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (crosslinked with N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) is a favorable coating that was imprinted with erythrocytes of different blood groups. In total, 10 MHz quartz sheets with two resonators, one for MIP (molecularly imprinted polymer) and the other for NIP (non-imprinted polymer) were fabricated and later used for mass-sensitive measurements. The structure of erythrocyte imprints resembles a donut, as identified by AFM (atomic force microscope). All the erythrocytes of the ABO system were chosen as templates and the responses to these selective coatings were evaluated against all blood groups. Each blood group can be characterized by the pattern of responses in an unambiguous way. The results for blood group O are remarkable given that all types of erythrocytes give nearly the same result. This can be easily understood as blood group O does not possess neither antigen A nor antigen B. The responses can be roughly related to the number of respective antigens on the erythrocyte surface. The imprints generate hollows, which are used for reversible recognition of the erythrocytes. This procedure is based on molecular recognition (based on supramolecular strategies), which results from size, shape and enthalpic interactions between host and guest molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing in Supramolecular Chemistry)
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10 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Development of a Disposable Polyacrylamide Hydrogel-Based Semipermeable Membrane for Micro Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode
by Eivydas Andriukonis, Marius Butkevicius, Povilas Simonis and Arunas Ramanavicius
Sensors 2023, 23(5), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052510 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Currently, Ag/AgCl-based reference electrodes are used in most electrochemical biosensors and other bioelectrochemical devices. However, standard reference electrodes are rather large and do not always fit within electrochemical cells designed for the determination of analytes in low-volume aliquots. Therefore, various designs and improvements [...] Read more.
Currently, Ag/AgCl-based reference electrodes are used in most electrochemical biosensors and other bioelectrochemical devices. However, standard reference electrodes are rather large and do not always fit within electrochemical cells designed for the determination of analytes in low-volume aliquots. Therefore, various designs and improvements in reference electrodes are critical for the future development of electrochemical biosensors and other bioelectrochemical devices. In this study, we explain a procedure to apply common laboratory polyacrylamide hydrogel in a semipermeable junction membrane between the Ag/AgCl reference electrode and the electrochemical cell. During this research, we have created disposable, easily scalable, and reproducible membranes suitable for the design of reference electrodes. Thus, we came up with castable semipermeable membranes for reference electrodes. Performed experiments highlighted the most suitable gel formation conditions to achieve optimal porosity. Here, Cl ion diffusion through the designed polymeric junctions was evaluated. The designed reference electrode was also tested in a three-electrode flow system. The results show that home-built electrodes can compete with commercial products due to low reference electrode potential deviation (~3 mV), long shelf-life (up to six months), good stability, low cost, and disposability. The results show a high response rate, which makes in-house formed polyacrylamide gel junctions good membrane alternatives in the design of reference electrodes, especially for these applications where high-intensity dyes or toxic compounds are used and therefore disposable electrodes are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing in Supramolecular Chemistry)
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Other

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13 pages, 3934 KiB  
Perspective
Transitioning from Supramolecular Chemistry to Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Chemical Sensing
by Adnan Mujahid, Adeel Afzal and Franz L. Dickert
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7457; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23177457 - 27 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
This perspective article focuses on the overwhelming significance of molecular recognition in biological processes and its emulation in synthetic molecules and polymers for chemical sensing. The historical journey, from early investigations into enzyme catalysis and antibody–antigen interactions to Nobel Prize-winning breakthroughs in supramolecular [...] Read more.
This perspective article focuses on the overwhelming significance of molecular recognition in biological processes and its emulation in synthetic molecules and polymers for chemical sensing. The historical journey, from early investigations into enzyme catalysis and antibody–antigen interactions to Nobel Prize-winning breakthroughs in supramolecular chemistry, emphasizes the development of tailored molecular recognition materials. The discovery of supramolecular chemistry and molecular imprinting, as a versatile method for mimicking biological recognition, is discussed. The ability of supramolecular structures to develop selective host–guest interactions and the flexible design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are highlighted, discussing their applications in chemical sensing. MIPs, mimicking the selectivity of natural receptors, offer advantages like rapid synthesis and cost-effectiveness. Finally, addressing major challenges in the field, this article summarizes the advancement of molecular recognition-based systems for chemical sensing and their transformative potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing in Supramolecular Chemistry)
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