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Special Issue "Applications of Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy(EIS) in the Development of Sensors and Sensing Systems"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Martin Eugenio Omana
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Energia Elettrica e dell'Informazione "Guglielmo Marconi" Viale del Risorgimento 2, Bologna, Italy
Interests: Fault Tolerance; Reliability; DfT
Dr. Marco Grossi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Energia Elettrica e dell'Informazione "Guglielmo Marconi" Viale del Risorgimento 2, Bologna, Italy
Interests: Biosensors; Impedance Spectroscopy; Sensors; Embedded Systems; Microcontrollers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful technique that can be used in a broad range of applications, from biological analysis to food quality assessment, from measurements of battery state of charge to corrosion analysis. The working principle of EIS is based on the measurement of the impedance of the investigated sample in a wide range of frequencies in order to estimate the parameters of interest from the measured impedance spectrum. The first application of EIS dates to 1894, but it was only in the late 1970s that, thanks to the introduction of affordable computer-controlled impedance meters, interest in the technique increased. Since then, the number of scientific papers on EIS applications has grown constantly and doubled every 4 or 5 years. EIS can be used for quick, non-invasive analysis in different fields of applications, thus replacing expensive and time-consuming laboratory analysis with quick in-situ measurements that can be implemented using low-cost electronics, for example, based on microcontrollers or FPGA. From this point of view, the introduction to the market of the integrated circuit AD5933, a low-cost impedance analyzer on chip that can be interfaced with a microcontroller using the I2C protocol, has made even simpler the design of embedded sensor systems based on EIS. Recently, there has also been an increased interest in the development of EIS-based smartphone sensing systems. Modern mobile phones, merging high computation capability; an integrated, rich set of sensors; and wired as well wireless data transfer technologies are, in fact, ideal for the development of low-cost portable sensors in the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT).

The goal of this special issue is the publication of high quality papers discussing recent advancements in the development of EIS based applications. The editors welcome original research articles that has not been submitted or published on other journals, as well as review articles discussing the state-of-the-art of EIS applications.

Dr. Martin Eugenio Omana
Dr. Marco Grossi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • impedance spectroscopy
  • electrical model
  • measurement
  • sensors
  • bacteria
  • biological analysis
  • food analysis
  • corrosion analysis
  • battery analysis
  • embedded systems

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Wide-Band Digital Lock-In Amplifier and Its Application in Microfluidic Impedance Measurement
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3519; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163519 - 11 Aug 2019
Abstract
In this work, we report on the design of a wide-band digital lock-in amplifier (DLIA) of up to 65 MHz and its application for electrical impedance measurements in microfluidic devices. The DLIA is comprised of several dedicated technologies. First, it features a fully [...] Read more.
In this work, we report on the design of a wide-band digital lock-in amplifier (DLIA) of up to 65 MHz and its application for electrical impedance measurements in microfluidic devices. The DLIA is comprised of several dedicated technologies. First, it features a fully differential analog circuit, which includes a preamplifier with a low input noise of 4.4 nV/√Hz, a programmable-gain amplifier with a gain of 52 dB, and an anti-aliasing, fully differential low-pass filter with −76 dB stop-band attenuation. Second, the DLIA has an all-digital phase lock loop, which features a phase deviation of less than 0.02° throughout the frequency range. The phase lock loop utilizes an equally accurate period-frequency measurement, with a sub-ppm precision of frequency detection. Third, a modified clock link is implemented in the DLIA to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the analog-to-digital converter affected by clock jitter of up to 20 dBc. A series of measurements were performed to characterize the DLIA, and the results showed an accurate performance. Additionally, impedance measurements of standard-size microparticles were performed by frequency sweep from 300 kHz to 30 MHz, using the DLIA in a microfluidic device. Different diameters of microparticle could be accurately distinguished according to the relative impedance at 2.5 MHz. The results confirm the promising applications of the DLIA in microfluidic electrical impedance measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Online Monitoring of Moisture Diffusion in Carbon Fiber Composites Using Miniaturized Flexible Material Integrated Sensors
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081748 - 12 Apr 2019
Abstract
Moisture diffusion in carbon fiber composites changes the mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, a monitoring method of the actual content of moisture in the composite is important. However, at the moment there are no online methods established. A common method is the [...] Read more.
Moisture diffusion in carbon fiber composites changes the mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, a monitoring method of the actual content of moisture in the composite is important. However, at the moment there are no online methods established. A common method is the measurement of the mass changes due to water uptake. This method is not suitable for online monitoring of a real composite part in service. We demonstrate that miniaturized flexible interdigital sensors are suitable for moisture measurement inside the carbon fiber composite. These sensors are directly integrated inside the composite. It was already demonstrated that these can be successfully used for resin-curing monitoring as a primary application. Here we demonstrate that the same sensors are also suitable for moisture measurement inside the material. In order to do so, we expose samples with and without integrated sensors to hot-wet conditions and measure the dielectric changes with the sensors and the mass gain. The moisture concentration and the measured admittance can be directly correlated to each other. This demonstrates that the sensors can be used for moisture measurement as a secondary application. In addition, it is shown that the sensors have the potential to measure the moisture locally inside the material. Full article
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