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Special Issue "Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yongrae Roh
Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
Interests: piezoelectric devices, ultrasonic transducers for medical diagnosis and treatment, acoustic transducers for underwater SONAR systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Piezoelectricity is an electromechanical energy transduction mechanism that is utilized in numerous applications. With a piezoelectric device, one can create an electrical signal resulting from mechanical strain, or create a mechanical distortion resulting from an electrical perturbation. In the former, the unit works as a sensor, converting mechanical energy into electrical output, as in the case of a microphone and accelerometer. In the latter, the unit acts as an actuator, converting electrical energy into mechanical work, as in the case of a speaker and motor. One of the beauties of piezoelectricity is the reversibility of the direction of energy conversion, as noted in the case of ultrasound transducers for pulse-echo measurement.

This Special Issue on piezoelectric sensors and actuators is intended to highlight recent advancements of the technology on various piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This technology includes all aspects of the development of piezoelectric devices, such as modeling and simulation, fabrication and packaging, characterization and analysis, and application of the devices. The piezoelectric devices incorporate both bulk and MEMS units. Reports on the investigation of the areas directly related to piezoelectric devices, such as piezoelectric materials and driving or measuring systems, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Yongrae Roh
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • piezoelectric sensors
  • piezoelectric actuators
  • piezoelectric transducers
  • piezoelectric materials
  • driving or measuring systems
  • modeling and simulation
  • fabrication and packaging
  • characterization and analysis
  • piezoelectric MEMS and nanodevices

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ultra-Sensitive Minute Mass Sensing Using a Microcantilever Virtually Coupled with a Virtual Cantilever
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20071823 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
Mass sensors based on the eigenmode shift of coupled cantilevers achieve much higher sensitivity than those based on the single cantilever’s eigenfrequency shift. In the former sensors, two identical cantilevers and a weak coupling stiffness between them are required to achieve high sensitivity. [...] Read more.
Mass sensors based on the eigenmode shift of coupled cantilevers achieve much higher sensitivity than those based on the single cantilever’s eigenfrequency shift. In the former sensors, two identical cantilevers and a weak coupling stiffness between them are required to achieve high sensitivity. However, conventional coupled cantilevers cannot satisfy these requirements because of machining accuracy. To satisfy both requirements, a virtual coupling between a real macrocantilever and a virtual cantilever, whose dynamics was calculated using a digital computer, was proposed in our previous research. The sensitive mass sensing of mg-order masses was achieved. In the present work, for minute mass sensing, we replace the real macrocantilever with a real microcantilever. The calculation speed of a digital computer is not fast enough to calculate the virtual cantilever’s dynamics because the natural frequency of the microcantilver is much higher than that of the macrocantilever. Therefore, we use an analog circuit instead of a digital computer to achieve virtual coupling with the virtual cantilever. The proposed system enables us to tune the virtual cantilever’s parameters to satisfy both requirements for high sensitivity by changing the analog circuit parameters. We verified experimentally that the proposed system achieved high sensitivity for mass sensing of the order of nanograms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Analysis of Electromagnetic-Piezoelectric Hybrid Driven Three-Degree-of-Freedom Motor
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061621 - 14 Mar 2020
Abstract
Multi-DOF movement actuators are widely used in industry, mainly in the fields of bionics and precision machining. With the non-stop improvement of modern-day industry, the requirements for the precision, integration and flexibility of multi-degree-of-freedom motion actuators in the industrial field have progressively increased. [...] Read more.
Multi-DOF movement actuators are widely used in industry, mainly in the fields of bionics and precision machining. With the non-stop improvement of modern-day industry, the requirements for the precision, integration and flexibility of multi-degree-of-freedom motion actuators in the industrial field have progressively increased. This paper presents a novel electromagnetic–piezoelectric hybrid driven three-degree-of-freedom motor. The driving method of the hybrid drive motor can be divided into electromagnetic driving and piezoelectric driving. The motor structure and working principle are analyzed. The structural parameters are obtained by modal analysis of the stators and rotor. The rationality of the stator structure is proved by using the transient analysis of the piezoelectric stators. The magnetic field characteristics of the motor are analyzed by both analytical method and the finite element method. The contact pressure and displacement between the piezoelectric stator and the rotor are analyzed by the analytical method. A motor drive model is established, which provides the basis for motor optimization design and control. Finally, a motor prototype and its test platform were built, and the experimental results are presented to verify the rationality of the motor design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
3DOF Ultrasonic Motor with Two Piezoelectric Rings
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030834 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
A novel design of a multiple degrees of freedom (multi-DOF) piezoelectric ultrasonic motor (USM) is presented in the paper. The main idea of the motor design is to combine the magnetic sphere type rotor and two oppositely placed ring-shaped piezoelectric actuators into one [...] Read more.
A novel design of a multiple degrees of freedom (multi-DOF) piezoelectric ultrasonic motor (USM) is presented in the paper. The main idea of the motor design is to combine the magnetic sphere type rotor and two oppositely placed ring-shaped piezoelectric actuators into one mechanism. Such a structure increases impact force and allows rotation of the sphere with higher torque. The main purpose of USM development was to design a motor for attitude control systems used in small satellites. A permanent magnetic sphere with a magnetic dipole is used for orientation and positioning when the sphere is rotated to the desired position and the magnetic field synchronizes with the Earth’s magnetic dipole. Also, the proposed motor can be installed and used for robotic systems, laser beam manipulation, etc. The system has a minimal number of components, small weight, and high reliability. Numerical simulation and experimental studies were used to verify the operating principles of the USM. Numerical simulation of a piezoelectric actuator was used to perform modal frequency and harmonic response analysis. Experimental studies were performed to measure both mechanical and electrical characteristics of the piezoelectric motor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Piezoelectric AlN Thin Film with SU-8/PDMS Supporting Layer for Flexible Sensor Array
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010315 - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
This research focuses on the development of a flexible tactile sensor array consisting of aluminum nitride (AlN) based on micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. A total of 2304 tactile sensors were integrated into a small area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm2. Five [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the development of a flexible tactile sensor array consisting of aluminum nitride (AlN) based on micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. A total of 2304 tactile sensors were integrated into a small area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm2. Five hundred nm thick AlN film with strong c-axis texture was sputtered on Cr/Au/Cr (50/50/5 nm) layers as the sacrificial layer coated on a Si wafer. To achieve device flexibility, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer and SU-8 photoresist layer were used as the supporting layers after etching away a release layer. Twenty-five mM (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) improves the adhesion between metal and polymers due to formation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of the top electrode. The flexible tactile sensor has 8 × 8 channels and each channel has 36 sensor elements with nine SU-8 bump blocks. The tactile sensor array was demonstrated to be flexible by bending 90 degrees. The tactile sensor array was demonstrated to show clear spatial resolution through detecting the distinct electrical response of each channel under local mechanical stimulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Static Electromechanical Characteristic of a Three-Layer Circular Piezoelectric Transducer
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010222 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The paper presents research related to the functional features of a novel three-layer circular piezoelectric actuator/sensor. The outer layers of the transducer are made of non-piezoelectric material. The middle layer comprises two elements—a piezoelectric disk, and a ring made of non-piezoelectric material. The [...] Read more.
The paper presents research related to the functional features of a novel three-layer circular piezoelectric actuator/sensor. The outer layers of the transducer are made of non-piezoelectric material. The middle layer comprises two elements—a piezoelectric disk, and a ring made of non-piezoelectric material. The additional external passive layer has a very important function; it protects the transducer’s electrical components against damage caused by external factors. Also, if sparking on the transducer wires or electrodes occurs, this layer prevents fire. So far, there is no analytical model for such a transducer. Closed-form analytical equations are important tools for predicting and optimizing the operation of devices. Thus, using both the Plate Theory and constitutive equations of piezoelectric materials, an analytical formula describing transducer deflection as a function of electrical loads has been found (electromechanical characteristic of the transducer). In addition, it is worth noting that under certain assumptions, the developed analytical model can also be used for two-layer transducers. The tests carried out show satisfactory compliance of the results obtained through the developed solution with both literature data and numerical data. Moreover, based on the obtained analytical model, the effect of selected non-dimensional variables on the actuator performance has been examined. These parameters include dimensions and mechanical properties of both piezoelectric disk and passive plates and strongly influence the behavior of the transducer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Adaptive Wave Cancellation Underwater to a Piezoelectric-Material-Based Multilayer Sensor
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010134 - 24 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper concerns the use of adaptive wave cancellation in a new multilayer smart skin sensor to attenuate the primary low-frequency noise underwater. The proposed multilayered system is designed with a piezoelectric actuator (Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3 [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the use of adaptive wave cancellation in a new multilayer smart skin sensor to attenuate the primary low-frequency noise underwater. The proposed multilayered system is designed with a piezoelectric actuator (Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 composite) and two layers of polyvinylidene fluoride to accelerate wave absorption. Furthermore, the use of a combination of an adaptive control scheme and a time-delay signal separation method has the potential to provide the proposed absorber system with a wave cancellation capability and thereby enable the absorber system to respond to environmental changes underwater. The use of smart piezoelectric materials and an adaptive control approach enables the absorber system to achieve the high attenuation level of the reflected waves, unlike typical absorber systems based on active noise control. Echo reduction experiments showed that the proposed piezoelectric-based multilayer sensor with an adaptive controller could attenuate reflected wave signals effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Resonance and Non-Resonance Type Piezoelectric Acoustic Absorbers
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010047 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, piezoelectric acoustic absorbers employing two receivers and one transmitter with a feedback controller were evaluated. Based on the target and resonance frequencies of the system, resonance and non-resonance models were designed and fabricated. With a lateral size less than half [...] Read more.
In this study, piezoelectric acoustic absorbers employing two receivers and one transmitter with a feedback controller were evaluated. Based on the target and resonance frequencies of the system, resonance and non-resonance models were designed and fabricated. With a lateral size less than half the wavelength, the model had stacked structures of lossy acoustic windows, polyvinylidene difluoride, and lead zirconate titanate-5A. The structures of both models were identical, except that the resonance model had steel backing material to adjust the center frequency. Both models were analyzed in the frequency and time domains, and the effectiveness of the absorbers was compared at the target and off-target frequencies. Both models were fabricated and acoustically and electrically characterized. Their reflection reduction ratios were evaluated in the quasi-continuous-wave and time-transient modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Stacked Transistor Bias Circuit of Class-B Amplifier for Portable Ultrasound Systems
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5252; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235252 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The performance of portable ultrasound systems is affected by the excessive heat generated by amplifiers, thereby reducing the sensitivity and resolution of the transducer devices used in ultrasound systems. Therefore, the amplifier needs to generate low amounts of heat to stabilize portable ultrasound [...] Read more.
The performance of portable ultrasound systems is affected by the excessive heat generated by amplifiers, thereby reducing the sensitivity and resolution of the transducer devices used in ultrasound systems. Therefore, the amplifier needs to generate low amounts of heat to stabilize portable ultrasound systems. To properly control the amplifier, the related bias circuit must provide proper DC bias voltages for long time periods in ultrasound systems. To this end, a stacked transistor bias circuit was proposed to achieve a relatively constant amplifier performance irrespective of temperature variance without any cooling systems as the portable ultrasound system structure is limited. To prove the proposed concept, the performance of the gain and DC current consumption at different experimental times was measured and compared to a developed class-B amplifier with different bias circuits. The amplifier with the stacked transistor bias circuit outperformed with regard to the gain and DC current variance versus time (−0.72 dB and 0.065 A, respectively) compared to the amplifier with a typical resistor divider bias circuit (−5.27 dB and 0.237 A, respectively) after a certain time (5 min). Consequently, the proposed stacked transistor bias circuit is a useful electronic device for portable ultrasound systems with limited structure sizes because of its relatively low gain and DC current variance with respect to time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Experiments of a Piezoelectric Motor Using Three Rotating Mode Actuators
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5184; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235184 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper represents a numerical and experimental investigation of the multicell piezoelectric motor. The proposed design consists of three individual cells that are integrated into the stator, double rotor, and a preload system combined into a symmetrical structure of the motor. Each of [...] Read more.
This paper represents a numerical and experimental investigation of the multicell piezoelectric motor. The proposed design consists of three individual cells that are integrated into the stator, double rotor, and a preload system combined into a symmetrical structure of the motor. Each of the cells is characterized by a traveling wave and rotating mode motor. A finite element numerical analysis is carried out to obtain optimal geometrical dimensions of the individual cell in terms of generated vibrations and resonant frequencies of the structure. The results of the numerical analysis are compared with analytical calculations based on the equivalent circuit theory. Experimental tests are also presented, including laser interferometry measurements of vibrations generated at the surface of the stator, impedance analysis, as well as measurements of mechanical characteristics of the complete motor. The final stage of the study concludes that the presented motor can provide relatively high torque compared with other traveling wave rotary motors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
The Design and Optimization of a Compressive-Type Vector Sensor Utilizing a PMN-28PT Piezoelectric Single-Crystal
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5155; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235155 - 25 Nov 2019
Abstract
Underwater sensors that detect the distance and direction of acoustic sources are critical for surveillance monitoring and target detection in the water. Here, we propose an axial vector sensor that utilizes a small (~1 cm3) compressive-type piezoelectric accelerometer using piezoelectric single [...] Read more.
Underwater sensors that detect the distance and direction of acoustic sources are critical for surveillance monitoring and target detection in the water. Here, we propose an axial vector sensor that utilizes a small (~1 cm3) compressive-type piezoelectric accelerometer using piezoelectric single crystals. Initially, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the structure that comprised piezoelectric Pb(Mb1/3Nb2/3)O3-28%PbTiO3 single crystals on a tungsten seismic mass. The receiving voltage sensitivity (RVS) was enhanced through geometric optimization of the thickness and sensing area of the piezoelectric material and the seismic mass. The estimated maximum RVS of the optimized vector sensor was −212 dB. FEA simulations and practical measurements were used to verify the directivity of the vector sensor design, which exhibited a dipole pattern. The dipole beam pattern was used to obtain cardioid patterns using the simulated and measured results for comparison. The results clearly showed the feasibility of using the proposed piezoelectric single-crystal accelerometer for a compressive-type vector sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Fabrication of a Wideband Cymbal Transducer for Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214659 - 27 Oct 2019
Abstract
Cymbal transducers are characterized by a high mechanical quality factor and low power efficiency. The research conducted so far on cymbal transducers has focused on improving the power efficiency and structural stability, but modern underwater sensor network systems need transducers to have a [...] Read more.
Cymbal transducers are characterized by a high mechanical quality factor and low power efficiency. The research conducted so far on cymbal transducers has focused on improving the power efficiency and structural stability, but modern underwater sensor network systems need transducers to have a wide frequency bandwidth as well. In this study, a wideband cymbal transducer was designed to fill that need. First, the effect of various structural parameters on the performance of the cymbal transducer was analyzed with emphasis on the bandwidth using the finite element method. Based on the analysis results, the structure of the cymbal transducer was optimized to have the widest possible bandwidth while maintaining its transmitting voltage response (TVR) level over a typical power requirement as well. The validity of the design was verified by fabricating a prototype of the optimized cymbal transducer and comparing its measured performance with the design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Advances in Sonothrombolysis Techniques Using Piezoelectric Transducers
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051288 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
One of the great advancements in the applications of piezoelectric materials is the application for therapeutic medical ultrasound for sonothrombolysis. Sonothrombolysis is a promising ultrasound based technique to treat blood clots compared to conventional thrombolytic treatments or mechanical thrombectomy. Recent clinical trials using [...] Read more.
One of the great advancements in the applications of piezoelectric materials is the application for therapeutic medical ultrasound for sonothrombolysis. Sonothrombolysis is a promising ultrasound based technique to treat blood clots compared to conventional thrombolytic treatments or mechanical thrombectomy. Recent clinical trials using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, microbubble mediated sonothrombolysis, and catheter directed sonothrombolysis have shown promise. However, these conventional sonothrombolysis techniques still pose clinical safety limitations, preventing their application for standard of care. Recent advances in sonothrombolysis techniques including targeted and drug loaded microbubbles, phase change nanodroplets, high intensity focused ultrasound, histotripsy, and improved intravascular transducers, address some of the limitations of conventional sonothrombolysis treatments. Here, we review the strengths and limitations of these latest pre-clincial advancements for sonothrombolysis and their potential to improve clinical blood clot treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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