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Electrochemical Sensors: Technologies and Applications

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 August 2024 | Viewed by 4204

Special Issue Editors

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Interests: electroanalytical chemistry; carbon nanomaterials; microfabrication; nanofabrication

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Guest Editor
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Interests: neurochemical sensing; tissue/device interface
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, PA 15650, USA
Interests: conductive polymer; neural interface
School of Biology & Basic Medical Science, Department of Forensic Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
Interests: fast scan cyclic voltammetry; neuroscience

Special Issue Information

Daer Colleagues,

Electrochemical methods have been one of the major technologies for sensing, which enable fast and sensitive detection of a wide range of analytes. Recent advances include new electrode materials for sensing, new applications of electrochemical sensors, and the development of electrochemical methods.

This Special Issue therefore aims to collect original research and review articles on recent advances in technologies, applications, and new challenges in the field of electrochemical sensors.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • Electrochemical technologies;
  • Electrochemical sensers;
  • Electrochemical biosensors;
  • Electrochemical immunosensors;
  • Electrochemical gas sensors;
  • Electrode material sciences;
  • Electrode interface;
  • Wearable electrochemical sensors;
  • Fabrication methods.

Dr. Qun Cao
Dr. Elaine Robbins
Dr. Ian Taylor
Dr. Ying Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Sensing of the Kinetic Parameters of Engineered Enzymes
by Adriána Dusíková, Timea Baranová, Ján Krahulec, Olívia Dakošová, Ján Híveš, Monika Naumowicz and Miroslav Gál
Sensors 2024, 24(8), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24082643 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 809
Abstract
The study presents a promising approach to enzymatic kinetics using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to assess fundamental parameters of modified enteropeptidases. Traditional methods for determining these parameters, while effective, often lack versatility and convenience, especially under varying environmental conditions. The use of EIS [...] Read more.
The study presents a promising approach to enzymatic kinetics using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to assess fundamental parameters of modified enteropeptidases. Traditional methods for determining these parameters, while effective, often lack versatility and convenience, especially under varying environmental conditions. The use of EIS provides a novel approach that overcomes these limitations. The enteropeptidase underwent genetic modification through the introduction of single amino acid modifications to assess their effect on enzyme kinetics. However, according to the one-sample t-test results, the difference between the engineered enzymes and hEKL was not statistically significant by conventional criteria. The kinetic parameters were analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy and EIS, which was found to be an effective tool for the real-time measurement of enzyme kinetics. The results obtained through EIS were not significantly different from those obtained through traditional fluorescence spectroscopy methods (p value >> 0.05). The study validates the use of EIS for measuring enzyme kinetics and provides insight into the effects of specific amino acid changes on enteropeptidase function. These findings have potential applications in biotechnology and biochemical research, suggesting a new method for rapidly assessing enzymatic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors: Technologies and Applications)
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11 pages, 1186 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Cu2+ and Zn2+ in Pig Farm Wastewater
by Jia-Xin Du, Yang-Hao Ma, Said Nawab and Yang-Chun Yong
Sensors 2024, 24(8), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24082475 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 628
Abstract
In recent years, the rapid development of pig farming has led to a large quantity of heavy metal-polluted wastewater. Thus, it was desirable to develop a simple heavy metal detection method for fast monitoring of the wastewater from the pig farms. Therefore, there [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid development of pig farming has led to a large quantity of heavy metal-polluted wastewater. Thus, it was desirable to develop a simple heavy metal detection method for fast monitoring of the wastewater from the pig farms. Therefore, there was an urgent need to develop a simple method for rapidly detecting heavy metal ions in pig farm wastewater. Herein, a simple electrochemical method for simultaneous detection of Cu2+ and Zn2+ was developed and applied to pig farm wastewater. With a glassy carbon electrode and anodic stripping voltammetry, simultaneous detection of Cu2+ and Zn2+ in water was achieved without the need for complicated electrode modification. Furthermore, it was found that the addition of Cd2+ can enhance the response current of the electrode to Zn2+, which increased the signal by eight times. After systematic optimization, the limit of detection (LOD) of 9.3 μg/L for Cu2+ and 45.3 μg/L for Zn2+ was obtained. Finally, it was successfully applied for the quantification of Cu2+ and Zn2+ with high accuracy in pig farm wastewater. This work provided a new and simple solution for fast monitoring of the wastewater from pig farms and demonstrated the potential of electrochemical measurement for application in modern animal husbandry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors: Technologies and Applications)
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15 pages, 3749 KiB  
Article
Polarization Conforms Performance Variability in Amorphous Electrodeposited Iridium Oxide pH Sensors: A Thorough Surface Chemistry Investigation
by Paul Marsh, Mao-Hsiang Huang, Xing Xia, Ich Tran, Plamen Atanassov and Hung Cao
Sensors 2024, 24(3), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24030962 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Electrodeposited amorphous hydrated iridium oxide (IrOx) is a promising material for pH sensing due to its high sensitivity and the ease of fabrication. However, durability and variability continue to restrict the sensor’s effectiveness. Variation in probe films can be seen in both performance [...] Read more.
Electrodeposited amorphous hydrated iridium oxide (IrOx) is a promising material for pH sensing due to its high sensitivity and the ease of fabrication. However, durability and variability continue to restrict the sensor’s effectiveness. Variation in probe films can be seen in both performance and fabrication, but it has been found that performance variation can be controlled with potentiostatic conditioning (PC). To make proper use of this technique, the morphological and chemical changes affecting the conditioning process must be understood. Here, a thorough study of this material, after undergoing PC in a pH-sensing-relevant potential regime, was conducted by voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fitting of XPS data was performed, guided by raw trends in survey scans, core orbitals, and valence spectra, both XPS and UPS. The findings indicate that the PC process can repeatably control and conform performance and surface bonding to desired calibrations and distributions, respectively; PC was able to reduce sensitivity and offset ranges to as low as ±0.7 mV/pH and ±0.008 V, respectively, and repeat bonding distributions over ~2 months of sample preparation. Both Ir/O atomic ratios (shifting from 4:1 to over 4.5:1) and fitted components assigned hydroxide or oxide states based on the literature (low-voltage spectra being almost entirely with suggested hydroxide components, and high-voltage spectra almost entirely with suggested oxide components) trend across the polarization range. Self-consistent valence, core orbital, and survey quantitative trends point to a likely mechanism of ligand conversion from hydroxide to oxide, suggesting that the conditioning process enforces specific state mixtures that include both theoretical Ir(III) and Ir(IV) species, and raising the conditioning potential alters the surface species from an assumed mixture of Ir species to more oxidized Ir species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors: Technologies and Applications)
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12 pages, 6511 KiB  
Article
Carbon Paste Electrodes Surface-Modified with Surfactants: Principles of Surface Interactions at the Interface between Two Immiscible Liquid Phases
by Ivan Švancara and Milan Sýs
Sensors 2023, 23(24), 9891; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23249891 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Carbon paste electrodes ex-situ modified with different surfactants were studied using cyclic voltammetry with two model redox couples, namely hexaammineruthenium (II)/(III) and hexacyanoferrate (II)/(III), in 0.1 mol L−1 acetate buffer (pH 4), 0.1 mol L−1 phosphate buffer (pH 7), and 0.1 [...] Read more.
Carbon paste electrodes ex-situ modified with different surfactants were studied using cyclic voltammetry with two model redox couples, namely hexaammineruthenium (II)/(III) and hexacyanoferrate (II)/(III), in 0.1 mol L−1 acetate buffer (pH 4), 0.1 mol L−1 phosphate buffer (pH 7), and 0.1 mol L−1 ammonia buffer (pH 9) at a scan rate ranging from 50 to 500 mV s−1. Distinct effects of pH, ionic strength, and the composition of supporting media, as well as of the amount of surfactant and its accumulation at the electrode surface, could be observed and found reflected in changes of double-layer capacitance and electrode kinetics. It has been proved that, at the two-phase interface, the presence of surfactants results in elctrostatic interactions that dominate in the transfer of model substances, possibly accompanied also by the effect of erosion at the carbon paste surface. The individual findings depend on the configurations investigated, which are also illustrated on numerous schemes of the actual microstructure at the respective electrode surface. Finally, principal observations and results are highlighted and discussed with respect to the future development and possible applications of sensors based on surfactant-modified composited electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors: Technologies and Applications)
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Review

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15 pages, 6255 KiB  
Review
Strategies to Enrich Electrochemical Sensing Data with Analytical Relevance for Machine Learning Applications: A Focused Review
by Mijeong Kang, Donghyeon Kim, Jihee Kim, Nakyung Kim and Seunghun Lee
Sensors 2024, 24(12), 3855; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24123855 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 430
Abstract
In this review, recent advances regarding the integration of machine learning into electrochemical analysis are overviewed, focusing on the strategies to increase the analytical context of electrochemical data for enhanced machine learning applications. While information-rich electrochemical data offer great potential for machine learning [...] Read more.
In this review, recent advances regarding the integration of machine learning into electrochemical analysis are overviewed, focusing on the strategies to increase the analytical context of electrochemical data for enhanced machine learning applications. While information-rich electrochemical data offer great potential for machine learning applications, limitations arise when sensors struggle to identify or quantitatively detect target substances in a complex matrix of non-target substances. Advanced machine learning techniques are crucial, but equally important is the development of methods to ensure that electrochemical systems can generate data with reasonable variations across different targets or the different concentrations of a single target. We discuss five strategies developed for building such electrochemical systems, employed in the steps of preparing sensing electrodes, recording signals, and analyzing data. In addition, we explore approaches for acquiring and augmenting the datasets used to train and validate machine learning models. Through these insights, we aim to inspire researchers to fully leverage the potential of machine learning in electroanalytical science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors: Technologies and Applications)
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