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Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 19564

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
IEIIT Institute, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: trustworthy AI; control of networks; cybersecurity; Internet of Things
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Smart cities use digital technologies and data to support decisions and improve quality of life. They use smart technologies to better understand current conditions, predict future changes, optimize city functions, and provide better services. Sensors and actuators are at the centre of this change. The inherent Internet of Things (IoT) architecture may impact the following applications: management of parking lots, waste management, traffic control, street lightning, utility meters and energy infrastructure, and health monitoring at home. The software and communication modules for the management of the IoT infrastructure are peculiar for the mentioned applications and deserve dedicated studies. The convergence of broadband deployment and emerging machine intelligence has also spurred interest in those solutions. Green deployment of the technology, together with key performance indicators of the energy saving, is one of the topical challenges of IoT for smart cities. Energy harvesting/micro-power management solutions for IoT edge devices are of interest to enable retrofitted sensors to undertake condition monitoring in the mentioned smart environments.

This Special Issue call for papers on the mentioned topics, with a specific focus on IoT technologies. Application domains are mentioned above but may also include: video analytics monitoring, operational automation to support multimodal freight, and better infrastructure safety on urban and secondary rural roads with the combination of adaptable monitoring and maintenance solutions. Other suggested areas are welcome as well. Since the forthcoming management and control of IoT applications need increasing levels of autonomy, papers exploring artificial intelligence is also welcome.

We request contributions presenting techniques (methods, tools, ideas, or even market evaluations) that contribute to the future roadmap of IoT in smart cities. We welcome papers combining both the control and communication of IoT devices. The support of requirements of IoT applications as well as real-world scenarios are welcome. Technically sound empirical experiences, scientifically founded innovative and speculative research lines, and tutorial dissertations are relevant for proposal and evaluation.

Particular interest is devoted to ongoing research projects involving the trustworthiness of AI in cyber-physical systems, such as Horizon-EU REXASI-PRO (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/101070028).

Dr. Maurizio Mongelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • heterogeneous communication (5G, satellite, broadband) of IoT in smart city scenarios
  • machine learning for IoT in smart city scenarios
  • cybersecurity IoT in smart city scenarios
  • privacy preservation of IoT sensing in the smart city
  • standardization of IoT in smart city applications
  • risk analysis of IoT infrastructure in smart ecosystems
  • energy preservation in the smart city via sensors retrofitting or redesign
  • IoT for optimal interconnection of rural areas and the city
  • video analytics of smart city scenarios
  • IoT infrastructure to improve transports in the smart city
  • health monitoring at home with hospital interconnection

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 12588 KiB  
Article
Knowledge Development Trajectories of Intelligent Video Surveillance Domain: An Academic Study Based on Citation and Main Path Analysis
by Fei-Lung Huang, Kai-Ying Chen and Wei-Hao Su
Sensors 2024, 24(7), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24072240 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Smart city is an area where the Internet of things is used effectively with sensors. The data used by smart city can be collected through the cameras, sensors etc. Intelligent video surveillance (IVS) systems integrate multiple networked cameras for automatic surveillance purposes. Such [...] Read more.
Smart city is an area where the Internet of things is used effectively with sensors. The data used by smart city can be collected through the cameras, sensors etc. Intelligent video surveillance (IVS) systems integrate multiple networked cameras for automatic surveillance purposes. Such systems can analyze and monitor video data and perform automatic functions required by users. This study performed main path analysis (MPA) to explore the development trends of IVS research. First, relevant articles were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Next, MPA was performed to analyze development trends in relevant research, and g-index and h-index values were analyzed to identify influential journals. Cluster analysis was then performed to group similar articles, and Wordle was used to display the key words of each group in word clouds. These key words served as the basis for naming their corresponding groups. Data mining and statistical analysis yielded six major IVS research topics, namely video cameras, background modeling, closed-circuit television, multiple cameras, person reidentification, and privacy, security, and protection. These topics can boost the future innovation and development of IVS technology and contribute to smart transportation, smart city, and other applications. According to the study results, predictions were made regarding developments in IVS research to provide recommendations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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14 pages, 480 KiB  
Article
SmartLaundry: A Real-Time System for Public Laundry Allocation in Smart Cities
by Raluca Laura Portase, Ramona Tolas and Rodica Potolea
Sensors 2024, 24(7), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24072159 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Smart cities facilitate the comprehensive management and operation of urban data generated within a city, establishing the foundation for smart services and addressing diverse urban challenges. A smart system for public laundry management uses artificial intelligence-based solutions to solve the challenges of the [...] Read more.
Smart cities facilitate the comprehensive management and operation of urban data generated within a city, establishing the foundation for smart services and addressing diverse urban challenges. A smart system for public laundry management uses artificial intelligence-based solutions to solve the challenges of the inefficient utilization of public laundries, waiting times, overbooking or underutilization of machines, balancing of loads across machines, and implementation of energy-saving features. We propose SmartLaundry, a real-time system design for public laundry smart recommendations to better manage the loads across connected machines. Our system integrates the current status of the connected devices and data-driven forecasted usage to offer the end user connected via a mobile application a list of recommended machines that could be used. We forecast the daily usage of devices using traditional machine learning techniques and deep learning approaches, and we perform a comparative analysis of the results. As a proof of concept, we create a simulation of the interaction with our system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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12 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Low-Cost Sensor Deployment on a Public Minibus in Fukushima Prefecture
by Rakotovao Lovanantenaina Omega, Yo Ishigaki, Sidik Permana, Yoshinori Matsumoto, Kayoko Yamamoto, Katsumi Shozugawa and Mayumi Hori
Sensors 2024, 24(5), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24051375 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
This study analyzed radiation dose data to observe the annual decline in ambient radiation doses and assess the factors contributing to fluctuations in reconstructed areas of the Fukushima prefecture. Utilizing a novel mobile monitoring system installed on a community minibus, the study employed [...] Read more.
This study analyzed radiation dose data to observe the annual decline in ambient radiation doses and assess the factors contributing to fluctuations in reconstructed areas of the Fukushima prefecture. Utilizing a novel mobile monitoring system installed on a community minibus, the study employed a cost-effective sensor, namely, Pocket Geiger which was integrated with a microcontroller and telecommunication system for data transfer, access, visualization, and accumulation. The study area included the region between Okuma and Tomioka towns. The ambient dose rate recorded along the minibus route was depicted on a map, averaged within a 1 × 1 km mesh created with the Quantum Geographic Information System. To ensure accuracy, the shielding factor of the minibus material is determined to adjust the dose readings. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the radiation dose ranges from 2022 to 2023 was observed. The land use classification by the Advanced Land Observation Satellite revealed an ecological half-life ranging from 2.41 years to 1 year, suggesting a rapid radiation decay across all land types. This underscores the close connection between radiation attenuation and environmental factors, as well as decontamination efforts across diverse land categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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38 pages, 31276 KiB  
Article
Process Algebraic Approach for Probabilistic Verification of Safety and Security Requirements of Smart IoT (Internet of Things) Systems in Digital Twin
by Junsup Song, Sunghyun Lee, Dimitris Karagiannis and Moonkun Lee
Sensors 2024, 24(3), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24030767 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Process algebra can be considered one of the most practical formal methods for modeling Smart IoT Systems in Digital Twin, since each IoT device in the systems can be considered as a process. Further, some of the algebras are applied to predict the [...] Read more.
Process algebra can be considered one of the most practical formal methods for modeling Smart IoT Systems in Digital Twin, since each IoT device in the systems can be considered as a process. Further, some of the algebras are applied to predict the behavior of the systems. For example, PALOMA (Process Algebra for Located Markovian Agents) and PACSR (Probabilistic Algebra of Communicating Shared Resources) process algebras are designed to predict the behavior of IoT Systems with probability on choice operations. However, there is a lack of analytical methods in the algebras to predict the nondeterministic behavior of the systems. Further, there is no control mechanism to handle undesirable nondeterministic behavior of the systems. In order to overcome these limitations, this paper proposes a new process algebra, called dTP-Calculus, which can be used (1) to specify the nondeterministic behavior of the systems with static probability, (2) verify the safety and security requirements of the nondeterministic behavior with probability requirements, and (3) control undesirable nondeterministic behavior with dynamic probability. To demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the approach, the SAVE (Specification, Analysis, Verification, Evaluation) tool has been developed on the ADOxx Meta-Modeling Platform and applied to a SEMS (Smart Emergency Medical Service) example. In addition, a miniature digital twin system for the SEMS example was constructed and applied to the SAVE tool as a proof of concept for Digital Twin. It shows that the approach with dTP-Calculus on the tool can be very efficient and effective for Smart IoT Systems in Digital Twin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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22 pages, 6865 KiB  
Article
Modbus Extension Server Implementation for BIoT-Enabled Smart Switch Embedded System Device
by Vasile Gheorghiță Găitan and Ionel Zagan
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24020475 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
The industrial control and automation sector has invested in the development and standardization of new wireless (WirelessHART, ISA 100.11a, and WIA-PA) and wired (Profibus/Profinet, Modbus, and LonWORK) solutions aimed at automating processes to support standard monitoring and control functions from the perspective of [...] Read more.
The industrial control and automation sector has invested in the development and standardization of new wireless (WirelessHART, ISA 100.11a, and WIA-PA) and wired (Profibus/Profinet, Modbus, and LonWORK) solutions aimed at automating processes to support standard monitoring and control functions from the perspective of addressing critical applications, as well as those integrated within the Building Internet of Things (BIoT) concept. Distributed data acquisition and control systems allow modern installations to monitor and control devices remotely. Various network protocols have been proposed to specify communication formats between a client/gateway and server devices, with Modbus being an example that has been widely implemented in the latest industrial electrical installations. The main contribution made in this paper concerns the completion of the Modbus Extension (ModbusE) specifications for the server station in the classical Modbus communication architecture, as well as their implementation and testing in an STM32F4 kit. A general-purpose control architecture is proposed for BIoT sector, comprising both intelligent touch switches and communication protocols of which the Modbus protocol is used extensively for the monitoring and control part, especially between clients, smart switches, and devices. The specific contributions concern the presentation of a scientific and practical implementation of improved specifications and their integration as software modules on ModbusE protocol server stations. A client station with a VirtualComm USB PC connection is also implemented in the lab to test the operation of the proposed server with specific Modbus applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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18 pages, 6495 KiB  
Article
A Smart Real-Time Parking Control and Monitoring System
by Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki, Wassim Messoudi, Anas Bushnag, Shakour Abuzneid and Tareq Alhmiedat
Sensors 2023, 23(24), 9741; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23249741 - 10 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3370
Abstract
Smart parking is an artificial intelligence-based solution to solve the challenges of inefficient utilization of parking slots, wasting time, congestion producing high CO2 emission levels, inflexible payment methods, and protecting parked vehicles from theft and vandalism. Nothing is worse than parking congestion [...] Read more.
Smart parking is an artificial intelligence-based solution to solve the challenges of inefficient utilization of parking slots, wasting time, congestion producing high CO2 emission levels, inflexible payment methods, and protecting parked vehicles from theft and vandalism. Nothing is worse than parking congestion caused by drivers looking for open spaces. This is common in large parking lots, underground garages, and multi-story car parks, where visibility is limited and signage can be confusing or difficult to read, so drivers have no idea where available parking spaces are. In this paper, a smart real-time parking management system has been introduced. The developed system can deal with the aforementioned challenges by providing dynamic allocation for parking slots while taking into consideration the overall parking situation, providing a mechanism for booking a specific parking slot by using our Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based application, and providing a mechanism to ensure that the car is parked in its correct place. For the sake of providing cost flexibility, we have provided two technical solutions with cost varying. The first solution is developed based on a motion sensor and the second solution is based on a range-finder sensor. A plate detection and recognition system has been used to detect the vehicle’s license plate by capturing the image using an IoT device. The system will recognize the extracted English alphabet and Hindu-Arabic Numerals. The proposed solution was built and field-tested to prove the applicability of the proposed smart parking solution. We have measured and analyzed keen data such as vehicle plate detection accuracy, vehicle plate recognition accuracy, transmission delay time, and processing delay time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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22 pages, 3557 KiB  
Article
Towards Semantic Smart Cities: A Study on the Conceptualization and Implementation of Semantic Context Inference Systems
by Jieun Lee and JaeSeung Song
Sensors 2023, 23(23), 9392; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23239392 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
Smart cities provide integrated management and operation of urban data emerging within a city, supplying the infrastructure for smart city services and resolving various urban challenges. Nevertheless, cities continue to grapple with substantial issues, such as contagious diseases and terrorism, that pose severe [...] Read more.
Smart cities provide integrated management and operation of urban data emerging within a city, supplying the infrastructure for smart city services and resolving various urban challenges. Nevertheless, cities continue to grapple with substantial issues, such as contagious diseases and terrorism, that pose severe financial and human risks. These problems sporadically arise in various locales, and current smart city frameworks lack the capability to autonomously identify and address these issues. The challenge intensifies especially when trying to recognize and respond to unprecedented problems. The primary objective of this research is to predict potential urban issues and support their resolution proactively. To achieve this, our system makes use of semantic reasoning to understand the ongoing situations within the city. In this process, the 5W1H principles serve as inference rules, guiding the extraction and consolidation of context. Firstly, utilizing domain-specific annotation templates, we craft a semantic graph by amalgamating information from various sources available in the city, such as municipal public data and IoT platforms. Subsequently, the system autonomously infers and accumulates contexts of situations occurring in the city using 5W1H-based reasoning. As a result, the accumulated contexts allow for inferring potential urban problems by identifying repeated disruptions in city services at specific times or locations and establishing connections among them. The main contribution of this paper lies in proposing a comprehensive conceptual model for the suggested system and presenting actual implementation cases and applicable use cases. These contributions facilitate awareness among city administrators and citizens within a smart city regarding potential problem-prone areas or times, thereby aiding in the preemptive identification and mitigation of urban challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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21 pages, 10777 KiB  
Article
A Meta Modeling-Based Interoperability and Integration Testing Platform for IoT Systems
by Qasim Ali Shah, Imran Shafi, Jamil Ahmad, Sultan Alfarhood, Mejdl Safran and Imran Ashraf
Sensors 2023, 23(21), 8730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23218730 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its integration into various industries has made it extremely challenging to guarantee IoT systems’ dependability and quality, including scalability, dynamicity, and integration with existing IoT frameworks. However, the essential principles, approaches, and advantages [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its integration into various industries has made it extremely challenging to guarantee IoT systems’ dependability and quality, including scalability, dynamicity, and integration with existing IoT frameworks. However, the essential principles, approaches, and advantages of model-driven IoT testing indicate a promising strategy for overcoming these. This paper proposes a metamodeling-based interoperability and integration testing approach for IoT systems that automates the creation of test cases and the assessment of system performance by utilizing formal models to reflect the behavior and interactions of IoT systems. The proposed model-based testing enables the systematic verification and validation of complex IoT systems by capturing the essential characteristics of IoT devices, networks, and interactions. This study describes the key elements of model-driven IoT testing, including the development of formal models, methods for generating test cases, and the execution and assessment of models. In addition, it examines various modeling formalisms and their use in IoT testing, including state-based, event-driven, and hybrid models. This study examines several methods for creating test cases to ensure thorough and effective testing, such as constraint-based strategies and model coverage requirements. Model-driven IoT testing improves defect detection, expands test coverage, decreases testing effort, and increases system reliability. It also offers an organized and automated method to confirm the efficiency and dependability of IoT systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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15 pages, 7013 KiB  
Article
A White Shark Equilibrium Optimizer with a Hybrid Deep-Learning-Based Cybersecurity Solution for a Smart City Environment
by Latifah Almuqren, Sumayh S. Aljameel, Hamed Alqahtani, Saud S. Alotaibi, Manar Ahmed Hamza and Ahmed S. Salama
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7370; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23177370 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Smart grids (SGs) play a vital role in the smart city environment, which exploits digital technology, communication systems, and automation for effectively managing electricity generation, distribution, and consumption. SGs are a fundamental module of smart cities that purpose to leverage technology and data [...] Read more.
Smart grids (SGs) play a vital role in the smart city environment, which exploits digital technology, communication systems, and automation for effectively managing electricity generation, distribution, and consumption. SGs are a fundamental module of smart cities that purpose to leverage technology and data for enhancing the life quality for citizens and optimize resource consumption. The biggest challenge in dealing with SGs and smart cities is the potential for cyberattacks comprising Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. DDoS attacks involve overwhelming a system with a huge volume of traffic, causing disruptions and potentially leading to service outages. Mitigating and detecting DDoS attacks in SGs is of great significance to ensuring their stability and reliability. Therefore, this study develops a new White Shark Equilibrium Optimizer with a Hybrid Deep-Learning-based Cybersecurity Solution (WSEO-HDLCS) technique for a Smart City Environment. The goal of the WSEO-HDLCS technique is to recognize the presence of DDoS attacks, in order to ensure cybersecurity. In the presented WSEO-HDLCS technique, the high-dimensionality data problem can be resolved by the use of WSEO-based feature selection (WSEO-FS) approach. In addition, the WSEO-HDLCS technique employs a stacked deep autoencoder (SDAE) model for DDoS attack detection. Moreover, the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is utilized for the optimal selection of the hyperparameters related to the SDAE model. The simulation outcome of the WSEO-HDLCS system is validated on the CICIDS-2017 dataset. The widespread simulation values highlighted the promising outcome of the WSEO-HDLCS methodology over existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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16 pages, 5496 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Resource Allocation for V2V Communication with Spectrum–Energy Efficiency Maximization
by Chunning Xu, Shumo Wang, Ping Song, Ke Li and Tiecheng Song
Sensors 2023, 23(15), 6796; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23156796 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Aiming to address the limitations of traditional resource allocation algorithms in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), whereby they cannot meet the stringent demands for ultra-low latency and high reliability in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, this paper proposes a wireless resource allocation algorithm for V2V [...] Read more.
Aiming to address the limitations of traditional resource allocation algorithms in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), whereby they cannot meet the stringent demands for ultra-low latency and high reliability in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, this paper proposes a wireless resource allocation algorithm for V2V communication based on the multi-agent deep Q-network (MDQN). The system model utilizes 5G network slicing technology as its fundamental feature and maximizes the weighted spectrum–energy efficiency (SEE) while satisfying reliability and latency constraints. In this approach, each V2V link is treated as an agent, and the state space, action, and reward function of MDQN are specifically designed. Through centralized training, the neural network parameters of MDQN are determined, and the optimal resource allocation strategy is achieved through distributed execution. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in significantly improving the SEE of the network while maintaining a certain success rate for V2V link load transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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19 pages, 5265 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Data Reception in the Communication Layer Applied to an Architecture of Mobile Sensor Networks in Marine Environments
by Abigail Elizabeth Pallares-Calvo, Blanca Esther Carvajal-Gámez, Octavio Gutiérrez-Frías and Dante Mujica-Vargas
Sensors 2023, 23(12), 5480; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23125480 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
This paper is focused on the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology operating at 125 kHz in a communication layer for a network of mobile and static nodes in marine environments, with a specific focus on the Underwater Internet of Things (UIoT). [...] Read more.
This paper is focused on the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology operating at 125 kHz in a communication layer for a network of mobile and static nodes in marine environments, with a specific focus on the Underwater Internet of Things (UIoT). The analysis is divided into two main sections: characterizing the penetration depth at different frequencies and evaluating the probabilities of data reception between antennas of static nodes and a terrestrial antenna considering the line of sight (LoS) between antennas. The results indicate that the use of RFID technology at 125 kHz allows for data reception with a penetration depth of 0.6116 dB/m, demonstrating its suitability for data communication in marine environments. In the second part of the analysis, we examine the probabilities of data reception between static-node antennas at different heights and a terrestrial antenna at a specific height. Wave samples recorded in Playa Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico, are used for this analysis. The findings show a maximum reception probability of 94.5% between static nodes with an antenna at a height of 0 m and a 100% data reception probability between a static node and the terrestrial antenna when the static-node antennas are optimally positioned at a height of 1 m above sea level. Overall, this paper provides valuable insights into the application of RFID technology in marine environments for the UIoT, considering the minimization of impacts on marine fauna. The results suggest that by adjusting the characteristics of the RFID system, the proposed architecture can be effectively implemented to expand the monitoring area, considering variables both underwater and on the surface of the marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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16 pages, 3809 KiB  
Article
A Novel IoT-Enabled Wireless Sensor Grid for Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Tracer Gas Dispersion
by Tsz-Wun Tsang, Kwok-Wai Mui, Ling-Tim Wong, Kwok-Yung Law and Ka-Wing Shek
Sensors 2023, 23(8), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23083920 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Current IoT applications in indoor air focus mainly on general monitoring. This study proposed a novel IoT application to evaluate airflow patterns and ventilation performance using tracer gas. The tracer gas is a surrogate for small-size particles and bioaerosols and is used in [...] Read more.
Current IoT applications in indoor air focus mainly on general monitoring. This study proposed a novel IoT application to evaluate airflow patterns and ventilation performance using tracer gas. The tracer gas is a surrogate for small-size particles and bioaerosols and is used in dispersion and ventilation studies. Prevalent commercial tracer-gas-measuring instruments, although highly accurate, are relatively expensive, have a long sampling cycle, and are limited in the number of sampling points. To enhance the spatial and temporal understanding of tracer gas dispersion under the influence of ventilation, a novel application of an IoT-enabled, wireless R134a sensing network using commercially available small sensors was proposed. The system has a detection range of 5–100 ppm and a sampling cycle of 10 s. Using Wi-Fi communication, the measurement data are transmitted to and stored in a cloud database for remote, real-time analysis. The novel system provides a quick response, detailed spatial and temporal profiles of the tracer gas level, and a comparable air change rate analysis. With multiple units deployed as a wireless sensing network, the system can be applied as an affordable alternative to traditional tracer gas systems to identify the dispersion pathway of the tracer gas and the general airflow direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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Review

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19 pages, 932 KiB  
Review
Unleashing the Power of IoT: A Comprehensive Review of IoT Applications and Future Prospects in Healthcare, Agriculture, Smart Homes, Smart Cities, and Industry 4.0
by Robin Chataut, Alex Phoummalayvane and Robert Akl
Sensors 2023, 23(16), 7194; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23167194 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6116
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology and devices represent an exciting field in computer science that is rapidly emerging worldwide. The demand for automation and efficiency has also been a contributing factor to the advancements in this technology. The proliferation of IoT devices [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology and devices represent an exciting field in computer science that is rapidly emerging worldwide. The demand for automation and efficiency has also been a contributing factor to the advancements in this technology. The proliferation of IoT devices coincides with advancements in wireless networking technologies, driven by the enhanced connectivity of the internet. Today, nearly any everyday object can be connected to the network, reflecting the growing demand for automation and efficiency. This paper reviews the emergence of IoT devices, analyzed their common applications, and explored the future prospects in this promising field of computer science. The examined applications encompass healthcare, agriculture, and smart cities. Although IoT technology exhibits similar deployment trends, this paper will explore different fields to discern the subtle nuances that exist among them. To comprehend the future of IoT, it is essential to comprehend the driving forces behind its advancements in various industries. By gaining a better understanding of the emergence of IoT devices, readers will develop insights into the factors that have propelled their growth and the conditions that led to technological advancements. Given the rapid pace at which IoT technology is advancing, this paper provides researchers with a deeper understanding of the factors that have brought us to this point and the ongoing efforts that are actively shaping the future of IoT. By offering a comprehensive analysis of the current landscape and potential future developments, this paper serves as a valuable resource to researchers seeking to contribute to and navigate the ever-evolving IoT ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IoT Systems in Smart Cities)
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