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Advanced Sensors for Gas Monitoring

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 5475

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin, Italy
Interests: turbulence; metrology; flow measurement; flow calibration; particle image velocimetry; boundary layer; vorticity

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin, Italy
Interests: metrology; flow measurement; flow calibration; anemometry; airspeed

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gas measurement is a topic of long-lasting interest because of the extremely vast range of technological applications of gas flow, ranging from the exchange of energy to medical, industrial, and environmental applications. Flow measurement and analysis instruments are, therefore, in continuous development. This Special Issue will focus on the sensing elements of instruments used for measuring the flow rate and/or the composition of flowing gases. Additionally, developments in artificial intelligence are maturing, with important implications on the digital treatment of raw sensor output.

The topics of the Special Issue will include:

  • Developments and innovative applications of existing sensors;
  • New/improved mechanical flow rate sensors;
  • Developments in thermal sensors;
  • Developments in ultrasonic sensors;
  • Gas composition sensing elements;
  • Micro- and nano-sensors for flow rate and composition;
  • Integrated sensors;
  • “Lab-on-a-chip” applications;
  • Monitoring of gas energy content;
  • Algorithms for the elaboration of sensor outputs;
  • Sensors for atmospheric monitoring.

Papers concerning related topics can be included if deemed to be consistent with the general topic of the Special Issue. This Special Issue is devoted to developments in sensors for measuring gas flow rate and composition.

Dr. Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Dr. Aline Piccato
Dr. Francesca Rolle
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gas flow rate
  • gas composition
  • energy vector
  • lab-on-a-chip
  • integration of sensors
  • digital elaboration
  • gas sensors
  • amount-of-substance

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 8206 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Physics Analysis of Nozzle Shaping at the Gas Outlet from the Aperture to the Differentially Pumped Chamber in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
by Jiří Maxa, Vilém Neděla, Pavla Šabacká and Tomáš Binar
Sensors 2024, 24(10), 3243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24103243 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 201
Abstract
A combination of experimental measurement preparations using pressure and temperature sensors in conjunction with the theory of one-dimensional isentropic flow and mathematical physics analyses is presented as a tool for analysis in this paper. Furthermore, the subsequent development of a nozzle for use [...] Read more.
A combination of experimental measurement preparations using pressure and temperature sensors in conjunction with the theory of one-dimensional isentropic flow and mathematical physics analyses is presented as a tool for analysis in this paper. Furthermore, the subsequent development of a nozzle for use in environmental electron microscopy between the specimen chamber and the differentially pumped chamber is described. Based on experimental measurements, an analysis of the impact of the nozzle shaping located behind the aperture on the character of the supersonic flow and the resulting dispersion of the electron beam passing through the differential pumped chamber is carried out on the determined pressure ratio using a combination of theory and mathematical physics analyses. The results show that nozzle shapes causing under-expanded gas outflow from the aperture to the nozzle have a worse impact on the dispersion of the primary electron beam. This is due to the flow velocity control. The controlled reduction in the static pressure curve on the primary electron beam path thus causes a significantly higher course of electron dispersion values than variants with shapes causing over-expanded gas outflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for Gas Monitoring)
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13 pages, 3643 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Low-Cost CO2 Sensors Using Reference Instruments and Standard Gases for Indoor Use
by Qixiang Cai, Pengfei Han, Guang Pan, Chi Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Honghui Xu, Dongde Ruan and Ning Zeng
Sensors 2024, 24(9), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24092680 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 444
Abstract
CO2 monitoring is important for carbon emission evaluation. Low-cost and medium-precision sensors (LCSs) have become an exploratory direction for CO2 observation under complex emission conditions in cities. Here, we used a calibration method that improved the accuracy of SenseAir K30 CO [...] Read more.
CO2 monitoring is important for carbon emission evaluation. Low-cost and medium-precision sensors (LCSs) have become an exploratory direction for CO2 observation under complex emission conditions in cities. Here, we used a calibration method that improved the accuracy of SenseAir K30 CO2 sensors from ±30 ppm to 0.7–4.0 ppm for a CO2-monitoring instrument named the SENSE-IAP, which has been used in several cities, such as in Beijing, Jinan, Fuzhou, Hangzhou, and Wuhan, in China since 2017. We conducted monthly to yearly synchronous observations using the SENSE-IAP along with reference instruments (Picarro) and standard gas to evaluate the performance of the LCSs for indoor use with relatively stable environments. The results show that the precision and accuracy of the SENSE-IAP compared to the standard gases were rather good in relatively stable indoor environments, with the short-term (daily scale) biases ranging from −0.9 to 0.2 ppm, the root mean square errors (RMSE) ranging from 0.7 to 1.6 ppm, the long-term (monthly scale) bias ranging from −1.6 to 0.5 ppm, and the RMSE ranging from 1.3 to 3.2 ppm. The accuracy of the synchronous observations with Picarro was in the same magnitude, with an RMSE of 2.0–3.0 ppm. According to our evaluation, standard instruments or reliable standard gases can be used as a reference to improve the accuracy of the SENSE-IAP. If calibrated daily using standard gases, the bias of the SENSE-IAP can be maintained within 1.0 ppm. If the standard gases are hard to access frequently, we recommend a calibration frequency of at least three months to maintain an accuracy within 3 ppm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for Gas Monitoring)
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18 pages, 10886 KiB  
Article
Exhaust Emissions from Gasoline Vehicles with Different Fuel Detergency and the Prediction Model Using Deep Learning
by Rongshuo Zhang, Hongfei Chen, Peiyuan Xie, Lei Zu, Yangbing Wei, Menglei Wang, Yunjing Wang and Rencheng Zhu
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7655; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23177655 - 4 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Enhancing gasoline detergency is pivotal for enhancing fuel efficiency and mitigating exhaust emissions in gasoline vehicles. This study investigated gasoline vehicle emission characteristics with different gasoline detergency, explored synergistic emission reduction potentials, and developed versatile emission prediction models. The results indicate that improved [...] Read more.
Enhancing gasoline detergency is pivotal for enhancing fuel efficiency and mitigating exhaust emissions in gasoline vehicles. This study investigated gasoline vehicle emission characteristics with different gasoline detergency, explored synergistic emission reduction potentials, and developed versatile emission prediction models. The results indicate that improved fuel detergency leads to a reduction of 5.1% in fuel consumption, along with decreases of 3.2% in total CO2, 55.4% in CO, and 15.4% in HC emissions. However, during low-speed driving, CO2 and CO emissions reductions are limited, and HC emissions worsen. A synergistic emission reduction was observed, particularly with CO exhibiting a pronounced reduction compared to HC. The developed deep-learning-based vehicle emission model for different gasoline detergency (DPVEM-DGD) enables accurate emission predictions under various fuel detergency conditions. The Pearson correlation coefficients (Pearson’s r) between predicted and measured values of CO2, CO, and HC emissions before and after adding detergency agents are 0.913 and 0.934, 0.895 and 0.915, and 0.931 and 0.969, respectively. The predictive performance improves due to reduced peak emissions resulting from improved fuel detergency. Elevated gasoline detergency not only reduces exhaust emissions but also facilitates more refined emission management to a certain extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for Gas Monitoring)
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12 pages, 3213 KiB  
Article
Low-Power AlGaN/GaN Triangular Microcantilever for Air Flow Detection
by Balaadithya Uppalapati, Durga Gajula, Manav Bava, Lavanya Muthusamy and Goutam Koley
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7465; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23177465 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
This paper investigates an AlGaN/GaN triangular microcantilever with a heated apex for airflow detection utilizing a very simple two-terminal sensor configuration. Thermal microscope images were used to verify that the apex region of the microcantilever reached significantly higher temperatures than other parts under [...] Read more.
This paper investigates an AlGaN/GaN triangular microcantilever with a heated apex for airflow detection utilizing a very simple two-terminal sensor configuration. Thermal microscope images were used to verify that the apex region of the microcantilever reached significantly higher temperatures than other parts under applied voltage bias. The sensor response was found to vary linearly with airflow rate when tested over a range of airflow varying from 16 to 2000 sccm. The noise-limited flow volume measurement yielded ~4 sccm resolution, while the velocity resolution was found to be 0.241 cm/s, which is one of the best reported so far for thermal sensors. The sensor was able to operate at a very low power consumption level of ~5 mW, which is one of the lowest reported for these types of sensors. The intrinsic response time of the sensor was estimated to be on the order of a few ms, limited by its thermal properties. Overall, the microcantilever sensor, with its simple geometry and measurement configurations, was found to exhibit attractive performance metrics useful for various sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for Gas Monitoring)
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11 pages, 4974 KiB  
Communication
High Selectivity Hydrogen Gas Sensor Based on WO3/Pd-AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
by Van Cuong Nguyen, Ho-Young Cha and Hyungtak Kim
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3465; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073465 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
We investigated the hydrogen gas sensors based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for high temperature sensing operation. The gate area of the sensor was functionalized using a 10 nm Pd catalyst layer for hydrogen gas sensing. A thin WO3 layer [...] Read more.
We investigated the hydrogen gas sensors based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for high temperature sensing operation. The gate area of the sensor was functionalized using a 10 nm Pd catalyst layer for hydrogen gas sensing. A thin WO3 layer was deposited on top of the Pd layer to enhance the sensor selectivity toward hydrogen gas. At 200 °C, the sensor exhibited high sensitivity of 658% toward 4%-H2, while exhibiting only a little interaction with NO2, CH4, CO2, NH3, and H2S. From 150 °C to 250 °C, the 10 ppm hydrogen response of the sensor was at least eight times larger than other target gases. These results showed that this sensor is suitable for H2 detection in a complex gas environment at a high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for Gas Monitoring)
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