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Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data for Mineral Exploration and Environmental Monitoring of Mined Areas

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 111359

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Centre for Advanced Modelling and Geospatial Information Systems (CAMGIS), University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
Interests: radar image processing remote sensing and GIS applications GIS for engineers forecasting disaster hazard; stochastic analysis and modelling; natural hazards; environmental engineering modelling; geospatial information systems; photogrammetry and remote sensing; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
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Geoscience and Digital Earth Centre (INSTeG), Research Institute for Sustainable Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Skudai 81310, Malaysia
Interests: digital image processing; environmental monitoring; image classification; multispectral and radar satellite data applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Remote sensing technology plays a vital role in the initial stages of ore mineral exploration. Increasing demands for minerals by society due to the exponential growth in population and industrialization emphasize the need for replenishing depleting reserves by locating new prospective ore deposits. In recent decades, hydrothermal alteration mineral detection has become one of the most conspicuous applications of multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing satellite data for ore mineral exploration. Numerous ore deposits such as orogenic gold, porphyry copper, massive sulfide, epithermal gold, podiform chromite, uranium, magnetite and iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits have been successfully prospected and discovered using remote sensing satellite imagery in the metallogenic provinces and frontier areas around the world. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat data series, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Worldview-3, Hyperion, HyMap and the Airborne Visible/IR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) multispectral and hyperspectral data support cost-effective techniques for ore mineral exploration around the world. Advanced image processing algorithms based on state-of-the-art data extraction techniques can be implemented for detecting key alteration minerals associated with a variety of ore deposits. Analytical spectral device (ASD) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in conjunction with remote sensing data can provide comprehensive information about the alteration zones and mineral assemblages associated with ore mineralizations. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data contain a high potential for structural analysis and mapping in metallogenic provinces. On the other hand, human-induced change in the form of mine excavation, mine tailing, mine waste and acid runoff requires particular monitoring by remote sensing satellite data. Environmental pollution mapping and monitoring of mined areas are the main challenges that need to be addressed for future sustainability and environmental management in metallogenic provinces.    

The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping
  • Porphyry copper prospecting
  • Reflectance and emission spectroscopy of phyllosilicates
  • Geothermal potential mapping
  • Spectral mapping alghorithm analysis and development
  • New pixel- and sub-pixel-based image analysis techniques
  • Environmental monitoring of mined areas
  • Detecting toxic pollution related to mine excavation, mine tailing, mine waste and acid runoff
  • Recent advances in remote sensing information fusion for mineral exploration
  • Real-world case studies of mineral prospecting in inaccessible regions using remote sensing data
  • Geological mapping and mineral exploration in Antarctica and the Artic
  • Hyperspectral data analysis for mineral detection
  • GIS and remote sensing integration for mineral exploration modeling
  • Integration of multispectral and hyperspectral data for mineral mapping
  • Application of SAR data for structural mapping in metallogenic provinces
  • Raman spectroscopy for mineral detection
  • Characterization of recently-launched satellite sensors for mineral detection
  • Interpretation of ASD spectroscopy and XRD analysis for mineral exploration
  • Regional lithological and geological mapping using satellite remote sensing data
  • Listvenite mapping in orogenic systems
  • Reflectance spectroscopy of rocks and minerals
  • Mineral mapping using airborne hyperspectral data
  • Application of automatic target detection algorithms for hyperspectral imagery

Dr. Amin Beiranvand Pour
Prof. Dr. Basem Zoheir
Prof. Dr. Biswajeet Pradhan
Prof. Dr. Mazlan Hashim
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Remote sensing 
  • Earth observations 
  • Ore mineral exploration 
  • Multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data 
  • Hydrothermal alteration minerals 
  • Reflectance and emission spectroscopy 
  • Spectral mapping algorithms 
  • ASTER remote sensing data 
  • Landsat data series 
  • Hyperion

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue: Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data for Mineral Exploration and Environmental Monitoring of Mined Areas
by Amin Beiranvand Pour, Basem Zoheir, Biswajeet Pradhan and Mazlan Hashim
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030519 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6231
Abstract
In recent decades, multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data provide unprecedented opportunities for the initial stages of mineral exploration and environmental hazard monitoring [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

31 pages, 24265 KiB  
Article
Integrated Geological and Geophysical Mapping of a Carbonatite-Hosting Outcrop in Siilinjärvi, Finland, Using Unmanned Aerial Systems
by Robert Jackisch, Sandra Lorenz, Moritz Kirsch, Robert Zimmermann, Laura Tusa, Markku Pirttijärvi, Ari Saartenoja, Hernan Ugalde, Yuleika Madriz, Mikko Savolainen and Richard Gloaguen
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(18), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12182998 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6776
Abstract
Mapping geological outcrops is a crucial part of mineral exploration, mine planning and ore extraction. With the advent of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for rapid spatial and spectral mapping, opportunities arise in fields where traditional ground-based approaches are established and trusted, but fail [...] Read more.
Mapping geological outcrops is a crucial part of mineral exploration, mine planning and ore extraction. With the advent of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for rapid spatial and spectral mapping, opportunities arise in fields where traditional ground-based approaches are established and trusted, but fail to cover sufficient area or compromise personal safety. Multi-sensor UAS are a technology that change geoscientific research, but they are still not routinely used for geological mapping in exploration and mining due to lack of trust in their added value and missing expertise and guidance in the selection and combination of drones and sensors. To address these limitations and highlight the potential of using UAS in exploration settings, we present an UAS multi-sensor mapping approach based on the integration of drone-borne photography, multi- and hyperspectral imaging and magnetics. Data are processed with conventional methods as well as innovative machine learning algorithms and validated by geological field mapping, yielding a comprehensive and geologically interpretable product. As a case study, we chose the northern extension of the Siilinjärvi apatite mine in Finland, in a brownfield exploration setting with plenty of ground truth data available and a survey area that is partly covered by vegetation. We conducted rapid UAS surveys from which we created a multi-layered data set to investigate properties of the ore-bearing carbonatite-glimmerite body. Our resulting geologic map discriminates between the principal lithologic units and distinguishes ore-bearing from waste rocks. Structural orientations and lithological units are deduced based on high-resolution, hyperspectral image-enhanced point clouds. UAS-based magnetic data allow an insight into their subsurface geometry through modeling based on magnetic interpretation. We validate our results via ground survey including rock specimen sampling, geochemical and mineralogical analysis and spectroscopic point measurements. We are convinced that the presented non-invasive, data-driven mapping approach can complement traditional workflows in mineral exploration as a flexible tool. Mapping products based on UAS data increase efficiency and maximize safety of the resource extraction process, and reduce expenses and incidental wastes. Full article
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19 pages, 3711 KiB  
Article
Abandoned Mine Tailings Affecting Riverbed Sediments in the Cartagena–La Union District, Mediterranean Coastal Area (Spain)
by Tomás Martín-Crespo, David Gómez-Ortiz, Silvia Martín-Velázquez, Pedro Martínez-Pagán, Cristina de Ignacio-San José, Javier Lillo and Ángel Faz
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(12), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12122042 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3488
Abstract
This study presents the results of the geoenvironmental characterization of La Matildes riverbed, affected by mine tailings in the Cartagena–La Unión district, Murcia (southeast Spain). Soils and riverbeds in this area are highly polluted. Two Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) profiles were carried out [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of the geoenvironmental characterization of La Matildes riverbed, affected by mine tailings in the Cartagena–La Unión district, Murcia (southeast Spain). Soils and riverbeds in this area are highly polluted. Two Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) profiles were carried out to obtain information about the thickness of the deposits and their internal structure. For the mine tailings deposits of La Murla, a tributary of the El Miedo riverbed, the geophysical method imaged two different units: the upper one characterized by low resistivity values and 5–8 m thickness, correlated with the mine tailings deposits; and the lower more resistive unit corresponding to the Paleozoic metasediments bedrock. The ERI profile transverse to the Las Matildes dry riverbed revealed the existence of three different units. The uppermost one has the lowest resistivity values and corresponds to the tailings deposits discharged to the riverbeds. An intermediate unit, with intermediate resistivity values, corresponds to the riverbed sediments before the mining operations. The lower unit is more resistive and corresponds to the bedrock. Significant amounts of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena were found both in tailings and riverbed sediments. The geochemical composition of borehole samples from the riverbed materials shows significantly high contents of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn being released to the environment. Mining works have modified the natural landscape near La Unión town. Surface extraction in three open-pit mines have changed the summits of Sierra de Cartagena–La Unión. Rock and metallurgical wastes have altered the drainage pattern and buried the headwaters of ephemeral channels. The environmental hazards require remediation to minimize the environmental impact on the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, one of the most touristic areas in SE Spain. Full article
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29 pages, 15512 KiB  
Article
Integration of Selective Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Mineral Exploration Using ASTER Satellite Data
by Hodjat Shirmard, Ehsan Farahbakhsh, Amin Beiranvand Pour, Aidy M Muslim, R. Dietmar Müller and Rohitash Chandra
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081261 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6979
Abstract
There are a significant number of image processing methods that have been developed during the past decades for detecting anomalous areas, such as hydrothermal alteration zones, using satellite images. Among these methods, dimensionality reduction or transformation techniques are known to be a robust [...] Read more.
There are a significant number of image processing methods that have been developed during the past decades for detecting anomalous areas, such as hydrothermal alteration zones, using satellite images. Among these methods, dimensionality reduction or transformation techniques are known to be a robust type of methods, which are helpful, as they reduce the extent of a study area at the initial stage of mineral exploration. Principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), and minimum noise fraction (MNF) are the dimensionality reduction techniques known as multivariate statistical methods that convert a set of observed and correlated input variables into uncorrelated or independent components. In this study, these techniques were comprehensively compared and integrated, to show how they could be jointly applied in remote sensing data analysis for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones associated with epithermal Cu–Au deposits in the Toroud-Chahshirin range, Central Iran. These techniques were applied on specific subsets of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) spectral bands for mapping gossans and hydrothermal alteration zones, such as argillic, propylitic, and phyllic zones. The fuzzy logic model was used for integrating the most rational thematic layers derived from the transformation techniques, which led to an efficient remote sensing evidential layer for mineral prospectivity mapping. The results showed that ICA was a more robust technique for generating hydrothermal alteration thematic layers, compared to the other dimensionality reduction techniques. The capabilities of this technique in separating source signals from noise led to improved enhancement of geological features, such as specific alteration zones. In this investigation, several previously unmapped prospective zones were detected using the integrated hydrothermal alteration map and most of the known hydrothermal mineral occurrences showed a high prospectivity value. Fieldwork and laboratory analysis were conducted to validate the results and to verify new prospective zones in the study area, which indicated a good consistency with the remote sensing output. This study demonstrated that the integration of remote sensing-based alteration thematic layers derived from the transformation techniques is a reliable and low-cost approach for mineral prospectivity mapping in metallogenic provinces, at the reconnaissance stage of mineral exploration. Full article
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33 pages, 86299 KiB  
Article
Application of Landsat-8, Sentinel-2, ASTER and WorldView-3 Spectral Imagery for Exploration of Carbonate-Hosted Pb-Zn Deposits in the Central Iranian Terrane (CIT)
by Milad Sekandari, Iman Masoumi, Amin Beiranvand Pour, Aidy M Muslim, Omeid Rahmani, Mazlan Hashim, Basem Zoheir, Biswajeet Pradhan, Ankita Misra and Shahram M. Aminpour
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081239 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 95 | Viewed by 11498
Abstract
The exploration of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn mineralization is challenging due to the complex structural-geological settings and costly using geophysical and geochemical techniques. Hydrothermal alteration minerals and structural features are typically associated with this type of mineralization. Application of multi-sensor remote sensing satellite imagery as [...] Read more.
The exploration of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn mineralization is challenging due to the complex structural-geological settings and costly using geophysical and geochemical techniques. Hydrothermal alteration minerals and structural features are typically associated with this type of mineralization. Application of multi-sensor remote sensing satellite imagery as a fast and inexpensive tool for mapping alteration zones and lithological units associated with carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits is worthwhile. Multiple sources of spectral data derived from different remote sensing sensors can be utilized for detailed mapping a variety of hydrothermal alteration minerals in the visible near infrared (VNIR) and the shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. In this research, Landsat-8, Sentinel-2, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and WorldView-3 (WV-3) satellite remote sensing sensors were used for prospecting Zn-Pb mineralization in the central part of the Kashmar–Kerman Tectonic Zone (KKTZ), the Central Iranian Terrane (CIT). The KKTZ has high potential for hosting Pb-Zn mineralization due to its specific geodynamic conditions (folded and thrust belt) and the occurrence of large carbonate platforms. For the processing of the satellite remote sensing datasets, band ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques were adopted and implemented. Fuzzy logic modeling was applied to integrate the thematic layers produced by image processing techniques for generating mineral prospectivity maps of the study area. The spatial distribution of iron oxide/hydroxides, hydroxyl-bearing and carbonate minerals and dolomite were mapped using specialized band ratios and analyzing eigenvector loadings of the PC images. Subsequently, mineral prospectivity maps of the study area were generated by fusing the selected PC thematic layers using fuzzy logic modeling. The most favorable/prospective zones for hydrothermal ore mineralizations and carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn mineralization in the study region were particularly mapped and indicated. Confusion matrix, field reconnaissance and laboratory analysis were carried out to verify the occurrence of alteration zones and highly prospective locations of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn mineralization in the study area. Results indicate that the spectral data derived from multi-sensor remote sensing satellite datasets can be broadly used for generating remote sensing-based prospectivity maps for exploration of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn mineralization in many metallogenic provinces around the world. Full article
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23 pages, 7109 KiB  
Article
Drill-Core Mineral Abundance Estimation Using Hyperspectral and High-Resolution Mineralogical Data
by Laura Tuşa, Mahdi Khodadadzadeh, Cecilia Contreras, Kasra Rafiezadeh Shahi, Margret Fuchs, Richard Gloaguen and Jens Gutzmer
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(7), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12071218 - 9 Apr 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6373
Abstract
Due to the extensive drilling performed every year in exploration campaigns for the discovery and evaluation of ore deposits, drill-core mapping is becoming an essential step. While valuable mineralogical information is extracted during core logging by on-site geologists, the process is time consuming [...] Read more.
Due to the extensive drilling performed every year in exploration campaigns for the discovery and evaluation of ore deposits, drill-core mapping is becoming an essential step. While valuable mineralogical information is extracted during core logging by on-site geologists, the process is time consuming and dependent on the observer and individual background. Hyperspectral short-wave infrared (SWIR) data is used in the mining industry as a tool to complement traditional logging techniques and to provide a rapid and non-invasive analytical method for mineralogical characterization. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy-based image analyses using a Mineral Liberation Analyser (SEM-MLA) provide exhaustive high-resolution mineralogical maps, but can only be performed on small areas of the drill-cores. We propose to use machine learning algorithms to combine the two data types and upscale the quantitative SEM-MLA mineralogical data to drill-core scale. This way, quasi-quantitative maps over entire drill-core samples are obtained. Our upscaling approach increases result transparency and reproducibility by employing physical-based data acquisition (hyperspectral imaging) combined with mathematical models (machine learning). The procedure is tested on 5 drill-core samples with varying training data using random forests, support vector machines and neural network regression models. The obtained mineral abundance maps are further used for the extraction of mineralogical parameters such as mineral association. Full article
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33 pages, 14821 KiB  
Article
A Remote Sensing-Based Application of Bayesian Networks for Epithermal Gold Potential Mapping in Ahar-Arasbaran Area, NW Iran
by Seyed Mohammad Bolouki, Hamid Reza Ramazi, Abbas Maghsoudi, Amin Beiranvand Pour and Ghahraman Sohrabi
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010105 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 8886
Abstract
Mapping hydrothermal alteration minerals using multispectral remote sensing satellite imagery provides vital information for the exploration of porphyry and epithermal ore mineralizations. The Ahar-Arasbaran region, NW Iran, contains a variety of porphyry, skarn and epithermal ore deposits. Gold mineralization occurs in the form [...] Read more.
Mapping hydrothermal alteration minerals using multispectral remote sensing satellite imagery provides vital information for the exploration of porphyry and epithermal ore mineralizations. The Ahar-Arasbaran region, NW Iran, contains a variety of porphyry, skarn and epithermal ore deposits. Gold mineralization occurs in the form of epithermal veins and veinlets, which is associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. Thus, the identification of hydrothermal alteration zones is one of the key indicators for targeting new prospective zones of epithermal gold mineralization in the Ahar-Arasbaran region. In this study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (Landsat-7 ETM+), Landsat-8 and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral remote sensing datasets were processed to detect hydrothermal alteration zones associated with epithermal gold mineralization in the Ahar-Arasbaran region. Band ratio techniques and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied on Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 data to map hydrothermal alteration zones. Advanced argillic, argillic-phyllic, propylitic and hydrous silica alteration zones were detected and discriminated by implementing band ratio, relative absorption band depth (RBD) and selective PCA to ASTER data. Subsequently, the Bayesian network classifier was used to synthesize the thematic layers of hydrothermal alteration zones. A mineral potential map was generated by the Bayesian network classifier, which shows several new prospective zones of epithermal gold mineralization in the Ahar-Arasbaran region. Besides, comprehensive field surveying and laboratory analysis were conducted to verify the remote sensing results and mineral potential map produced by the Bayesian network classifier. A good rate of agreement with field and laboratory data is achieved for remote sensing results and consequential mineral potential map. It is recommended that the Bayesian network classifier can be broadly used as a valuable model for fusing multi-sensor remote sensing results to generate mineral potential map for reconnaissance stages of epithermal gold exploration in the Ahar-Arasbaran region and other analogous metallogenic provinces around the world. Full article
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39 pages, 22117 KiB  
Article
Landsat-8, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, and WorldView-3 Multispectral Satellite Imagery for Prospecting Copper-Gold Mineralization in the Northeastern Inglefield Mobile Belt (IMB), Northwest Greenland
by Amin Beiranvand Pour, Tae-Yoon S. Park, Yongcheol Park, Jong Kuk Hong, Aidy M Muslim, Andreas Läufer, Laura Crispini, Biswajeet Pradhan, Basem Zoheir, Omeid Rahmani, Mazlan Hashim and Mohammad Shawkat Hossain
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(20), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11202430 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 10689
Abstract
Several regions in the High Arctic still lingered poorly explored for a variety of mineralization types because of harsh climate environments and remoteness. Inglefield Land is an ice-free region in northwest Greenland that contains copper-gold mineralization associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages. In [...] Read more.
Several regions in the High Arctic still lingered poorly explored for a variety of mineralization types because of harsh climate environments and remoteness. Inglefield Land is an ice-free region in northwest Greenland that contains copper-gold mineralization associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages. In this study, Landsat-8, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and WorldView-3 multispectral remote sensing data were used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and mineral prospecting in the Inglefield Land at regional, local, and district scales. Directed principal components analysis (DPCA) technique was applied to map iron oxide/hydroxide, Al/Fe-OH, Mg-Fe-OH minerals, silicification (Si-OH), and SiO2 mineral groups using specialized band ratios of the multispectral datasets. For extracting reference spectra directly from the Landsat-8, ASTER, and WorldView-3 (WV-3) images to generate fraction images of end-member minerals, the automated spectral hourglass (ASH) approach was implemented. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) algorithm was thereafter used to produce a mineral map of fractional images. Furthermore, adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) algorithm was applied to visible and near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VINR + SWIR) bands of ASTER using laboratory reflectance spectra extracted from the USGS spectral library for verifying the presence of mineral spectral signatures. Results indicate that the boundaries between the Franklinian sedimentary successions and the Etah metamorphic and meta-igneous complex, the orthogneiss in the northeastern part of the Cu-Au mineralization belt adjacent to Dallas Bugt, and the southern part of the Cu-Au mineralization belt nearby Marshall Bugt show high content of iron oxides/hydroxides and Si-OH/SiO2 mineral groups, which warrant high potential for Cu-Au prospecting. A high spatial distribution of hematite/jarosite, chalcedony/opal, and chlorite/epidote/biotite were identified with the documented Cu-Au occurrences in central and southwestern sectors of the Cu-Au mineralization belt. The calculation of confusion matrix and Kappa Coefficient proved appropriate overall accuracy and good rate of agreement for alteration mineral mapping. This investigation accomplished the application of multispectral/multi-sensor satellite imagery as a valuable and economical tool for reconnaissance stages of systematic mineral exploration projects in remote and inaccessible metallogenic provinces around the world, particularly in the High Arctic regions. Full article
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33 pages, 16720 KiB  
Article
Orogenic Gold in Transpression and Transtension Zones: Field and Remote Sensing Studies of the Barramiya–Mueilha Sector, Egypt
by Basem Zoheir, Mohamed Abd El-Wahed, Amin Beiranvand Pour and Amr Abdelnasser
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182122 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 7358
Abstract
Multi-sensor satellite imagery data promote fast, cost-efficient regional geological mapping that constantly forms a criterion for successful gold exploration programs in harsh and inaccessible regions. The Barramiya–Mueilha sector in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt contains several occurrences of shear/fault-associated gold-bearing quartz veins [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor satellite imagery data promote fast, cost-efficient regional geological mapping that constantly forms a criterion for successful gold exploration programs in harsh and inaccessible regions. The Barramiya–Mueilha sector in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt contains several occurrences of shear/fault-associated gold-bearing quartz veins with consistently simple mineralogy and narrow hydrothermal alteration haloes. Gold-quartz veins and zones of carbonate alteration and listvenitization are widespread along the ENE–WSW Barramiya–Um Salatit and Dungash–Mueilha shear belts. These belts are characterized by heterogeneous shear fabrics and asymmetrical or overturned folds. Sentinel-1, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Sentinel-2 are used herein to explicate the regional structural control of gold mineralization in the Barramiya–Mueilha sector. Feature-oriented Principal Components Selection (FPCS) applied to polarized backscatter ratio images of Sentinel-1 and PALSAR datasets show appreciable capability in tracing along the strike of regional structures and identification of potential dilation loci. The principal component analysis (PCA), band combination and band ratioing techniques are applied to the multispectral ASTER and Sentinel-2 datasets for lithological and hydrothermal alteration mapping. Ophiolites, island arc rocks, and Fe-oxides/hydroxides (ferrugination) and carbonate alteration zones are discriminated by using the PCA technique. Results of the band ratioing technique showed gossan, carbonate, and hydroxyl mineral assemblages in ductile shear zones, whereas irregular ferrugination zones are locally identified in the brittle shear zones. Gold occurrences are confined to major zones of fold superimposition and transpression along flexural planes in the foliated ophiolite-island arc belts. In the granitoid-gabbroid terranes, gold-quartz veins are rather controlled by fault and brittle shear zones. The uneven distribution of gold occurrences coupled with the variable recrystallization of the auriferous quartz veins suggests multistage gold mineralization in the area. Analysis of the host structures assessed by the remote sensing results denotes vein formation spanning the time–space from early transpression to late orogen collapse during the protracted tectonic evolution of the belt. Full article
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19 pages, 10363 KiB  
Article
Integrated Hyperspectral and Geochemical Study of Sediment-Hosted Disseminated Gold at the Goldstrike District, Utah
by Lei Sun, Shuhab Khan and Peter Shabestari
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11171987 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4079
Abstract
The Goldstrike district in southwest Utah is similar to Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada that are characterized by sediment-hosted disseminated gold. Suitable structural and stratigraphic conditions facilitated precipitation of gold in arsenian pyrite grains from ascending gold-bearing fluids. This study used ground-based hyperspectral [...] Read more.
The Goldstrike district in southwest Utah is similar to Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada that are characterized by sediment-hosted disseminated gold. Suitable structural and stratigraphic conditions facilitated precipitation of gold in arsenian pyrite grains from ascending gold-bearing fluids. This study used ground-based hyperspectral imaging to study a core drilled in the Goldstrike district covering the basal Claron Formation and Callville Limestone. Spectral modeling of absorptions at 2340, 2200, and 500 nm allowed the extraction of calcite, clay minerals, and ferric iron abundances and identification of lithology. This study integrated remote sensing and geochemistry data and identified an optimum stratigraphic combination of limestone above and siliciclastic rocks below in the basal Claron Formation, as well as decarbonatization, argillization, and pyrite oxidation in the Callville Limestone, that are related with gold mineralization. This study shows an example of utilizing ground-based hyperspectral imaging in geological characterization, which can be broadly applied in the determination of mining interests and classification of ore grades. The utilization of this new terrestrial remote sensing technique has great potentials in resource exploration and exploitation. Full article
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30 pages, 117656 KiB  
Article
Multispectral and Radar Data for the Setting of Gold Mineralization in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt
by Basem Zoheir, Ashraf Emam, Mohamed Abdel-Wahed and Nehal Soliman
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(12), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121450 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 10522
Abstract
Satellite-based multi-sensor data coupled with field and microscopic investigations are used to unravel the setting and controls of gold mineralization in the Wadi Beitan–Wadi Rahaba area in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. The satellite-based multispectral and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data promoted [...] Read more.
Satellite-based multi-sensor data coupled with field and microscopic investigations are used to unravel the setting and controls of gold mineralization in the Wadi Beitan–Wadi Rahaba area in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. The satellite-based multispectral and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data promoted a vibrant litho-tectonic understanding and abetted in assessing the regional structural control of the scattered gold occurrences in the study area. The herein detailed approach includes band rationing, principal component and independent component analyses, directional filtering, and automated and semi-automated lineament extraction techniques to Landsat 8- Operational Land Imager (OLI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), and Sentinel-1B data. Results of optical and SAR data processed as grayscale raster images of band ratios, Relative Absorption Band Depth (RBD), and (mafic–carbonate–hydrous) mineralogical indices are used to extract the representative pixels (regions of interest). The extracted pixels are then converted to vector shape files and are finally imported into the ArcMap environment. Similarly, manually and automatically extracted lineaments are merged with the band ratios and mineralogical indices vector layers. The data fusion approach used herein reveals no particular spatial association between gold occurrences and certain lithological units, but shows a preferential distribution of gold–quartz veins in zones of chlorite–epidote alteration overlapping with high-density intersections of lineaments. Structural features including en-echelon arrays of quartz veins and intense recrystallization and sub-grain development textures are consistent with vein formation and gold deposition syn-kinematic with the host shear zones. The mineralized, central-shear quartz veins, and the associated strong stretching lineation affirm vein formation amid stress build-up and stress relaxation of an enduring oblique convergence (assigned as Najd-related sinistral transpression; ~640–610 Ma). As the main outcome of this research, we present a priority map with zones defined as high potential targets for undiscovered gold resources. Full article
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41 pages, 11096 KiB  
Article
Mapping Listvenite Occurrences in the Damage Zones of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica Using ASTER Satellite Remote Sensing Data
by Amin Beiranvand Pour, Yongcheol Park, Laura Crispini, Andreas Läufer, Jong Kuk Hong, Tae-Yoon S. Park, Basem Zoheir, Biswajeet Pradhan, Aidy M. Muslim, Mohammad Shawkat Hossain and Omeid Rahmani
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(12), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121408 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 6896
Abstract
Listvenites normally form during hydrothermal/metasomatic alteration of mafic and ultramafic rocks and represent a key indicator for the occurrence of ore mineralizations in orogenic systems. Hydrothermal/metasomatic alteration mineral assemblages are one of the significant indicators for ore mineralizations in the damage zones of [...] Read more.
Listvenites normally form during hydrothermal/metasomatic alteration of mafic and ultramafic rocks and represent a key indicator for the occurrence of ore mineralizations in orogenic systems. Hydrothermal/metasomatic alteration mineral assemblages are one of the significant indicators for ore mineralizations in the damage zones of major tectonic boundaries, which can be detected using multispectral satellite remote sensing data. In this research, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral remote sensing data were used to detect listvenite occurrences and alteration mineral assemblages in the poorly exposed damage zones of the boundaries between the Wilson, Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes in Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica. Spectral information for detecting alteration mineral assemblages and listvenites were extracted at pixel and sub-pixel levels using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA)/Independent Component Analysis (ICA) fusion technique, Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) and Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) algorithms. Mineralogical assemblages containing Fe2+, Fe3+, Fe-OH, Al-OH, Mg-OH and CO3 spectral absorption features were detected in the damage zones of the study area by implementing PCA/ICA fusion to visible and near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands of ASTER. Silicate lithological groups were mapped and discriminated using PCA/ICA fusion to thermal infrared (TIR) bands of ASTER. Fraction images of prospective alteration minerals, including goethite, hematite, jarosite, biotite, kaolinite, muscovite, antigorite, serpentine, talc, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, calcite, dolomite and siderite and possible zones encompassing listvenite occurrences were produced using LSU and CEM algorithms to ASTER VNIR+SWIR spectral bands. Several potential zones for listvenite occurrences were identified, typically in association with mafic metavolcanic rocks (Glasgow Volcanics) in the Bowers Mountains. Comparison of the remote sensing results with geological investigations in the study area demonstrate invaluable implications of the remote sensing approach for mapping poorly exposed lithological units, detecting possible zones of listvenite occurrences and discriminating subpixel abundance of alteration mineral assemblages in the damage zones of the Wilson-Bowers and Bowers-Robertson Bay terrane boundaries and in intra-Bowers and Wilson terranes fault zones with high fluid flow. The satellite remote sensing approach developed in this research is explicitly pertinent to detecting key alteration mineral indicators for prospecting hydrothermal/metasomatic ore minerals in remote and inaccessible zones situated in other orogenic systems around the world. Full article
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21 pages, 8161 KiB  
Article
Emittance Spectroscopy and Broadband Thermal Remote Sensing Applied to Phosphorite and Its Utility in Geoexploration: A Study in the Parts of Rajasthan, India
by Arindam Guha, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Snehamoy Chatterjee, Komal Rani and Kumranchat Vinod Kumar
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(9), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11091003 - 27 Apr 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4521
Abstract
The contrast in the emissivity spectra of phosphorite and associated carbonate rock can be used as a guide to delineate phosphorite within dolomite. The thermal emissivity spectrum of phosphorite is characterized by a strong doublet emissivity feature with their absorption minima at 9 [...] Read more.
The contrast in the emissivity spectra of phosphorite and associated carbonate rock can be used as a guide to delineate phosphorite within dolomite. The thermal emissivity spectrum of phosphorite is characterized by a strong doublet emissivity feature with their absorption minima at 9 µm and 9.5 µm; whereas, host rock dolomite has relatively subdued emissivity minima at ~9 µm. Using the contrast in the emissivity spectra of phosphorite and dolomite, data obtained by the thermal bands of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were processed to delineate phosphorite within dolomite. A decorrelation stretched ASTER radiance composite could not enhance phosphorite rich zones within the dolomite host rock. However, a decorrelation stretched image composite of selected emissivity bands derived using the emissivity normalization method was suitable to enhance large surface exposures of phosphorite. We have found that the depth of the emissivity minima of phosphorite gradually has increased from dolomite to high-grade phosphorite, while low-grade phosphate has an intermediate emissivity value and the emissivity feature can be studied using three thermal bands of ASTER. In this context, we also propose a relative band depth (RBD) image using selected emissivity bands (bands 11, 12, and 13) to delineate phosphorite from the host rock. We also propose that the RBD image can be used as a proxy to estimate the relative grades of phosphorites, provided the surface exposures of phosphorite are large enough to subdue the role of intrapixel spectral mixing, which can also influence the depth of the diagnostic feature along with the grade. We have validated the phosphorite pixels of the RBD image in the field by carrying out colorimetric analysis to confirm the presence of phosphorite. The result of the study indicates the utility of the proposed relative band depth image derived using ASTER TIR bands for delineating Proterozoic carbonate-hosted phosphorite. Full article
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24 pages, 59449 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Algorithms to Map Hydrothermal Alteration Zones Using ASTER Remote Sensing Data for Polymetallic Vein-Type Ore Exploration: Toroud–Chahshirin Magmatic Belt (TCMB), North Iran
by Lida Noori, Amin Beiranvand Pour, Ghasem Askari, Nader Taghipour, Biswajeet Pradhan, Chang-Wook Lee and Mehdi Honarmand
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11050495 - 1 Mar 2019
Cited by 79 | Viewed by 8262
Abstract
Polymetallic vein-type ores are important sources of precious metal and a principal type of orebody for various base-metals. In this research, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing data were used for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones associated with epithermal polymetallic [...] Read more.
Polymetallic vein-type ores are important sources of precious metal and a principal type of orebody for various base-metals. In this research, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing data were used for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones associated with epithermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization in the Toroud–Chahshirin Magmatic Belt (TCMB), North of Iran. The TCMB is the largest known goldfield and base metals province in the central-north of Iran. Propylitic, phyllic, argillic, and advanced argillic alteration and silicification zones are typically associated with Au-Cu, Ag, and/or Pb-Zn mineralization in the TCMB. Specialized image processing techniques, namely Selective Principal Component Analysis (SPCA), Band Ratio Matrix Transformation (BRMT), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) were implemented and compared to map hydrothermal alteration minerals at the pixel and sub-pixel levels. Subtle differences between altered and non-altered rocks and hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages were detected and mapped in the study area. The SPCA and BRMT spectral transformation algorithms discriminated the propylitic, phyllic, argillic and advanced argillic alteration and silicification zones as well as lithological units. The SAM and MTMF spectral mapping algorithms detected spectrally dominated mineral groups such as muscovite/montmorillonite/illite, hematite/jarosite, and chlorite/epidote/calcite mineral assemblages, systematically. Comprehensive fieldwork and laboratory analysis, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), petrographic study, and spectroscopy were conducted in the study area for verifying the remote sensing outputs. Results indicate several high potential zones of epithermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the study area, which can be considered for future systematic exploration programs. The approach used in this research has great implications for the exploration of epithermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization in other base metals provinces in Iran and semi-arid regions around the world. Full article
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14 pages, 7012 KiB  
Letter
Dust Dispersion and Its Effect on Vegetation Spectra at Canopy and Pixel Scales in an Open-Pit Mining Area
by Baodong Ma, Xuexin Li, Ziwei Jiang, Ruiliang Pu, Aiman Liang and Defu Che
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(22), 3759; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12223759 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Dust pollution is severe in some mining areas in China due to rapid industrial development. Dust deposited on the vegetation canopy may change its spectra. However, a relationship between canopy spectra and dust amount has not been quantitatively studied, and a pixel-scale condition [...] Read more.
Dust pollution is severe in some mining areas in China due to rapid industrial development. Dust deposited on the vegetation canopy may change its spectra. However, a relationship between canopy spectra and dust amount has not been quantitatively studied, and a pixel-scale condition for remote sensing application has not been considered yet. In this study, the dust dispersion characteristics in an iron mining area were investigated using the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory model (AERMOD). Further, based on the three-dimensional discrete anisotropic radiative transfer (DART) model, the spectral characteristics of vegetation canopy under the dusty condition were simulated, and the influence of dustfall on vegetation canopy spectra was studied. Finally, the dust effect on vegetation spectra at the canopy scale was extended to a pixel scale, and the response of dust effect on vegetation spectra at the pixel scale was determined under different fractional vegetation covers (FVCs). The experimental results show that the dust pollution along a haul road was more severe and extensive than that in a stope. Taking dust dispersion along the road as an example, the variation of vegetation canopy spectra increased with the height of dust deposited on the vegetation canopy. At the pixel scale, a lower vegetation FVC would weaken the influence of dust on the spectra. The results derived from simulation spectral data were tested using satellite remote sensing images. The tested result indicates that the influence of dust retention on the pixel spectra with different FVCs was consistent with that created with the simulated data. The finding could be beneficial for those making decisions on monitoring vegetation under dusty conditions and reducing dust pollution in mining areas using remote sensing technology. Full article
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