Special Issue "Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pau Loke Show
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, Semenyih 43500, Malaysia.
Interests: bioprocessing from upstream to downstream; separation and purification technology; algae biorefinery engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Chiaki Ogino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkoudai-chou 1-1, Nada, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
Interests: biorefinery; engineering; biotechnology; bioengineering; biorefinery; metabolic engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Interests: waste utilization for value-added products through biotechnological approaches

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioprocessing is a very important technology that utilizes living organisms and their components to produce various types of products. The products and services that depend on bioprocessing can be grouped into the following: (1) Biopharmaceuticals that involve in the production of therapeutic compounds, vaccines, and diagnostic components. (2) Specific bio-based chemicals such as biofuels, food, and agricultural products; fine chemicals derived from and/or by living organisms; and other types of bioproducts. (3) Environmental management aids that use bioprocessing to treat, control, or remediate pollutants and toxic components. Bioprocessing is one of the key factors in several emerging industries of biofuels, used in the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel; industrial enzymes; waste management through biotechnology; new vaccines; and many more. Bioprocessing is always referred to as the technology that produces products and provides services that are environmentally friendly, sustainable, and renewable.

The important role of bioprocessing has attrackted interest from researchers to find suitable bioprocess to enhance the production or process efficiency. Asian Federation of Biotechnology (AFOB) has set 12 academic divisions that cover all biotechnological areas. Most of these areas require bioprocess technology for the production of their desired products. To share the recent technologies and findings in biotechnology, AFOB Malaysia Chapter (AFOB-MC) is organising the Second AFOB Malaysia Chapter International Symposium 2019 (AFOBMCIS 2019), to be held in Putrajaya, Malaysia, on 20–23 October 2019. The theme of the symposium is “Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being”, which covers 12 technical sessions, namely: (1) agricultural and food biotechnology; (2) applied microbiology; (3) biopharmaceutical and medical biotechnology; (4) biocatalysis and protein engineering; (5) bioprocess and bioseparation engineering; (6) bioenergy and biorefinery; (7) environmental biotechnology; (8) marine biotechnology; (9) nanobiotechnology, biosensors, and biochips; (10) systems and synthetic biotechnology; (11) tissue engineering and biomaterials; and (12) bioindustry promotion and bioeducation. All of the authors of the accepted contributions at AFOBMCIS 2019 related to bioprocessing are invited to submit manuscripts to Processes under the Special Issue of Bioprocessing.

Dr. Pau-Loke SHOW
Prof Dr. Chiaki Ogino
Dr. Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioprocess
  • bioproducts
  • bio-based chemicals
  • biomaterials
  • fermentation

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on “Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being”
Processes 2021, 9(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020216 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Bioprocessing is a very important part of biotechnology that utilizes living organisms and their components to produce various types of products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Enzymatic Saccharification with Sequential-Substrate Feeding and Sequential-Enzymes Loading to Enhance Fermentable Sugar Production from Sago Hampas
Processes 2021, 9(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030535 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Sago hampas composed of a high percentage of polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and hemicellulose) that make it a suitable substrate for fermentation. However, the saccharification of sago hampas through the batch process is always hampered by its low sugar concentration due to the limitation [...] Read more.
Sago hampas composed of a high percentage of polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and hemicellulose) that make it a suitable substrate for fermentation. However, the saccharification of sago hampas through the batch process is always hampered by its low sugar concentration due to the limitation of the substrate that can be loaded into the system. Increased substrate concentration in the system reduces the ability of enzyme action toward the substrate due to substrate saturation, which increases viscosity and causes inefficient mixing. Therefore, sequential-substrate feeding has been attempted in this study to increase the amount of substrate in the system by feeding the substrate at the selected intervals. At the same time, sequential-enzymes loading has been also evaluated to maximize the amount of enzymes loaded into the system. Results showed that this saccharification with sequential-substrate feeding and sequential-enzymes loading has elevated the solid loading up to 20% (w/v) and reduced the amount of enzymes used per substrate input by 20% for amylase and 50% for cellulase. The strategies implemented have enhanced the fermentable sugar production from 80.33 g/L in the batch system to 119.90 g/L in this current process. It can be concluded that sequential-substrate feeding and sequential-enzymes loading are capable of increasing the total amount of substrate, the amount of fermentable sugar produced, and at the same time maximize the amount of enzymes used in the system. Hence, it would be a promising solution for both the economic and waste management of the sago hampas industry to produce value-added products via biotechnological means. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Biofertilizers on Growth, Soil Fertility, and Nutrients Uptake of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) under Greenhouse Conditions
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121681 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 874
Abstract
The full dependency on chemical fertilizers in oil palm plantation poses an enormous threat to the ecosystem through the degradation of soil and water quality through leaching to the groundwater and contaminating the river. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the effect [...] Read more.
The full dependency on chemical fertilizers in oil palm plantation poses an enormous threat to the ecosystem through the degradation of soil and water quality through leaching to the groundwater and contaminating the river. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the effect of combinations of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer focusing on the soil fertility, nutrient uptake, and the growth performance of oil palms seedlings. Soils used were histosol, spodosol, oxisol, and ultisol. The three treatments were T1: 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK 12:12:17), T2: 70% chemical fertilizer + 30% biofertilizer A (CF + BFA), and T3: 70% + 30% biofertilizer B (CF + BFB). T2 and T3, respectively increased the growth of oil palm seedlings and soil nutrient status but seedlings in oxisol and ultisol under T3 had the highest in almost all parameters due to the abundance of more efficient PGPR. The height of seedlings in ultisol under T3 was 22% and 17% more than T2 and T1 respectively, with enhanced girth size, chlorophyll content, with improved nutrient uptake by the seedlings. Histosol across all treatments has a high macronutrient content suggesting that the rate of chemical fertilizer application should be revised when planting using the particular soil. With the reduction of chemical fertilizer by 25%, the combined treatment with biofertilizers could enhance the growth of the oil palm seedlings and soil nutrient properties regardless of the soil orders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Dissolved CO2 Concentration in Culture Media: Evaluation of pH Value and Mathematical Data
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111373 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Carbon dioxide is the most influential gas in greenhouse gasses and its amount in the atmosphere reached 412 µmol/mol in August 2020, which increased rapidly, by 48%, from preindustrial levels. A brand-new chemical industry, namely organic chemistry and catalysis science, must be developed [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide is the most influential gas in greenhouse gasses and its amount in the atmosphere reached 412 µmol/mol in August 2020, which increased rapidly, by 48%, from preindustrial levels. A brand-new chemical industry, namely organic chemistry and catalysis science, must be developed with carbon dioxide (CO2) as the source of carbon. Nowadays, many techniques are available for controlling and removing carbon dioxide in different chemical processes. Since the utilization of CO2 as feedstock for a chemical commodity is of relevance today, this study will focus on how to increase CO2 solubility in culture media used for growing microbes. In this work, the CO2 solubility in a different medium was investigated. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) were added to the culture media (3.0 g/L dipotassium phosphate (K2HPO4), 0.2 g/L magnesium chloride (MgCl2), 0.2 g/L calcium chloride (CaCl2), and 1.0 g/L sodium chloride (NaCl)) for growing microbes in order to observe the difference in CO2 solubility. Factors of temperature and pressure were also studied. The determination of CO2 concentration in the solution was measured by gas analyzer. The result obtained from optimization revealed a maximum CO2 concentration of 19.029 mol/L in the culture media with MEA, at a pressure of 136.728 kPa, operating at 20.483 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Alginate and Chitosan on Activated Carbon as Immobilisation Beads in Biohydrogen Production
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8101254 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
In this study, the effects of alginate and chitosan as entrapped materials in the biofilm formation of microbial attachment on activated carbon was determined for biohydrogen production. Five different batch fermentations, consisting of mixed concentration alginate (Alg), were carried out in a bioreactor [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of alginate and chitosan as entrapped materials in the biofilm formation of microbial attachment on activated carbon was determined for biohydrogen production. Five different batch fermentations, consisting of mixed concentration alginate (Alg), were carried out in a bioreactor at temperature of 60 °C and pH 6.0, using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a primer for cell attachment and colonisation. It was found that the highest hydrogen production rate (HPR) of the GAC–Alg beads was 2.47 ± 0.47 mmol H2/l.h, and the H2 yield of 2.09 ± 0.22 mol H2/mol sugar was obtained at the ratio of 2 g/L of Alg concentration. Next, the effect of chitosan (C) as an external polymer layer of the GAC–Alg beads was investigated as an alternative approach to protecting the microbial population in the biofilm in a robust environment. The formation of GAC with Alg and chitosan (GAC–AlgC) beads gave the highest HPR of 0.93 ± 0.05 mmol H2/l.h, and H2 yield of 1.11 ± 0.35 mol H2/mol sugar was found at 2 g/L of C concentration. Hydrogen production using GAC-attached biofilm seems promising to achieve consistent HPRs at higher temperatures, using Alg as immobilised bead material, which has indicated a positive response in promoting the growth of hydrogen-producing bacteria and providing excellent conditions for microorganisms to grow and colonise high bacterial loads in a bioreactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Supply Chain Performance from the Perspective of Pakistan’s Manufacturing Industry Through Social Sustainability
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091064 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
The industry is gradually forced to integrate socially sustainable development practices and cross-social issues. Although researchers and practitioners emphasize environmental and economic sustainability in supply chain management (SCM). This is unfortunate because not only social sustainable development plays an important role in promoting [...] Read more.
The industry is gradually forced to integrate socially sustainable development practices and cross-social issues. Although researchers and practitioners emphasize environmental and economic sustainability in supply chain management (SCM). This is unfortunate because not only social sustainable development plays an important role in promoting other sustainable development programs, but social injustice at one level in the supply chain may also cause significant losses to companies throughout the chain. This article aimed to consolidate the literature on the responsibilities of suppliers, manufacturers, and customers and to adopt sustainable supply chain management (SSSCM) practices in the Pakistani industry to identify all possible aspects of sustainable social development in the supply chain by investigating the relationship between survey variables and structure. This work went beyond the limits of regulations and showed the status of maintaining sustainable social issues. Based on semi-structured interviews, a comprehensive questionnaire was developed. The data was collected through a survey of the head of the supply chain in Karachi, Pakistan. The results of this paper showed that organizational learning was the most important dimension of supplier social sustainability with a value of 40.5% as compared to the effectiveness of the supply chain and the supplier performance with values 37.7 and 9.6%, respectively. In terms of the manufacturer’s social responsibility, the highest score for operational performance was 47%, while productivity was 20%, and corporate social demonstration was 20%. Finally, for the customers’ social sustainability, two dimensions were determined, namely, customer satisfaction and customer commitment with scores of 47 and 40%, respectively. We also solved sustainable social problems from the perspective of suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The study would help professionals anywhere to emphasize their considerations and would improve the management of social sustainability in their supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
l-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone Dual-Loaded Palmitoyl-Chitosan Nanoparticles: Improved Preparation Method, Encapsulation and Release Efficiency
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091040 - 26 Aug 2020
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Encapsulation of dual compounds of different characters (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) in single nanoparticles carrier could reach the site of action more accurately with the synergistic effect but it is less investigated. In our previous findings, combined-compounds encapsulation and delivery from chitosan nanoparticles were [...] Read more.
Encapsulation of dual compounds of different characters (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) in single nanoparticles carrier could reach the site of action more accurately with the synergistic effect but it is less investigated. In our previous findings, combined-compounds encapsulation and delivery from chitosan nanoparticles were impaired by the hydrophilicity of chitosan. Therefore, hydrophobic modification on chitosan with palmitic acid was conducted in this study to provide an amphiphilic environment for better encapsulation of antioxidants; hydrophobic thymoquinone (TQ) and hydrophilic l-ascorbic acid (LAA). Palmitoyl chitosan nanoparticles (PCNPs) co-loaded with TQ and LAA (PCNP-TQ-LAA) were synthesized via the ionic gelation method. Few characterizations were conducted involving nanosizer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). UV–VIS spectrophotometry was used to analyze the encapsulation and release efficiency of the compounds in PCNPs. Successfully modified PCNP-TQ-LAA had an average particle size of 247.7 ± 24.0 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.348 ± 0.043 and zeta potential of 19.60 ± 1.27 mV. Encapsulation efficiency of TQ and LAA in PCNP-TQ-LAA increased to 64.9 ± 5.3% and 90.0 ± 0%, respectively. TQ and LAA in PCNP-TQ-LAA system showed zero-order release kinetics, with a release percentage of 97.5% and 36.1%, respectively. Improved preparation method, encapsulation and release efficiency in this study are anticipated to be beneficial for polymeric nanocarrier development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Potential Cultivation of Lactobacillus pentosus from Human Breastmilk with Rapid Monitoring through the Spectrophotometer Method
Processes 2020, 8(8), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080902 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
The present study focused on the development of a new method to determine the lag phase of Lactobacillus in breast milk which was attained during the 1st, 3rd, and 6th month (M1, M3, and M6). The colonies’ phylogenetic analysis, derived from the 16S [...] Read more.
The present study focused on the development of a new method to determine the lag phase of Lactobacillus in breast milk which was attained during the 1st, 3rd, and 6th month (M1, M3, and M6). The colonies’ phylogenetic analysis, derived from the 16S rRNA gene sequences, was evaluated with genus Lactobacillus pentosus and achieved a similarity value of 99%. Raman spectroscopy in optical densities of 600 nm (OD600) were used for six consecutive days to observe the changes of the cell growth rate. The values of OD600 were well fitted with the regression model. From this work, M1 was found to be the longest lag phase in 18 h, and it was 17% to 27% longer compared to M3 and M6, respectively. However, the samples of M3 and M6 showed the shortest duration in reaching 0.5 of OD600 nm (16 h) which was enhanced by 80% and 96% compared to M1, respectively. These studies will be of significance when applied in determining the bacteria growth curve and in assessing the growth behavior for the strain in human breast milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Conversion of Lignocellulosic Corn Agro-Waste into Cellulose Derivative and Its Potential Application as Pharmaceutical Excipient
Processes 2020, 8(6), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060711 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
Lignocellulosic biomass is widely grown in many agricultural-based countries. These are typically incinerated or discarded in open spaces, which further may cause severe health and environmental problems. Hence, the proper utilization and conversion of different parts of lignocellulosic biomasses (e.g., corn wastes derived [...] Read more.
Lignocellulosic biomass is widely grown in many agricultural-based countries. These are typically incinerated or discarded in open spaces, which further may cause severe health and environmental problems. Hence, the proper utilization and conversion of different parts of lignocellulosic biomasses (e.g., corn wastes derived leave, cob, stalk, and husk) into value-added materials could be a promising way of protecting both health and environments. In addition, they have high-potential for myriads applications (e.g., pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, and so on). In this context, herein, we isolated holocellulose (a mixture of alpha α, beta β, and gamma γ cellulose) from corn waste, and then it was converted into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Subsequently, the prepared CMC was evaluated successfully to be used as a pharmaceutical excipient. Different characterization tools were employed for structural, morphological, and thermal properties of the extracted holocellulose and synthesized CMC. Results showed that the highest yield of CMC was obtained 187.5% along with the highest degree of substitution (DS i.e., 1.83) in a single stage (i.e., size reduction technique) with the lowest particle size of holocellulose (100 µm). This happened due to the use of a single stage instead of multiple stages. Finally, extracted CMC was successfully used as a pharmaceutical excipient with promising results compared to commercially available pharmaceutical-grade CMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-Producing Bacillus cereus Strain KBC from a Commercial Soy Sauce moromi in Submerged-Liquid Fermentation
Processes 2020, 8(6), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060652 - 30 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
A new high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing strain of Bacillus cereus was successfully isolated from soy sauce moromi. This B. cereus strain named KBC shared similar morphological characteristics (Gram-positive, rod-shaped) with the reference B. cereus. 16S rRNA sequence of B. cereus [...] Read more.
A new high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing strain of Bacillus cereus was successfully isolated from soy sauce moromi. This B. cereus strain named KBC shared similar morphological characteristics (Gram-positive, rod-shaped) with the reference B. cereus. 16S rRNA sequence of B. cereus KBC was found to be 99% similar with B. cereus strain OPWW1 under phylogenetic tree analysis. B. cereus KBC cultivated in unoptimized conditions using De Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth was capable of producing 523.74 mg L−1 of GABA within five days of the cultivation period. By using response surface methodology (RSM), pH level, monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentration and temperature were optimized for a high concentration of GABA production. The pH level significantly influenced the GABA production by B. cereus KBC with p-value = 0.0023. GABA production by B. cereus KBC under the optimized condition of pH 7, MSG concentration of 5 g L−1 and temperature of 40 °C resulted in GABA production of 3393.02 mg L−1, which is 6.37-fold higher than under unoptimized conditions. Overall, this study has shown that B. cereus KBC isolated from soy sauce moromi is capable of producing a high concentration of GABA together with the optimal fermentation conditions that have been statistically analysed using RSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Thermal Properties of Electrodes on the Film and Its Heating Behavior Induced by Microwave Irradiation in Mounting Processes
Processes 2020, 8(5), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050557 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
We have developed a novel microwave (MW) soldering system using a cylindrical single-mode TM110 MW cavity that spatially separates the electric fields at the top and bottom of the cavity and the magnetic field at the center of the cavity. This MW [...] Read more.
We have developed a novel microwave (MW) soldering system using a cylindrical single-mode TM110 MW cavity that spatially separates the electric fields at the top and bottom of the cavity and the magnetic field at the center of the cavity. This MW reactor system automatically detects the suitable resonance frequency and provides the optimum MW irradiation conditions in the cylindrical cavity via a power feedback loop. Furthermore, we investigated the temperature properties of electrodes by MW heating with the simulation of a magnetic field in the TM110 cavity toward the mounting of electronic components by MW heating. We also developed a short-time melting technology for solder paste on polyimide substrate using MW heating and succeeded in mounting a temperature sensor using the novel MW heating system without damaging the electronic components, electronic circuits, and the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Concentration of Lipase from Aspergillus oryzae Expressing Fusarium heterosporum by Nanofiltration to Enhance Transesterification
Processes 2020, 8(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040450 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Nanofiltration membrane separation is an energy-saving technology that was used in this study to concentrate extracellular lipase and increase its total activity for biodiesel production. Lipase was produced by recombinant Aspergillus oryzae expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL). A sulfonated polyethersulfone nanofiltration membrane, NTR-7410, [...] Read more.
Nanofiltration membrane separation is an energy-saving technology that was used in this study to concentrate extracellular lipase and increase its total activity for biodiesel production. Lipase was produced by recombinant Aspergillus oryzae expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL). A sulfonated polyethersulfone nanofiltration membrane, NTR-7410, with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa was used for the separation, because recombinant lipase has a molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa, which differs from commercial lipase at around 30 kDa for CalleraTM Trans L (CalT). After concentration via nanofiltration, recombinant lipase achieved a 96.8% yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from unrefined palm oil, compared to 50.2% for CalT in 24 h. Meanwhile, the initial lipase activity (32.6 U/mL) of recombinant lipase was similar to that of CalT. The composition of FAME produced from recombinant concentrated lipase, i.e., C14:1, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 cis, and C18:2 cis were 0.79%, 34.46%, 5.41%, 45.90%, and 12.46%, respectively, after transesterification. This FAME composition, even after being subjected to nanofiltration, was not significantly different from that produced from CalT. This study reveals the applicability of a simple and scalable nanofiltration membrane technology that can enhance enzymatic biodiesel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Biotechnology and Bioprocesses: Their Contribution to Sustainability
Processes 2020, 8(4), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040436 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Significant advancements in biotechnology have resulted in the development of numerous fundamental bioprocesses, which have consolidated research and development and industrial progress in the field. These bioprocesses are used in medical therapies, diagnostic and immunization procedures, agriculture, food production, biofuel production, and environmental [...] Read more.
Significant advancements in biotechnology have resulted in the development of numerous fundamental bioprocesses, which have consolidated research and development and industrial progress in the field. These bioprocesses are used in medical therapies, diagnostic and immunization procedures, agriculture, food production, biofuel production, and environmental solutions (to address water-, soil-, and air-related problems), among other areas. The present study is a first approach toward the identification of scientific and technological bioprocess trajectories within the framework of sustainability. The method included a literature search (Scopus), a patent search (Patentscope), and a network analysis for the period from 2010 to 2019. Our results highlight the main technological sectors, countries, institutions, and academic publications that carry out work or publish literature related to sustainability and bioprocesses. The network analysis allowed for the identification of thematic clusters associated with sustainability and bioprocesses, revealing different related scientific topics. Our conclusions confirm that biotechnology is firmly positioned as an emerging knowledge area. Its dynamics, development, and outcomes during the study period reflect a substantial number of studies and technologies focused on the creation of knowledge aimed at improving economic development, environmental protection, and social welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Sperm Proteomics Analysis of Diabetic Induced Male Rats as Influenced by Ficus carica Leaf Extract
Processes 2020, 8(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040395 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is shown to bring negative effects on male reproductive health due to long-term effects of insulin deficiency or resistance and increased oxidative stress. Ficus carica (FC), an herbal plant, known to have high antioxidant activity and antidiabetic properties, has been used [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is shown to bring negative effects on male reproductive health due to long-term effects of insulin deficiency or resistance and increased oxidative stress. Ficus carica (FC), an herbal plant, known to have high antioxidant activity and antidiabetic properties, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of the FC leaf extract in improving sperm quality of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats from proteomics perspective. A total of 20 male rats were divided into four groups; normal (nondiabetic rats), negative control (diabetic rats without treatment), positive control (diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg metformin), and FC group (diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg FC extract). The treatments were given via oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of FC treated group demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) decrease compared to negative group after 21 days of treatment, as well as a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the sperm quality parameters compared to negative group. Sperm proteomics analysis on FC treated group also exhibited the increase of total protein expression especially the proteins related to fertility compared to negative group. In conclusion, this study clearly justified that FC extract has good potential as antihyperglycemic and profertility agent that may be beneficial for male diabetic patients who have fertility problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Quality and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Selected Date Fruit Varieties of the United Arab Emirates
Processes 2020, 8(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030256 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Production of highly soluble date sugar powder from the nutritive date fruits will be a suitable and superior alternative to commercial refined sugar, providing sustainability in date palm cultivation. A good understanding of the nutritional and phytochemical composition of date fruits is imperative [...] Read more.
Production of highly soluble date sugar powder from the nutritive date fruits will be a suitable and superior alternative to commercial refined sugar, providing sustainability in date palm cultivation. A good understanding of the nutritional and phytochemical composition of date fruits is imperative for this purpose. In this work, 11 different date fruit species commonly cultivated in the United Arab Emirates were studied for their chemical composition, physical properties, amino acids, minerals, and anti-nutritional contents. The results revealed that the date fruits contain moisture, protein, lipid, and ash content in the ranges of 14.8%–20.5%, 2.19%–3.12%, 0.25%–0.51%, and 1.37%–1.97%, respectively. Potassium was identified as the major microelement in all the date varieties. Amino acid assay depicted that the date fruits mainly contained glutamine and aspartic acids, along with other essential acids. Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) were more prevalent in the date fruits than polysaccharides (sucrose), exhibiting the potential of date fruit for non-diabetic sugar production. Phytoconstituents present in date samples, such as flavonoids, oxalates, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and cyanides, were also evaluated and reported. Results showed that although all date fruit varieties were nutritious, they contain significant variation in their nutritional, physical, elemental, and phytochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Application of a Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) System for Protein Extraction from Persiscaria Tenulla Leaf
Processes 2020, 8(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020247 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Persiscaria tenulla, commonly known as Polygonum, is a plant belonging to the family Polygonaceae, which originated from and is widely found in Southeast Asia countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The leaf of the plant is believed to have [...] Read more.
Persiscaria tenulla, commonly known as Polygonum, is a plant belonging to the family Polygonaceae, which originated from and is widely found in Southeast Asia countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The leaf of the plant is believed to have active ingredients that are responsible for therapeutic effects. In order to take full advantage of a natural medicinal plant for the application in the pharmaceutical and food industries, extraction and separation techniques are essential. In this study, an emerging and rapid extraction approach known as liquid biphasic flotation (LBF) is proposed for the extraction of protein from Persiscaria tenulla leaves. The scope of this study is to establish an efficient, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective technology for the extraction of protein from therapeutic leaves. Based on the ideal conditions of the small LBF system, a 98.36% protein recovery yield and a 79.12% separation efficiency were achieved. The upscaling study of this system exhibited the reliability of this technology for large-scale applications with a protein recovery yield of 99.44% and a separation efficiency of 93.28%. This technology demonstrated a simple approach with an effective protein recovery yield and separation that can be applied for the extraction of bioactive compounds from various medicinal-value plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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Potential of Jatropha curcas L. as Biodiesel Feedstock in Malaysia: A Concise Review
Processes 2020, 8(7), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070786 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Fluctuation in fossil fuel prices and the increasing awareness of environmental degradation have prompted the search for alternatives from renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is the most efficient alternative to fossil fuel substitution because it can be properly modified for current diesel engines. It [...] Read more.
Fluctuation in fossil fuel prices and the increasing awareness of environmental degradation have prompted the search for alternatives from renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is the most efficient alternative to fossil fuel substitution because it can be properly modified for current diesel engines. It is a vegetable oil-based fuel with similar properties to petroleum diesel. Generally, biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and highly efficient alternative for fossil fuel substitution. In Malaysia, oil palm is considered as the most valuable commodity crop and gives a high economic return to the country. However, the ethical challenge of food or fuel makes palm oil not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, attention is shifted to non-edible feedstock like Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (Jatropha curcas L.). It is an inedible oil-bearing crop that can be processed into biodiesel. It has a high-seed yield that could be continually produced for up to 50 years. Furthermore, its utilization will have zero impact on food sources since the oil is poisonous for human and animal consumption. However, Jatropha biodiesel is still in its preliminary phase compared to palm oil-based biodiesel in Malaysia due to a lack of research and development. Therefore, this paper emphasizes the potential of Jatropha curcas as an eco-friendly biodiesel feedstock to promote socio-economic development and meet significantly growing energy demands even though the challenges for its implementation as a national biodiesel program might be longer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology for Sustainability and Social Well Being)
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