Special Issue "Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Synthesis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Chih-Feng Huang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
Interests: living polymerizations; nanocomposites; biomaterial modifications; stumili-resposive polymers
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Rong-Ho Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
Interests: design and synthesis of light-emitting polymers and low-band gap conjugated polymers; electro-luminescence properties of polymer light-emitting devices; photo-voltaic properties of polymer solar cells and perovskite solar cells; synthesis of polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells; synthesis of conducting polymers for supercapacitors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

“Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II” is a continuous Special Issue of Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials. This Special Issue covers the recent synthesis, characterization, theoretical modelling, and application of various responsive polymers with special functions. Functionally responsive polymeric materials can react to external stimulus so as to provide different functions for sensors, transducers, actuators, artificial muscle, and biomedical devices. For example, dielectric elastomers can convert the electric energy into mechanical deformation under electric field, while piezoelectric polymers can generate electric charge in response to mechanical loading. More examples, such as polyelectrolyte gels, swell differently when the pH or salt concentration in the external solution changes, and the programmed shape–polymers can recover to their original shape when exposed to heat. Topics may include the electro-active polymers, magneto-sensitive polymers, and piezoelectric polymers, which show responsiveness under mechanical influence, and electric or magnetic fields. Reviews and regular original papers are both welcome.

Prof. Chih-Feng Huang
Prof. Rong-Ho Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Shape–memory polymers
  • Smart gels
  • Dielectric elastomers
  • Conductive polymeric materials
  • Liquid crystal elastomers
  • Self-healing polymers
  • Mechano-chemically responsive polymers
  • Temperature-sensitive polymers
  • Water sensitive polymers
  • Electrical sensitive polymers
  • Nanocomposites sensitive to external stimuli
  • Piezoelectric polymers
  • Magneto-sensitive polymers
  • Biopolymers sensitive to external stimuli
  • Stress–memory polymers
  • Light sensitive polymers
  • Living polymerizations
  • pH-sensitive polymers

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Tunable Thermo-Responsive Copolymers from DEGMA and OEGMA Synthesized by RAFT Polymerization and the Effect of the Concentration and Saline Phosphate Buffer on its Phase Transition
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101657 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Thermo-responsive polymers and copolymers derivatives of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (Mn = 300 g mol−1) (OEGMA) and di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) have been synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using 5-amino-4-methyl-4-(propylthiocarbonothioylthio)-5-oxopentanoic acid (APP) [...] Read more.
Thermo-responsive polymers and copolymers derivatives of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (Mn = 300 g mol−1) (OEGMA) and di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) have been synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using 5-amino-4-methyl-4-(propylthiocarbonothioylthio)-5-oxopentanoic acid (APP) as chain transfer agent (CTA). The monomer conversion was evaluated by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR); number average molecular weights (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw), and dispersity (Đ) were obtained by gel permeation chromatography (GPC); glass transition temperature (Tg) was evaluated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cloud point temperature (Tcp) was measured and compared by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effect of polymer composition and concentration on the Tcp, either in water or in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), was studied. The values of Tcp using PBS were between 3 and 4 °C lower than using water. Results showed an ideal copolymerization behavior; therefore, the Tcp could be tuned by an adequate monomers feed ratio obtaining polymers which may be used in drug delivery and other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II)
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Open AccessArticle
Thiol–Ene Photopolymerization: Scaling Law and Analytical Formulas for Conversion Based on Kinetic Rate and Thiol–Ene Molar Ratio
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101640 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
Kinetics and analytical formulas for radical-mediated thiol–ene photopolymerization were developed in this paper. The conversion efficacy of thiol–ene systems was studied for various propagation to chain transfer kinetic rate-ratio (RK), and thiol–ene concentration molar-ratio (RC). Numerical data were analyzed [...] Read more.
Kinetics and analytical formulas for radical-mediated thiol–ene photopolymerization were developed in this paper. The conversion efficacy of thiol–ene systems was studied for various propagation to chain transfer kinetic rate-ratio (RK), and thiol–ene concentration molar-ratio (RC). Numerical data were analyzed using analytical formulas and compared with the experimental data. We demonstrated that our model for a thiol–acrylate system with homopolymerization effects, and for a thiol–norbornene system with viscosity effects, fit much better with the measured data than a previous model excluding these effects. The general features for the roles of RK and RC on the conversion efficacy of thiol (CT) and ene (CV) are: (i) for RK = 1, CV and CT have the same temporal profiles, but have a reversed dependence on RC; (ii) for RK >> 1, CT are almost independent of RC; (iii) for RK << 1, CV and CT have the same profiles and both are decreasing functions of the homopolymerization effects defined by kCV; (iv) viscosity does not affect the efficacy in the case of RK >> 1, but reduces the efficacy of CV for other values of RK. For a fixed light dose, higher light intensity has a higher transient efficacy but a lower steady-state conversion, resulting from a bimolecular termination. In contrast, in type II unimolecular termination, the conversion is mainly governed by the light dose rather than its intensity. For optically thick polymers, the light intensity increases with time due to photoinitiator depletion, and thus the assumption of constant photoinitiator concentration (as in most previous models) suffers an error of 5% to 20% (underestimated) of the crosslink depth and the efficacy. Scaling law for the overall reaction order, defined by [A]m[B]n and governed by the types of ene and the rate ratio is discussed herein. The dual ratio (RK and RC) for various binary functional groups (thiol–vinyl, thiol–acrylate, and thiol–norbornene) may be tailored to minimize side effects for maximal monomer conversion or tunable degree of crosslinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Immunotherapy Liposomal-Loaded Thermal-Responsive Hydrogel Carrier in the Local Treatment of Breast Cancer
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101592 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
To reduce the side effects of immune drugs and the sustainable release of immune drugs on local parts, we have designed an injectable thermal-sensitive hydrogel containing an imiquimod-loaded liposome system. In the extracellular environment of tumor tissues (pH 6.4), 50% of the drug [...] Read more.
To reduce the side effects of immune drugs and the sustainable release of immune drugs on local parts, we have designed an injectable thermal-sensitive hydrogel containing an imiquimod-loaded liposome system. In the extracellular environment of tumor tissues (pH 6.4), 50% of the drug was released from the carrier, which could be a result of the morphological changes of the liposomal microstructure in the acidic environment. According to the results in animals, the drug-containing liposomes combined with hydrogel can be effectively applied in breast cancer therapy to delay the growth of tumors as well as to dramatically reduce the death rate of mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of a Series of Photoresponsive Polymersomes Bearing Photocleavable a 2-nitrobenzyl Group at the Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Interfaces and Their Payload Releasing Behaviors
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081254 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
In this study, the structure-function relationships of a series of polymersomes composed of well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymers were investigated. The building blocks were synthesized by clicking hydrophobic polymers, synthesized beforehand, and commercially available poly(ethylene glycol) with photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl compounds bearing alkyne and maleimide [...] Read more.
In this study, the structure-function relationships of a series of polymersomes composed of well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymers were investigated. The building blocks were synthesized by clicking hydrophobic polymers, synthesized beforehand, and commercially available poly(ethylene glycol) with photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl compounds bearing alkyne and maleimide functionalities. All of the tested polymersomes preserved their hollow structures even after sufficient photoirradiation. Nevertheless, the release rate of an entrapped anionic fluorophore was highly dependent on the molecular weight and the type of hydrophobic polymer, as well as on the presence or absence of the charged end groups. Moreover, the polymersomes with a 2-nitrosobenzyl photolysis residue within the hydrophobic shells exhibited photo-induced payload release after complete photolysis. It was concluded that the payload release was mediated by photo-induced permeability changes of the hydrophobic shells rather than the decomposition of their overall structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II)
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Open AccessArticle
ZnO Quantum Dots Modified by pH-Activated Charge-Reversal Polymer for Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111272 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this paper, we reported a pH responsive nano drug delivery system (NDDS) based on ZnO quantum dots (QDs) for controlled release of drugs. Zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (PCBMA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were introduced to modify ZnO QDs, which can help enhance [...] Read more.
In this paper, we reported a pH responsive nano drug delivery system (NDDS) based on ZnO quantum dots (QDs) for controlled release of drugs. Zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (PCBMA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were introduced to modify ZnO QDs, which can help enhance water stability, increase blood circulation time, and promote endocytosis. After tuning of PCBMA/PDMAEMA ratios, the [email protected](CBMA-co-DMAEMA) nanoplatform shows a sensitive switch from strong protein adsorption resistance (with negatively charged surface) at physiological pH to strong adhesion to tumor cell membranes (with positively charged surface) at the slightly acidic extracellular pH of tumors. Anti-cancer drug, Doxorubicin (DOX), molecules were demonstrated to be successfully loaded to [email protected](CBMA-co-DMAEMA) with a relatively large drug loading content (24.6%). In addition, [email protected](CBMA-co-DMAEMA) loaded with DOX can achieve lysosomal acid degradation and release of DOX after endocytosis by tumor cells, resulting in synergistic treatment of cancer, which is attributed to a combination of the anticancer effect of Zn2+ and DOX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials II)
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