Special Issue "Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Theory and Simulation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical, University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic
Interests: mechanics of constitutive modelling; continuum damage mechanics; computational solid mechanics; experimental solid mechanics; advanced composite materials and structures
Prof. Dr. Majid Reza Ayatollahi
Website
Guest Editor
Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and technology, Tehran, Iran
Interests: fracture mechanics; experimental solid mechanics; computational solid mechanics; material characterization; fracture in polymers
Dr. Mohd Hamdi bin Abd Shukor
Website
Guest Editor
Department of mechanical engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Interests: composites; biomaterials; material processing; advanced manufacturing; surface engineering
Dr. Michal Petrů
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic
Interests: mechanical characterization of advanced materials; structural analysis; finite element method; polymer composites; automotive engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymer composites have become the fastest growing and most widely used materials in the aerospace industry. Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and physical behaviors of polymer composite materials and structures govern the development of constitutive damage models, computational approaches, and novel experimental methods. The implementation of such models in practical applications becomes important and necessary to overcome the challenges in the design aspects of the polymer composite structures in advanced industrial applications. In addition, the development of novel experimental methods for mechanical and damage characterizations of polymer composites plays an important role in the prediction of the internal behavior and mechanical response of the materials to assess the mechanical performance of the polymer composite structures. This Special Issue on the damage mechanics of polymer composites promotes and contributes to the development of the new concepts of damage mechanics, bridging the gap between the fields of continuum deformations and classical mechanics of fatigue and fracture. It covers new developments in the science and engineering of theoretical, computational, and experimental damage mechanics. The Special Issue welcomes research on topics including:

  • Mathematical/physical modelling: elastic, plastic, damage, fracture, impact, fatigue, etc.
  • Computer simulation: finite element, finite difference, molecular dynamic, peridynamics, etc.
  • Experimental methods: empirical, NDT, DIC, photoelasticity, etc.
  • Mechanical and damage characterizations of composite materials.
  • New polymer based-composite materials: FML, FGM, FRP, etc.
  • Design and analysis of composite structures.
  • New applications of polymer composites in advanced industries.

Dr. Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor
Prof. Dr. Majid Reza Ayatollahi
Dr. Mohd Hamdi bin Abd Shukor
Dr. Michal Petrů
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mathematical model
  • constitutive modelling
  • numerical and computational methods
  • experimental solid method
  • mechanical behavior
  • damage mechanics
  • fatigue and fracture mechanics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Moisture Absorption Effects on Mode II Delamination of Carbon/Epoxy Composites
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12092162 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
It is necessary to consider the influence of moisture damage on the interlaminar fracture toughness for composite structures that are used for outdoor applications. However, the studies on the progressive variation of the fracture toughness as a function of moisture content M (%) [...] Read more.
It is necessary to consider the influence of moisture damage on the interlaminar fracture toughness for composite structures that are used for outdoor applications. However, the studies on the progressive variation of the fracture toughness as a function of moisture content M (%) is rather limited. In this regard, this study focuses on the characterization of mode II delamination of carbon/epoxy composites conditioned at 70 °C/85% relative humidity (RH). End-notched flexure test is conducted for specimens aged at various moisture absorption levels. Experimental results reveal that mode II fracture toughness degrades with the moisture content, with a maximum of 23% decrement. A residual property model is used to predict the variation of the fracture toughness with the moisture content. Through numerical simulations, it is found that the approaches used to estimate the lamina and cohesive properties are suitable to obtain reliable simulation results. In addition, the damage initiation is noticed during the early loading stage; however, the complete damage is only observed when the numerical peak load is achieved. Results from the present research could serve as guidelines to predict the residual properties and simulate the mode II delamination behavior under moisture attack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Failure of Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Metal Laminate Subjected to Close-Range Explosion
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12092139 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study investigates the effects of close-range blast loading of fibre metal laminates (FMLs) fabricated from woven glass polypropylene and aluminium alloy 2024-T3. The polypropylene layers and anodized aluminium are stacked in 3/2 layering configuration to investigate the impact energy absorbed through [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the effects of close-range blast loading of fibre metal laminates (FMLs) fabricated from woven glass polypropylene and aluminium alloy 2024-T3. The polypropylene layers and anodized aluminium are stacked in 3/2 layering configuration to investigate the impact energy absorbed through deformation and damage. In order to study the blast responses of FMLs, a 4-cable instrumented pendulum blast set-up is used. Effects of blast impulse and stand-off distance were examined. Investigation of the cross-section of FMLs are presented and damages such as fibre fracture, debonding, and global deformation are examined. Increasing stand-off distance from 4 to 14 mm resulted in a change of damage mode from highly localized perforation to global deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Quasi-Static Tests of Hybrid Adhesive Bonds Based on Biological Reinforcement in the Form of Eggshell Microparticles
Polymers 2020, 12(6), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12061391 - 22 Jun 2020
Abstract
The paper is focused on the research of the cyclic loading of hybrid adhesive bonds based on eggshell microparticles in polymer composite. The aim of the research was to characterize the behavior of hybrid adhesive bonds with composite adhesive layer in quasi-static tests. [...] Read more.
The paper is focused on the research of the cyclic loading of hybrid adhesive bonds based on eggshell microparticles in polymer composite. The aim of the research was to characterize the behavior of hybrid adhesive bonds with composite adhesive layer in quasi-static tests. An epoxy resin was used as the matrix and microparticles of eggshells were used as the filler. The adhesive bonds were exposed to cyclic loading and their service life and mechanical properties were evaluated. Testing was performed by 1000 cycles at 5–30% (165–989 N) and 5–70% (165–2307 N) of the maximum load of the filler-free bond in the static test. The results of the research show the importance of cyclic loading on the service life and mechanical properties of adhesive bonds. Quasi-static tests demonstrated significant differences between measured intervals of cyclic loading. All adhesive bonds resisted 1000 cycles of the quasi-static test with an interval loading 5–30%. The number of completed quasi-static tests with the interval loading 5–70% was significantly lower. The filler positively influenced the service life of adhesive bonds at a higher amount of quasi-static tests, i.e., the safety of adhesive bonds increased. The filler had a positive effect on adhesive bonds ABF2, where the strength significantly increased up to 20.26% at the loading of 5–30% against adhesive bonds ABF0. A viscoelasticity characteristic (creep) of the adhesive layer occurred at higher values of loading, i.e., between loading 5–70%. The viscoelasticity behavior did not occur at lower values of loading, i.e., between loading 5–30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Finite Element Approach for Crashworthiness Assessment of a Polymeric Auxetic Structure Subjected to the Axial Loading
Polymers 2020, 12(6), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12061312 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Polyurethane foams are one of the most common auxetic structures regarding energy absorption enhancement. This present study evaluates the result reliability of two different numerical approaches, the H-method and the P-method, to obtain the best convergence solution. A polymeric re-entrant cell is created [...] Read more.
Polyurethane foams are one of the most common auxetic structures regarding energy absorption enhancement. This present study evaluates the result reliability of two different numerical approaches, the H-method and the P-method, to obtain the best convergence solution. A polymeric re-entrant cell is created with a beam element and the results of the two different methods are compared. Additionally, the numerical results compare well with the analytical solution. The results show that there is a good agreement between converged FE models and the analytical solution. Regarding the computational cost, the P-method is more efficient for simulating the re-entrant structure subjected to axial loading. During the second part of this study, the re-entrant cell is used for generating a polymeric auxetic cellular tube. The mesh convergence study is performed on the cellular structures using the H- and P- methods. The cellular tube is subjected to tensional and compressive loading, the module of elasticity and Poisson’s ration to calculate different aspect ratios. A nonlinear analysis is performed to compare the dynamic response of a cellular tube versus a solid tube. The crashworthiness indicators are addressed and the results are compared with equivalent solid tubes. The results show that the auxetic cellular tubes have better responses against compressive loading. The primary outcome of this research is to assess a reliable FE approach for re-entrant structures under axial loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of High-Quality Polymer Composite Frame by a New Method of Fiber Winding Process
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051037 - 02 May 2020
Abstract
Polymer composite frame has been frequently used in the main structural body of vehicles in aerospace, automotive, etc., applications. Manufacturing of complex curved composite frame suffer from the lack of accurate and optimum method of winding process that lead to preparation of uniform [...] Read more.
Polymer composite frame has been frequently used in the main structural body of vehicles in aerospace, automotive, etc., applications. Manufacturing of complex curved composite frame suffer from the lack of accurate and optimum method of winding process that lead to preparation of uniform fiber arrangement in critical location of the curved frame. This article deals with the fabrication of high-quality polymer composite frame through an optimal winding of textile fibers onto a non-bearing core frame using a fiber-processing head and an industrial robot. The number of winding layers of fibers and their winding angles are determined based on the operational load on the composite structure. Ensuring the correct winding angles and thus also the homogeneity of fibers in each winding layer can be achieved by using an industrial robot and by definition of its suitable off-line trajectory for the production cycle. Determination of an optimal off-line trajectory of the end-effector of a robot (robot-end-effector (REE)) is important especially in the case of complicated 3D shaped frames. The authors developed their own calculation procedure to determine the optimal REE trajectory in the composite manufacturing process. A mathematical model of the winding process, matrix calculus (particularly matrices of rotations and translations) and an optimization differential evolution algorithm are used during calculation of the optimal REE trajectory. Polymer composites with greater resistance to failure damage (especially against physical destruction) can be produced using the above mentioned procedure. The procedure was successfully tested in an experimental composite laboratory. Two practical examples of optimal trajectory calculation are included in the article. The described optimization algorithm of REE trajectory is completely independent of the industrial robot type and robot software tools used and can also be used in other composite manufacturing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Fibre Bridging Toughening Effects on the Compressive Behaviour of Delaminated Composite Plates
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030554 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Increasing the Mode I inter-laminar fracture toughness of composite laminates can contribute to slowing down delamination growth phenomena, which can be considered one of the most critical damage mechanisms in composite structures. Actually, the Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness (GIc) [...] Read more.
Increasing the Mode I inter-laminar fracture toughness of composite laminates can contribute to slowing down delamination growth phenomena, which can be considered one of the most critical damage mechanisms in composite structures. Actually, the Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness (GIc) in fibre-reinforced composite materials has been found to considerably increase with the crack length when the fibre bridging phenomenon takes place. Hence, in this paper, the fibre bridging phenomenon has been considered as a natural toughening mechanism able to replace embedded metallic or composite reinforcements, currently used to increase tolerance to inter-laminar damage. An experimental/numerical study on the influence of delamination growth on the compressive behaviour of fibre-reinforced composites characterised by high sensitivity to the fibre bridging phenomenon has been performed. Coupons, made of material systems characterised by a variable toughness related to a high sensitivity to the fibre bridging phenomenon and containing artificial through-the-width delaminations, were subjected to a compressive mechanical test and compared to coupons made of standard material system with constant toughness. Out-of-plane displacements and strains were monitored during the compression test by means of strain gauges and digital image correlation to assess the influence of fibre bridging on delamination buckling, delamination growth and on the global buckling of the specimens, including buckling shape changes. Experimental data were combined with a numerical study, performed by means of a virtual crack closure technique based procedure, named SMart Time XB – Fibre Bridging (SMXB-FB), able to mimic the crack bridging effect on the toughness properties of the material system. The combination of numerical results and experimental data has allowed the deformations and the buckling shape changes to be correlated to the onset and evolution of damage and, hence, contributes to improving the knowledge on the interaction of the failure mechanisms in the investigated composite specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Influence of Nanoparticles on Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Composites
Polymers 2020, 12(4), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040742 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This review analyzes thermal and electrically conductive properties of composites and how they can be influenced by the addition of special nanoparticles. Composite functional characteristics—such as thermal and electrical conductivity, phase changes, dimensional stability, magnetization, and modulus increase—are tuned by selecting suitable nanoparticle [...] Read more.
This review analyzes thermal and electrically conductive properties of composites and how they can be influenced by the addition of special nanoparticles. Composite functional characteristics—such as thermal and electrical conductivity, phase changes, dimensional stability, magnetization, and modulus increase—are tuned by selecting suitable nanoparticle filler material. The conductivity of composites can be related to the formation of conductive pathways as nanofiller materials form connections in the bulk of a composite matrix. With increasing use of nanomaterial containing composites and relatively little understanding of the toxicological effects thereof, adequate disposal and recyclability have become an increasing environmental concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanics of Polymer Composites)
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