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Efficient Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Using Oil Palm Bio-Waste/MWCNTs Reinforced PVA Hydrogel Composites: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Modeling

Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
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Polymers 2020, 12(2), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12020430 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 11 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 December 2019 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel are still restricted for some applications because their lower mechanical strength and thermal stability. The PVA-based composites are drawing attention for the removal of heavy metals based on their specific functionality in adsorption process. The main objective of this work is to synthesize oil palm bio-waste (OPB)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced PVA hydrogels in the presence of N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator via simple in-situ polymerization technique. The as-prepared reinforced nanocomposites were characterized by FESEM, BET surface area, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TGA and FTIR analysis. The possible influence of OPB and MWCNTs on the tensile strength, elongation at break and elastic modulus of the samples were investigated. It was found that reinforced nanocomposites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties as compared to non-reinforced material. The evaluation of reinforced nanocomposites was tested by the removal of Pb(II) aqueous solutions in a batch adsorption system. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used to illustrate the adsorption kinetic results and Langmuir isotherm was more suitable to fit the equilibrium results providing maximum adsorption capacities. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters describes the spontaneous, endothermic and chemisorption adsorption process while activation energy reveals the physical adsorption mechanism. Therefore, the coordination effects among OPB, MWCNTs and PVA polymer hydrogels can produce a promising adsorbent material for wastewater treatment applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; polyvinyl alcohol; adsorption; multiwalled carbon nanotubes; oil palm empty fruit bunch; mechanism hydrogel; polyvinyl alcohol; adsorption; multiwalled carbon nanotubes; oil palm empty fruit bunch; mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zulfiqar, M.; Lee, S.Y.; Mafize, A.A.; Kahar, N.A.M.A.; Johari, K.; Rabat, N.E. Efficient Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Using Oil Palm Bio-Waste/MWCNTs Reinforced PVA Hydrogel Composites: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Modeling. Polymers 2020, 12, 430.

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