Next Article in Journal
Laboratory Investigation of Lignocellulosic Biomass as Performance Improver for Bituminous Materials
Next Article in Special Issue
Assembly of Soft Electrodes and Ion Exchange Membranes for Capacitive Deionization
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of O-Ring Seal Failure under Static Conditions and Determination of End-of-Lifetime Criterion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cost Estimation of Polymeric Adsorbents
Review

A Review on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes for Water Purification

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 N. College Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
3
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
4
William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081252
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Sustainable and affordable supply of clean, safe, and adequate water is one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Membrane separation technology is one of the most cost-effective and widely applied technologies for water purification. Polymeric membranes such as cellulose-based (CA) membranes and thin-film composite (TFC) membranes have dominated the industry since 1980. Although further development of polymeric membranes for better performance is laborious, the research findings and sustained progress in inorganic membrane development have grown fast and solve some remaining problems. In addition to conventional ceramic metal oxide membranes, membranes prepared by graphene oxide (GO), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and mixed matrix materials (MMMs) have attracted enormous attention due to their desirable properties such as tunable pore structure, excellent chemical, mechanical, and thermal tolerance, good salt rejection and/or high water permeability. This review provides insight into synthesis approaches and structural properties of recent reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes which are used to retain dissolved species such as heavy metals, electrolytes, and inorganic salts in various aqueous solutions. A specific focus has been placed on introducing and comparing water purification performance of different classes of polymeric and ceramic membranes in related water treatment industries. Furthermore, the development challenges and research opportunities of organic and inorganic membranes are discussed and the further perspectives are analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceramic membranes; polymeric membranes; reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; water purification; desalination ceramic membranes; polymeric membranes; reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; water purification; desalination
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Feng, Z.; Rui, X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z. A Review on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes for Water Purification. Polymers 2019, 11, 1252. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081252

AMA Style

Yang Z, Zhou Y, Feng Z, Rui X, Zhang T, Zhang Z. A Review on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes for Water Purification. Polymers. 2019; 11(8):1252. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Zi, Yi Zhou, Zhiyuan Feng, Xiaobo Rui, Tong Zhang, and Zhien Zhang. 2019. "A Review on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes for Water Purification" Polymers 11, no. 8: 1252. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081252

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop