New Advances in Polymer Materials for Product Design Processes and Additive Manufacturing

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 19174

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Interests: machining; manufacturing; abrasive waterjer cutting/machining; Laser Beam Machining; drilling

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering & Industrial Design, Faculty of Engineering, University of Cadiz, Av. Universidad de Cádiz 10, E-11519 Puerto Real-Cadiz, Spain
Interests: produc design; new concepts and creative design; additive manufacturing; customization; augment reality
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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design Department, Engineering Faculty, University of Cádiz, Puerto Real, 11510 Cádiz, Spain
Interests: product design; neurodesign; semantic content; augmented reality; kansei engineering

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering & Industrial Design, Faculty of Engineering, University of Cádiz, Av. Universidad de Cádiz 10, E-11519 Puerto Real-Cádiz, Spain
Interests: 3D print
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The market is looking for more innovations in design and improvements in the quality of its products in a shorter space of time, which means that new formulas are being sought to improve profitability within the framework of a new and growing need. Specifically, advances in product design in this field are a topic of interest that can bring new perspectives to the design and manufacture of polymeric products for any type of production process, especially for additive manufacturing. Changes in society's habits have led to an increase in the use of personalised products. As a result, additive manufacturing is one of the plastics transformation processes that has grown the most today and, associated with this, the competitiveness among companies dedicated to the development and production of polymeric materials.

In accordance with the above and with the aim of disseminating the advances in this field, this Special Issue is dedicated to the latest research on these topics, covering all aspects related to product design with polymers and, in turn, advances in additive manufacturing and other processes that may be of interest.

With the focus on polymer product design, potential topics include, among others, the following:

  • Product design
  • Polymeric materials
  • Additives manufacturing
  • Design for additive manufacturing
  • Processes for product design
  • Manufacturing of new products
  • Methodologies for the implementation of new polymer processing technologies in society
  • New concepts
  • Sustainability
  • Customization
  • Finished quality
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA)

Dr. Pedro M. Hernández-Castellano
Prof. Dr. Lucía Rodríguez Parada
Prof. Dr. Miguel Angel Pardo-Vicente
Dr. Pedro Francisco Mayuet Ares
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • product design
  • concept and creative design
  • additive manufacturing
  • biopolymers
  • finished quality
  • dimensional evaluation
  • customization
  • manufacturing process
  • polylactic acid (PLA)
  • bioplastics
  • polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG)
  • elastomers
  • applications of polymers
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • sustainability
  • methodologies and processes of product design

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Energy-Consumption-Based Life Cycle Assessment of Additive-Manufactured Product with Different Types of Materials
by Osman Ulkir
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061466 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4425
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technology is one of the preferred methods to ensure sustainability in fabrication. In addition to providing continuity in sustainability, fabrication, and diversity, it aims to improve people’s quality of life, develop the economy, and protect the environment [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technology is one of the preferred methods to ensure sustainability in fabrication. In addition to providing continuity in sustainability, fabrication, and diversity, it aims to improve people’s quality of life, develop the economy, and protect the environment and resources for future generations. In this study, the life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to determine whether a product fabricated by the AM provides tangible benefits compared to traditional fabrication methodologies. LCA is an evaluation method that provides information on resource efficiency and waste generation, where the environmental impacts of a process can be calculated, measured, and reported throughout the entire life cycle, starting from the acquisition of raw materials, processing, fabrication, use, end of life, and disposal, according to ISO 14040/44 standards. This study examines the environmental impacts of the three most preferred filaments and resin materials in the AM for a 3D-printed product from the start, which consists of three stages. These stages are raw material extraction, manufacturing, and recycling. Filament material types are Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polylactic Acid (PLA), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETG), and Ultraviolet (UV) Resin. The fabrication process was carried out with Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and Stereolithography (SLA) techniques using a 3D printer. Environmental impacts for all identified steps were estimated over the life cycle using the energy consumption model. As a result of the LCA, it was seen that UV Resin was the most environmentally friendly material in the mid-point and end-point indicators. It has been determined that the ABS material also exhibits bad results on many indicators and is the least environmentally friendly. The results support those working with AM in comparing different materials’ environmental impacts and choosing an environmentally friendly material. Full article
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25 pages, 9385 KiB  
Article
Functionality Versus Sustainability for PLA in MEX 3D Printing: The Impact of Generic Process Control Factors on Flexural Response and Energy Efficiency
by Markos Petousis, Nectarios Vidakis, Nikolaos Mountakis, Emmanuel Karapidakis and Amalia Moutsopoulou
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051232 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Process sustainability vs. mechanical strength is a strong market-driven claim in Material Extrusion (MEX) Additive Manufacturing (AM). Especially for the most popular polymer, Polylactic Acid (PLA), the concurrent achievement of these opposing goals may become a puzzle, especially since MEX 3D-printing offers a [...] Read more.
Process sustainability vs. mechanical strength is a strong market-driven claim in Material Extrusion (MEX) Additive Manufacturing (AM). Especially for the most popular polymer, Polylactic Acid (PLA), the concurrent achievement of these opposing goals may become a puzzle, especially since MEX 3D-printing offers a variety of process parameters. Herein, multi-objective optimization of material deployment, 3D printing flexural response, and energy consumption in MEX AM with PLA is introduced. To evaluate the impact of the most important generic and device-independent control parameters on these responses, the Robust Design theory was employed. Raster Deposition Angle (RDA), Layer Thickness (LT), Infill Density (ID), Nozzle Temperature (NT), Bed Temperature (BT), and Printing Speed (PS) were selected to compile a five-level orthogonal array. A total of 25 experimental runs with five specimen replicas each accumulated 135 experiments. Analysis of variances and reduced quadratic regression models (RQRM) were used to decompose the impact of each parameter on the responses. The ID, RDA, and LT were ranked first in impact on printing time, material weight, flexural strength, and energy consumption, respectively. The RQRM predictive models were experimentally validated and hold significant technological merit, for the proper adjustment of process control parameters per the MEX 3D-printing case. Full article
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19 pages, 4294 KiB  
Article
Influence of Thermal Annealing Temperatures on Powder Mould Effectiveness to Avoid Deformations in ABS and PLA 3D-Printed Parts
by Joaquín Lluch-Cerezo, María Desamparados Meseguer, Juan Antonio García-Manrique and Rut Benavente
Polymers 2022, 14(13), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132607 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Fused deposition modelling (FDM)-printed parts can be treated with various post-processes to improve their mechanical properties, dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Samples of polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts are treated with annealing to study a ceramic powder mould’s effectiveness [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modelling (FDM)-printed parts can be treated with various post-processes to improve their mechanical properties, dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Samples of polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts are treated with annealing to study a ceramic powder mould’s effectiveness in order to avoid dimensional part deformation. The variables chosen are annealing temperatures and the usage of a ceramic powder mould to avoid part deformations. A flexural strength test was carried out to evaluate the mould’s influence on the mechanical properties of the part. The effectiveness of the mould has been evaluated mainly attending to the length of the part, because this is the dimension most affected by deformation. A polynomial approximation to a deformation’s length and the effectiveness of the mould allows for their prediction. Results obtained show that effectiveness increases with the annealing temperature. Nevertheless, mould effectiveness decreases when parts are fabricated with PLA, because it is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic, and it suffers a lower shrinkage during thermal post-process than amorphous polymers such as ABS. Attending to the flexural strength test, mould has no significant influence on the mechanical properties of the treated parts in both materials studied. Full article
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27 pages, 17369 KiB  
Article
Design of Customized TPU Lattice Structures for Additive Manufacturing: Influence on the Functional Properties in Elastic Products
by Sergio de la Rosa, Pedro F. Mayuet, José Ramón Méndez Salgueiro and Lucía Rodríguez-Parada
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244341 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
This work focuses on evaluating and establishing the relationship of the influence of geometrical and manufacturing parameters in stiffness of additively manufactured TPU lattice structures. The contribution of this work resides in the creation of a methodology that focuses on characterizing the behavior [...] Read more.
This work focuses on evaluating and establishing the relationship of the influence of geometrical and manufacturing parameters in stiffness of additively manufactured TPU lattice structures. The contribution of this work resides in the creation of a methodology that focuses on characterizing the behavior of elastic lattice structures. Likewise, resides in the possibility of using the statistical treatment of results as a guide to find favorable possibilities within the range of parameters studied and to predict the behavior of the structures. In order to characterize their behavior, different types of specimens were designed and tested by finite element simulation of a compression process using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The tests showed that the stiffness depends on the topology of the cells of the lattice structure. For structures with different cell topologies, it has been possible to obtain an increase in the reaction force against compression from 24.7 N to 397 N for the same manufacturing conditions. It was shown that other parameters with a defined influence on the stiffness of the structure were the temperature and the unit size of the cells, all due to the development of fusion mechanisms and the variation in the volume of material used, respectively. Full article
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18 pages, 5186 KiB  
Article
Tuning the 3D Printability and Thermomechanical Properties of Radiation Shields
by Zachary Brounstein, Jianchao Zhao, Jeffrey Wheat and Andrea Labouriau
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193284 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Additive manufacturing, with its rapid advances in materials science, allows for researchers and companies to have the ability to create novel formulations and final parts that would have been difficult or near impossible to fabricate with traditional manufacturing methods. One such 3D printing [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing, with its rapid advances in materials science, allows for researchers and companies to have the ability to create novel formulations and final parts that would have been difficult or near impossible to fabricate with traditional manufacturing methods. One such 3D printing technology, direct ink writing, is especially advantageous in fields requiring customizable parts with high amounts of functional fillers. Nuclear technology is a prime example of a field that necessitates new material design with regard to unique parts that also provide radiation shielding. Indeed, much effort has been focused on developing new rigid radiation shielding components, but DIW remains a less explored technology with a lot of potential for nuclear applications. In this study, DIW formulations that can behave as radiation shields were developed and were printed with varying amounts of porosity to tune the thermomechanical performance. Full article
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26 pages, 10628 KiB  
Article
Influence of Infill Pattern on Mechanical Behavior of Polymeric and Composites Specimens Manufactured Using Fused Filament Fabrication Technology
by María Jesús Martín, Juan Antonio Auñón and Francisco Martín
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172934 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a comparative evaluation of the tensile strength behaviors of parts obtained by additive manufacturing using fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. The study investigated the influences of the deposition printing parameters for both polymers and fiber-reinforced polymers. Polymeric [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a comparative evaluation of the tensile strength behaviors of parts obtained by additive manufacturing using fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. The study investigated the influences of the deposition printing parameters for both polymers and fiber-reinforced polymers. Polymeric materials that are widely used in FFF were selected, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), and nylon. Carbon and glass continuous fibers were used to reinforce the nylon matrix in composite materials. The study utilized two manufacturing methods. Polymers were manufactured using an Ultimaker 2 Extended+ device and the fiber-reinforced polymer specimens were obtained using a Markforged Mark Two printer. The entire set of specimens was eventually subjected to destructive monoaxial tensile tests to measure their responses. The main goal of this study was to estimate the effect of the different infill patterns applied (zig-zag, concentric, and four different orientations lines) on the mechanical properties of pure thermoplastic materials and reinforced polymers. Results show a spectacular increase in the tensile stress at break, which for polymers reaches an average value of 27.53 MPa compared to 94.51 MPa in the case of composites (increase of 70.87%). A similar increase occurs in the case of tensile stress at yield with values of 31.87 MPa and 105.98 MPa, respectively, which represents an increase of 69.93%. The influence of the infill of the fiber is decisive, reaching, in the 0-0 arrangement, mean values of 220.18 MPa for tensile stress at break and 198.26 MPa for tensile stress at yield. Full article
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