Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 10618

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your paper about hybrid materials based on metal nanoparticles and polymers to this Special Issue of Polymers.

Hybrid materials based on metal nanoparticles and polymers have significantly contributed to the development of nanotechnology. Moreover, these hybrid materials can respond to stimuli (e.g., pH, temperature, light, magnetic field) or self-degrade in a controlled manner to release metal nanoparticles or encapsulated therapeutics. Functional and structural hybrid materials have remarkable properties and provide opportunities for creative fields and future advanced applications.

This Special Issue focuses on highlighting the progress of new hybrid materials based on metal nanoparticles and polymers—their design, preparation, functionalization, characterization and advanced applications.

We invite you to submit manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

The focuses of this Special Issue include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Design of new hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles.
  • Development and preparation methods of hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles.
  • Properties of nanoparticles-reinforced polymers (mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, chemical, magnetic, etc.).
  • Structure–property relationships in hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles.
  • hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles in plasmonics and photonics applications.
  • Functional hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles for energy conversion and storage.
  • Low-dimensional hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles in biotechnology.

Multi-functional smart hybrid materials based on polymers and metal nanoparticles.

Dr. Iole Venditti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • design
  • development and preparation methods
  • properties of nanoparticles-reinforced polymers
  • structure–property relationships
  • plasmonics and photonics applications
  • energy conversion and storage
  • biotechnology
  • smart hybrid materials

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 4047 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Printed Filters Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) Diacrylate Hydrogels Doped with Silver Nanoparticles for Removing Hg(II) Ions from Water
by Luca Burratti, Federica Bertelà, Michele Sisani, Irene Di Guida, Chiara Battocchio, Giovanna Iucci, Paolo Prosposito and Iole Venditti
Polymers 2024, 16(8), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16081034 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Nowadays, due to water pollution, more and more living beings are exposed to dangerous compounds, which can lead to them contracting diseases. The removal of contaminants (including heavy metals) from water is, therefore, a necessary aspect to guarantee the well-being of living beings. [...] Read more.
Nowadays, due to water pollution, more and more living beings are exposed to dangerous compounds, which can lead to them contracting diseases. The removal of contaminants (including heavy metals) from water is, therefore, a necessary aspect to guarantee the well-being of living beings. Among the most used techniques, the employment of adsorbent materials is certainly advantageous, as they are easy to synthesize and are cheap. In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels doped with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for removing Hg(II) ions from water are presented. AgNPs were embedded in PEGDA-based matrices by using a photo-polymerizable solution. By exploiting a custom-made 3D printer, the filters were synthesized. The kinetics of interaction was studied, revealing that the adsorption equilibrium is achieved in 8 h. Subsequently, the adsorption isotherms of PEGDA doped with AgNPs towards Hg(II) ions were studied at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 50 °C). In all cases, the best isotherm model was the Langmuir one (revealing that the chemisorption is the driving process and the most favorable one), with maximum adsorption capacities equal to 0.55, 0.57, and 0.61 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the removal efficiency was evaluated for the three temperatures, obtaining for 4 °C, 25 °C, and 50 °C the values 94%, 94%, and 86%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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15 pages, 6177 KiB  
Article
Agro-Waste Sweet Pepper Extract-Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Antioxidant Enrichment and Sustainable Nanopackaging
by Elisia María López-Alcántara, Grecia Marcela Colindres-Vásquez, Nouzha Fodil, Marlon Sánchez-Barahona, Octavio Rivera-Flores, Alberto Romero and Johar Amin Ahmed Abdullah
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040564 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 873
Abstract
This study synthesizes magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles from agro-waste sweet pepper extract, exploring their potential as antioxidant additives and in food preservation. Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate is the precursor, with sweet pepper extract as both a reducing and capping agent at pH 7.5. [...] Read more.
This study synthesizes magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles from agro-waste sweet pepper extract, exploring their potential as antioxidant additives and in food preservation. Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate is the precursor, with sweet pepper extract as both a reducing and capping agent at pH 7.5. Characterization techniques, including microscopy and spectroscopy, analyze the sweet pepper extract-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Antioxidant capacities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl are assessed, incorporating nanoparticles into banana-based bioplastic for grape preservation. Microscopy reveals cubic and quasi-spherical structures, and spectroscopy confirms functional groups, including Fe–O bonds. X-ray diffraction identifies cubic and monoclinic magnetite with a monoclinic hematite presence. Sweet pepper extract exhibits 100% inhibitory activity in 20 min, while sweet pepper extract-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles show an IC50 of 128.1 µg/mL. Furthermore, these nanoparticles, stabilized with banana-based bioplastic, effectively preserve grapes, resulting in a 27.4% lower weight loss rate after 144 h compared to the control group (34.6%). This pioneering study encourages institutional research into the natural antioxidant properties of agro-waste sweet pepper combined with magnetic iron and other metal oxide nanoparticles, offering sustainable solutions for nanopackaging and food preservation. Current research focuses on refining experimental parameters and investigating diverse applications for sweet pepper extract-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in varied contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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23 pages, 17207 KiB  
Article
Special Packaging Materials from Recycled PET and Metallic Nano-Powders
by Romeo C. Ciobanu, Mihaela Aradoaei, Alina R. Caramitu, Ioana Ion, Cristina M. Schreiner, Violeta Tsakiris, Virgil Marinescu, Elena Gabriela Hitruc and Magdalena Aflori
Polymers 2023, 15(15), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15153161 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
The European methodology for plastics, as a feature of the EU’s circular economy activity plan, ought to support the decrease in plastic waste. The improvement of recycled plastics’ economics and quality is one important part of this action plan. Additionally, achieving the requirement [...] Read more.
The European methodology for plastics, as a feature of the EU’s circular economy activity plan, ought to support the decrease in plastic waste. The improvement of recycled plastics’ economics and quality is one important part of this action plan. Additionally, achieving the requirement that all plastic packaging sold in the EU by 2030 be recyclable or reusable is an important objective. This means that food packaging materials should be recycled in a closed loop at the end. One of the most significant engineering polymers is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is widely used. Due to its numerous crucial qualities, it has a wide variety of applications, from packaging to fibers. The thermoplastic polyolefin, primarily polyethylene and polypropylene (PP), is a popular choice utilized globally in a wide range of applications. In the first phase of the current experiment, the materials were obtained by hot pressing with the press machine. The reinforcer is made of Al nanopowder 800 nm and Fe nanopowder 790 nm and the quality of the recycled polymer was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From DSC variation curves as a function of temperature, the values from the transformation processes (glass transition, crystallization, and melting) are obtained. SEM measurements revealed that the polymer composites with Al have smooth spherical particles while the ones with Fe have bigger rough spherical particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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14 pages, 4102 KiB  
Article
Water-Soluble Nanocomposites Containing Co3O4 Nanoparticles Incorporated in Poly-1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole
by Artem Emel’yanov, Svetlana Korzhova, Anastasia Ivanova, Tatyana Semenova, Dmitriy Chepenko, Ruslan Usmanov and Alexander Pozdnyakov
Polymers 2023, 15(13), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15132940 - 4 Jul 2023
Viewed by 899
Abstract
New water-soluble nanocomposites with cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) in a poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) (PVT) matrix have been synthesized. The PVT used as a stabilizing polymer matrix was obtained by radical polymerization of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole (VT). The polymer nanocomposites with Co3O [...] Read more.
New water-soluble nanocomposites with cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) in a poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) (PVT) matrix have been synthesized. The PVT used as a stabilizing polymer matrix was obtained by radical polymerization of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole (VT). The polymer nanocomposites with Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet–visible, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis. The resulting polymer nanocomposites consist of spherical isolated cobalt nanoparticles with a diameter of 1 to 13 nm. The average hydrodynamic diameters of macromolecular coils are 15–112 nm. The cobalt content in nanocomposites ranges from 1.5 to 11.0 wt.%. The thermal stability of nanocomposites is up to 320 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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22 pages, 7324 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Antibacterial Nanosilver Solution Microcapsules and Their Impact on the Performance of Andoung Wood Surface Coating
by Pan Pan and Xiaoxing Yan
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071722 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
In this paper, nanosilver solution was used as an antibacterial agent to prepare antibacterial microcapsules. The mass ratio of the core material to the wall material (Wcore: Wwall), the emulsifier’s hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value, the mass ratio of ethanol [...] Read more.
In this paper, nanosilver solution was used as an antibacterial agent to prepare antibacterial microcapsules. The mass ratio of the core material to the wall material (Wcore: Wwall), the emulsifier’s hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value, the mass ratio of ethanol to the emulsifier in solvent (Wcore: Wemulsion), and the rotational speed (r/min) were used to develop the four-factor, three-level orthogonal experiment, which was meant to investigate the most significant factors and the optimum process preparation parameters impacting the coating rate and yield of microcapsules. It was used to make an antibacterial coating that was applied to the surface paint film of a glass substrate and andoung wood, and it was mixed to the water-based primer with a content of 4%. Analyses of the mechanical, optical, and bactericidal characteristics were conducted. The micromorphology of the nanosilver solution microcapsules is influenced by the emulsifier’s HLB value. The color difference of the antibacterial coating film decreased with increasing emulsifier HLB value; however, the coating film’s gloss remained largely suitable. Additionally, the coating film’s transparency and tensile strength both decreased. It had minimal impact on the paint film’s surface hardness, but the adhesion and tensile strength showed a noticeable downward trend. The surface of the paint film was rough. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to the antibacterial characteristics of the water-based primer film when it was combined with antibacterial nanosilver solution microcapsules by 80.7% and 74.55%, respectively. The coating film’s antibacterial properties were applied to the surface of the andoung wood, which were 75.7% and 71.0%, respectively, and somewhat decreased. In order to successfully inhibit bacteria, the nanosilver solution microcapsules were added to waterborne coatings. This ensures both the outstanding performance of the coating film and the effectiveness of the antibacterial effect. It expands the application prospects of antibacterial microcapsules in coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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17 pages, 10107 KiB  
Article
Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Containing Clotrimazole to Suppress Photodegradation of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Thin Films
by Noor Emad, Gamal A. El-Hiti, Emad Yousif and Benson M. Kariuki
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071632 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Pol(vinyl chloride) or PVC has functional properties that enable its use in many industrial applications. It suffers from aging, however, in harsh conditions (e.g., elevated temperature or high humidity levels) if oxygen is present. One way to enhance the photostability of PVC is [...] Read more.
Pol(vinyl chloride) or PVC has functional properties that enable its use in many industrial applications. It suffers from aging, however, in harsh conditions (e.g., elevated temperature or high humidity levels) if oxygen is present. One way to enhance the photostability of PVC is to blend it with additives. Thus, thin films were made by mixing PVC with clotrimazole, and five metal oxide (titanium, copper, cobalt, chromium, and nickel oxides) additives. The metal oxides and clotrimazole were added at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5% by weight, respectively. The effect of the metal oxide nanoparticles accompanied by clotrimazole on the photodegradation of PVC was then assessed. The results indicated that the additives have a stabilizing effect and protect PVC against photodegradation significantly. The formation of polymeric fragments of small molecular weight containing carbon-carbon double bonds and carbonyl groups was lower in the blends containing metal oxide nanoparticles and clotrimazole than in unblended PVC. Similarly, the decrease in weight was much less for the films blended with additives. Additionally, surface analysis of the irradiated polymeric films showed significantly lower damage in the materials containing additives. The most effective additive in the stabilization of PVC was nickel oxide nanoparticles. The metal oxides are highly alkaline and act as scavengers for the hydrogen chloride produced during the photodegradation of PVC. They additionally act as peroxide decomposers. In contrast, clotrimazole can absorb harmful radiation and act as an ultraviolet absorber due to its heteroatom and aromatic content. Thus, the use of a combination of metal oxide nanoparticles and clotrimazole led to significant improvement in the resistance of PVC toward photodegradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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15 pages, 3739 KiB  
Article
Bactericidal Anti-Adhesion Potential Integrated Polyoxazoline/Silver Nanoparticle Composite Multilayer Film with pH Responsiveness
by Xiaojiong Bao, Xiaofei Huang, Xiaoqiang Jin and Qiaoling Hu
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173685 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Bacterial infections occur frequently during the implantation of medical devices, and functional coating is one of the effective means to prevent and remove biofilms. In this study, three different hydrophilic polyoxazolines with carboxyl groups (aPOx: PT1, PT2 and PT3) and bactericidal silver nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Bacterial infections occur frequently during the implantation of medical devices, and functional coating is one of the effective means to prevent and remove biofilms. In this study, three different hydrophilic polyoxazolines with carboxyl groups (aPOx: PT1, PT2 and PT3) and bactericidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized successfully, and an aPOx-AgNP multilayer film was prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly. The effect of charge density and assembly solution concentration was explored, and the optimal self-assembly parameters were established (PT2 1 mg/mL and AgNPs 3 mg/mL). The hydrophilicity of the surface can be enhanced to resist protein adhesion if the outermost layer is aPOx, and AgNPs can be loaded to kill bacteria, thereby realizing the bactericidal anti-adhesion potential integration of the aPOx-AgNP multilayer film. In addition, the aPOx-AgNP multilayer film was found to have the characteristic of intelligent and efficient pH-responsive silver release, which is expected to be used as a targeted anti-biofilm surface of implantable medical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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Review

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24 pages, 3790 KiB  
Review
Multifunctional Composite Materials Based on Anion Exchangers Modified with Copper Compounds—A Review of Their Synthesis Methods, Characteristics and Applications
by Elżbieta Kociołek-Balawejder, Ewa Stanisławska, Igor Mucha, Daniel Ociński and Irena Jacukowicz-Sobala
Polymers 2023, 15(17), 3606; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15173606 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
As copper and its compounds are of fundamental importance for the development of innovative materials, the synthesis of composites intended for water purification was undertaken in which submicron copper containing particles were dispersed within the matrix of a strongly basic anion exchanger, with [...] Read more.
As copper and its compounds are of fundamental importance for the development of innovative materials, the synthesis of composites intended for water purification was undertaken in which submicron copper containing particles were dispersed within the matrix of a strongly basic anion exchanger, with a macroporous and gel-like structure. Due to their trimethylammonium functional groups, the host materials alone exhibited an affinity to anionic water contaminants and antimicrobial properties. The introduction of such particles as CuO, Cu2O, metallic Cu, CuO/FeO(OH), Cu4O3, Cu(OH)2, Cu4(OH)6SO4, Cu2(OH)3Cl increased these properties and demonstrated new properties. The composites were obtained unconventionally, in ambient conditions, using eco-friendly reagents. Alternative synthesis methods were compared and optimized, as a result of which a new group of hybrid ion exchangers was created (HIXs) containing 3.5–12.5 wt% of Cu. As the arrangement of the inorganic phase in the resin matrix was atypical, i.e., close to the surface of the beads, the obtained HIXs exhibited excellent kinetic properties in the process of oxidation and adsorption of As(III), as well as catalytic properties for the synthesis of triazoles via click reaction, and also antimicrobial properties in relation to Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, preventing biofilm formation. Using thermogravimetry, the effect of the inorganic phase on decomposition of the polymeric phase was evaluated for the first time and comprehensively, confirming the relationship and finding numerous regularities. It was also found that, depending on the oxidation state (CuO, Cu2O, Cu), copper-containing particles affected the textural properties of the polymeric phase endowing a tighter structure, limiting the porosity and reducing the affinity for water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles–Polymers Hybrid Materials III)
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