Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 35019

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Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567, Japan
Interests: nanofibers; electrospinning; bio-medical; sensors; carbon materials; food packing; nano-catalysis; supercapacitor; drug delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda 386-8567, Nagano, Japan
Interests: nanofibers; electrospinning; polymers; biomaterials; biomedical; environmental; wound dressing; drug delivery; wastewater treatment; filtration; membranes; face masks; sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda 386-8567, Nagano, Japan
Interests: nanofibers; electrospinning; polymers; wound dressing; biomedical; drug delivery; antibacterial; antiviral; filtration; membranes; face masks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrospun nanofibers have a wide range of applications covering almost every field of science and technology. Polymeric materials, either from natural sources or synthetic polymers, are the basis for such applications. However, researchers are still facing challenges in processing complex polymers to transform them into nanofibers to maximize their practical applicability. Considering the potential of polymeric nanofibers (produced by either technique) in biomedical, environmental, filtration, electronics, and other fields, it is vital for the researcher community to actively contribute in these areas. This Special Issue of Polymers MDPI on “Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications” will cover the abovementioned areas of electrospun nanofibers. Research relevant to recent advances in nanotechnology, especially electrospinning technology, to produce nanofibers with complex structures, unique characteristics, and potential in practical applications will be a priority for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Ick-Soo Kim
Dr. Sana Ullah
Dr. Motahira Hashmi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • polymers
  • biomaterials
  • nanomaterials
  • nanofibers
  • electrospinning
  • biomedical
  • drug delivery
  • filtration
  • membranes
  • face masks
  • sensors
  • food packaging

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 215 KiB  
Editorial
Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications
by Sana Ullah, Motahira Hashmi and Ick Soo Kim
Polymers 2022, 14(11), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112290 - 5 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Summary of the Special Issue: [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)

Research

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14 pages, 4700 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Mechanical, Chemical, and Antibacterial Properties of Electrospun Cellulose-Based Scaffolds Containing Orange Essential Oil and Silver Nanoparticles
by Duy-Nam Phan, Muhammad Qamar Khan, Van-Chuc Nguyen, Hai Vu-Manh, Anh-Tuan Dao, Phan Thanh Thao, Ngoc-Mai Nguyen, Van-Tuan Le, Azeem Ullah, Muzamil Khatri and Ick-Soo Kim
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010085 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
This study demonstrated a controllable release properties and synergistic antibacterial actions between orange essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporated onto cellulose (CL) nanofibers. The preparation of AgNPs attached on CL nanofibers was conducted through multiple processes including the deacetylation process to [...] Read more.
This study demonstrated a controllable release properties and synergistic antibacterial actions between orange essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporated onto cellulose (CL) nanofibers. The preparation of AgNPs attached on CL nanofibers was conducted through multiple processes including the deacetylation process to transform cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers to CL nanofibers, the in situ synthesis of AgNPs, and the coating of as-prepared silver composite CL nanofibers using OEO solutions with two different concentrations. The success of immobilization of AgNPs onto the surface of CL nanofibers and the incorporation of OEO into the polymer matrix was confirmed by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR characterizations. The tensile strength, elongation at break, and Young’s modulus of the nanofibers after each step of treatment were recorded and compared to pristine CA nanofibers. The high antibacterial activities of AgNPs and OEO were assessed against Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative E. coli microorganisms. The combined effects of two antimicrobials, AgNPs and OEO, were distinctively recognized against E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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10 pages, 6442 KiB  
Article
A Flexible, Fireproof, Composite Polymer Electrolyte Reinforced by Electrospun Polyimide for Room-Temperature Solid-State Batteries
by Boheng Yuan, Bin Zhao, Zhi Cong, Zhi Cheng, Qi Wang, Yafei Lu and Xiaogang Han
Polymers 2021, 13(21), 3622; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213622 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Solid-state batteries (SSBs) have attracted considerable attention for high-energy-density and high-safety energy storage devices. Many efforts have focused on the thin solid-state-electrolyte (SSE) films with high room-temperature ionic conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. Here, we report a composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) reinforced by [...] Read more.
Solid-state batteries (SSBs) have attracted considerable attention for high-energy-density and high-safety energy storage devices. Many efforts have focused on the thin solid-state-electrolyte (SSE) films with high room-temperature ionic conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. Here, we report a composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) reinforced by electrospun PI nanofiber film, combining with succinonitrile-based solid composite electrolyte. In situ photo-polymerization method is used for the preparation of the CPE. This CPE, with a thickness around 32.5 μm, shows a high ionic conductivity of 2.64 × 10−4 S cm1 at room temperature. It is also fireproof and mechanically strong, showing great promise for an SSB device with high energy density and high safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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21 pages, 9119 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Folic Acid/Hybrid Fibers: In Vitro Controlled Release Study and Cytocompatibility Assays
by Fatma Nur Parin, Sana Ullah, Kenan Yildirim, Motahira Hashmi and Ick-Soo Kim
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203594 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
The fabrication of skin-care products with therapeutic properties has been significant for human health trends. In this study, we developed efficient hydrophilic composite nanofibers (NFs) loaded with the folic acid (FA) by electrospinning and electrospraying processes for tissue engineering or wound healing cosmetic [...] Read more.
The fabrication of skin-care products with therapeutic properties has been significant for human health trends. In this study, we developed efficient hydrophilic composite nanofibers (NFs) loaded with the folic acid (FA) by electrospinning and electrospraying processes for tissue engineering or wound healing cosmetic applications. The morphological, chemical and thermal characteristics, in vitro release properties, and cytocompatibility of the resulting composite fibers with the same amount of folic acid were analyzed. The SEM micrographs indicate that the obtained nanofibers were in the nanometer range, with an average fiber diameter of 75–270 nm and a good porosity ratio (34–55%). The TGA curves show that FA inhibits the degradation of the polymer and acts as an antioxidant at high temperatures. More physical interaction between FA and matrices has been shown to occur in the electrospray process than in the electrospinning process. A UV-Vis in vitro study of FA-loaded electrospun fibers for 8 h in artificial acidic (pH 5.44) and alkaline (pH 8.04) sweat solutions exhibited a rapid release of FA-loaded electrospun fibers, showing the effect of polymer matrix–FA interactions and fabrication processes on their release from the nanofibers. PVA-CHi/FA webs have the highest release value, with 95.2% in alkaline media. In acidic media, the highest release (92%) occurred on the PVA-Gel–CHi/sFA sample, and this followed first-order and Korsmeyer–Peppas kinetic models. Further, the L929 cytocompatibility assay results pointed out that all NFs (with/without FA) generated had no cell toxicity; on the contrary, the FA in the fibers facilitates cell growth. Therefore, the nanofibers are a potential candidate material in skin-care and tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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10 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
Effect of Process Control Parameters on the Filtration Performance of PAN–CTAB Nanofiber/Nanonet Web Combined with Meltblown Nonwoven
by Hyo Kyoung Kang, Hyun Ju Oh, Jung Yeon Kim, Hak Yong Kim and Yeong Og Choi
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3591; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203591 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Nanofibers have potential applications as filters for particles with diameters <10 μm owing to their large specific surface area, macropores, and controllable geometry or diameter. The filtration efficiency can be increased by creating nanonets (<50 nm) whose diameter is smaller than that of [...] Read more.
Nanofibers have potential applications as filters for particles with diameters <10 μm owing to their large specific surface area, macropores, and controllable geometry or diameter. The filtration efficiency can be increased by creating nanonets (<50 nm) whose diameter is smaller than that of nanofibers. This study investigates the effect of process conditions on the generation of nanonet structures from a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution containing cation surfactants; in addition, the filtration performance is analyzed. The applied electrospinning voltage and the electrostatic treatment of meltblown polypropylene (used as a substrate) are the most influential process parameters of nanonet formation. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile–cetylmethylammonium bromide (PAN–CTAB) showed a nanofiber/nanonet structure and improved thermal and mechanical properties compared with those of the electrospun PAN. The pore size distribution and filter efficiency of the PAN nanofiber web and PAN–CTAB nanofiber/nanonet web with meltblown were measured. The resulting PAN–CTAB nanofiber/nanonet air filter showed a high filtration efficiency of 99% and a low pressure drop of 7.7 mmH2O at an air flow rate of 80 L/min. The process control methods for the nanonet structures studied herein provide a new approach for developing functional materials for air-filtration applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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14 pages, 8239 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Nanofibers Mats Derived from Task-Specific Polymeric Ionic Liquid for Sensing and Catalytic Applications
by David Valverde, Iván Muñoz, Eduardo García-Verdugo, Belen Altava and Santiago V. Luis
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3110; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183110 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Nanofibers mats derived from the task-specific functionalized polymeric ionic liquids based on homocysteine thiolactone are obtained by electrospinning them as blends with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The presence of this functional moiety allowed the post-functionalization of these mats through the aminolysis of the thiolactone ring in [...] Read more.
Nanofibers mats derived from the task-specific functionalized polymeric ionic liquids based on homocysteine thiolactone are obtained by electrospinning them as blends with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The presence of this functional moiety allowed the post-functionalization of these mats through the aminolysis of the thiolactone ring in the presence of an amine by a thiol–alkene “click” reaction. Under controlled experimental conditions the modification can be performed introducing different functionalization and crosslinking of the electrospun fibers, while maintaining the nanostructure obtained by the electrospinning. Initial studies suggest that the nanofibers based on these functionalized polymeric ionic liquids can be used in both sensing and catalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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13 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
Selective Adsorption and Separation of Proteins by Ligand-Modified Nanofiber Fabric
by Song Liu and Yasuhito Mukai
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142313 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber fabric was modified by Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) to enhance the affinity of the fabric. Batch experiments were performed to study the nanofiber fabric’s bovine hemoglobin (BHb) adsorption capacity at different protein concentrations before and after modification. The [...] Read more.
Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber fabric was modified by Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) to enhance the affinity of the fabric. Batch experiments were performed to study the nanofiber fabric’s bovine hemoglobin (BHb) adsorption capacity at different protein concentrations before and after modification. The maximum BHb adsorption capacity of the modified nanofiber fabric was 686 mg/g, which was much larger than the 58 mg/g of the original fabric. After that, the effect of feed concentration and permeation rate on the dynamic adsorption behaviors for BHb of the nanofiber fabric was investigated. The pH impact on BHb and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption was examined by static adsorption experiments of single protein solutions. The selective separation experiments of the BHb–BSA binary solution were carried out at the optimal pH value, and a high selectivity factor of 5.45 for BHb was achieved. Finally, the reusability of the nanofiber fabric was examined using three adsorption–elution cycle tests. This research demonstrated the potential of the CB-modified PVA nanofiber fabric in protein adsorption and selective separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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12 pages, 5998 KiB  
Article
Nanofiber-Mâché Hollow Ball Mimicking the Three-Dimensional Structure of a Cyst
by Wan-Ying Huang, Norichika Hashimoto, Ryuhei Kitai, Shin-ichiro Suye and Satoshi Fujita
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142273 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
The occasional malignant transformation of intracranial epidermoid cysts into squamous cell carcinomas remains poorly understood; the development of an in vitro cyst model is urgently needed. For this purpose, we designed a hollow nanofiber sphere, the “nanofiber-mâché ball.” This hollow structure was fabricated [...] Read more.
The occasional malignant transformation of intracranial epidermoid cysts into squamous cell carcinomas remains poorly understood; the development of an in vitro cyst model is urgently needed. For this purpose, we designed a hollow nanofiber sphere, the “nanofiber-mâché ball.” This hollow structure was fabricated by electrospinning nanofiber onto alginate hydrogel beads followed by dissolving the beads. A ball with approximately 230 mm3 inner volume provided a fibrous geometry mimicking the topography of the extracellular matrix. Two ducts located on opposite sides provided a route to exchange nutrients and waste. This resulted in a concentration gradient that induced oriented migration, in which seeded cells adhered randomly to the inner surface, formed a highly oriented structure, and then secreted a dense web of collagen fibrils. Circumferentially aligned fibers on the internal interface between the duct and hollow ball inhibited cells from migrating out of the interior, similar to a fish bottle trap. This structure helped to form an adepithelial layer on the inner surface. The novel nanofiber-mâché technique, using a millimeter-sized hollow fibrous scaffold, is excellently suited to investigating cyst physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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10 pages, 1506 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Fibers of Polybutylene Succinate/Graphene Oxide Composite for Syringe-Push Protein Absorption Membrane
by Nuankanya Sathirapongsasuti, Anuchan Panaksri, Sani Boonyagul, Somchai Chutipongtanate and Nuttapol Tanadchangsaeng
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132042 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2306
Abstract
The adsorption of proteins on membranes has been used for simple, low-cost, and minimal sample handling of large volume, low protein abundance liquid samples. Syringe-push membrane absorption (SPMA) is an innovative way to process bio-fluid samples by combining a medical syringe and protein-absorbable [...] Read more.
The adsorption of proteins on membranes has been used for simple, low-cost, and minimal sample handling of large volume, low protein abundance liquid samples. Syringe-push membrane absorption (SPMA) is an innovative way to process bio-fluid samples by combining a medical syringe and protein-absorbable membrane, which makes SPMA a simple, rapid protein and proteomic analysis method. However, the membrane used for SPMA is only limited to commercially available protein-absorbable membrane options. To raise the method’s efficiency, higher protein binding capacity with a lower back pressure membrane is needed. In this research, we fabricated electrospun polybutylene succinate (PBS) membrane and compared it to electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Rolling electrospinning (RE) and non-rolling electrospinning (NRE) were employed to synthesize polymer fibers, resulting in the different characteristics of mechanical and morphological properties. Adding graphene oxide (GO) composite does not affect their mechanical properties; however, electrospun PBS membrane can be applied as a filter membrane and has a higher pore area than electrospun PVDF membrane. Albumin solution filtration was performed using all the electrospun filter membranes by the SPMA technique to measure the protein capture efficiency and staining of the protein on the membranes, and these membranes were compared to the commercial filter membranes—PVDF, nitrocellulose, and Whatman no. 1. A combination of rolling electrospinning with graphene oxide composite and PBS resulted in two times more captured protein when compared to commercial membrane filtration and more than sixfold protein binding than non-composite polymer. The protein staining results further confirmed the enhancement of the protein binding property, showing more intense stained color in compositing polymer with GO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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11 pages, 15969 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis and Incorporation of Sericin Silver Nanoclusters into Electrospun Ultrafine Cellulose Acetate Fibers for Anti-Bacterial Applications
by Mujahid Mehdi, Huihui Qiu, Bing Dai, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Sadam Hussain, Muhammad Yousif, Peng Gao and Zeeshan Khatri
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091411 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Fiber based antibacterial materials have gained an enormous attraction for the researchers in these days. In this study, a novel Sericin Encapsulated Silver Nanoclusters (sericin-AgNCs) were synthesized through single pot and green synthesis route. Subsequently these sericin-AgNCs were incorporated into ultrafine electrospun cellulose [...] Read more.
Fiber based antibacterial materials have gained an enormous attraction for the researchers in these days. In this study, a novel Sericin Encapsulated Silver Nanoclusters (sericin-AgNCs) were synthesized through single pot and green synthesis route. Subsequently these sericin-AgNCs were incorporated into ultrafine electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers for assessing the antibacterial performance. The physicochemical properties of sericin-AgNCs/CA composite fibers were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide X-ray diffraction (XRD). The antibacterial properties of sericin-AgNCs/CA composite fibers against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were systematically evaluated. The results showed that sericin-AgNCs incorporated in ultrafine CA fibers have played a vital role for antibacterial activity. An amount of 0.17 mg/mL sericin-AgNCs to CA fibers showed more than 90% results and elevated upto >99.9% with 1.7 mg/mL of sericin-AgNCs against E. coli. The study indicated that sericin-AgNCs/CA composite confirms an enhanced antibacterial efficiency, which could be used as a promising antibacterial product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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9 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Poly(Ethylene-glycol 1,4-Cyclohexane Dimethylene-Isosorbide-Terephthalate) Electrospun Nanofiber Mats for Potential Infiltration of Fibroblast Cells
by Sofia El-Ghazali, Muzamil Khatri, Mujahid Mehdi, Davood Kharaghani, Yasushi Tamada, Anna Katagiri, Shunichi Kobayashi and Ick Soo Kim
Polymers 2021, 13(8), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081245 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2351
Abstract
Recently, bio-based electrospun nanofiber mats (ENMs) have gained substantial attention for preparing polymer-based biomaterials intended for use in cell culture. Herein, we prepared poly(ethylene-glycol 1,4-Cyclohexane dimethylene-isosorbide-terephthalate) (PEICT) ENMs using the electrospinning technique. Cell adhesion and cell viability of PEICT ENMs were checked by [...] Read more.
Recently, bio-based electrospun nanofiber mats (ENMs) have gained substantial attention for preparing polymer-based biomaterials intended for use in cell culture. Herein, we prepared poly(ethylene-glycol 1,4-Cyclohexane dimethylene-isosorbide-terephthalate) (PEICT) ENMs using the electrospinning technique. Cell adhesion and cell viability of PEICT ENMs were checked by fibroblast cell culture. Field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) image showed a randomly interconnected fiber network, smooth morphology, and cell adhesion on PEICT ENM. Fibroblasts were cultured in an adopted cell culturing environment on the surface of PEICT ENMs to confirm their biocompatibility and cell viability. Additionally, the chemical structure of PEICT ENM was checked under Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the results were supported by -ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The water contact angle (WCA) test showed the hydrophobic behavior of PEICT ENMs in parallel to good fibroblast cell adhesion. Hence, the results confirmed that PEICT ENMs can be potentially utilized as a biomaterial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

27 pages, 5889 KiB  
Review
Polymer-Based Nanofiber–Nanoparticle Hybrids and Their Medical Applications
by Mingxin Zhang, Wenliang Song, Yunxin Tang, Xizi Xu, Yingning Huang and Dengguang Yu
Polymers 2022, 14(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14020351 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 6821
Abstract
The search for higher-quality nanomaterials for medicinal applications continues. There are similarities between electrospun fibers and natural tissues. This property has enabled electrospun fibers to make significant progress in medical applications. However, electrospun fibers are limited to tissue scaffolding applications. When nanoparticles and [...] Read more.
The search for higher-quality nanomaterials for medicinal applications continues. There are similarities between electrospun fibers and natural tissues. This property has enabled electrospun fibers to make significant progress in medical applications. However, electrospun fibers are limited to tissue scaffolding applications. When nanoparticles and nanofibers are combined, the composite material can perform more functions, such as photothermal, magnetic response, biosensing, antibacterial, drug delivery and biosensing. To prepare nanofiber and nanoparticle hybrids (NNHs), there are two primary ways. The electrospinning technology was used to produce NNHs in a single step. An alternate way is to use a self-assembly technique to create nanoparticles in fibers. This paper describes the creation of NNHs from routinely used biocompatible polymer composites. Single-step procedures and self-assembly methodologies are used to discuss the preparation of NNHs. It combines recent research discoveries to focus on the application of NNHs in drug release, antibacterial, and tissue engineering in the last two years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Composite Nanofibers for Functional Applications)
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