Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2023) | Viewed by 19503

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Special Issue Editor

School of Light Industrial and Food Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, China
Interests: hemicellulose; cellulose; lignin; organic acid pretreatment; hydrothermal pretreatment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Efficient separation of cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass is the premise of high-value utilization of cellulose. The separated cellulose is mainly used in chemical, energy, and materials applications. The chemical applications of cellulose mainly consist of hydrolysis and fermentation. Polysaccharides are prepared from the hydrolysis of cellulose. Bioethanol is obtained from the fermentation of cellulose. The preparation of bio-oil is the main research direction of cellulose in the field of energy. In recent years, the excellent application value of cellulose has attracted attention. The preparation, modification, and application of nanocellulose and microcrystalline cellulose in polymer composites will be the main research trend in the future.

The topics of interest for this Special Issue include but are not limited to the keywords listed below. Please do not hesitate to submit your paper to our special issue.

Dr. Shuangquan Yao
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cellulose
  • organic acid pretreatment
  • dissolving pulp
  • enzymolysis
  • nanocellulose
  • modification

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 3709 KiB  
Article
Cellulose Nanofibers/Pectin/Pomegranate Extract Nanocomposite as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Films and Coating for Paper
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4605; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214605 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Bio-based polymer composites find increasing research and industrial interest in different areas of our life. In this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) isolated from sugar beet pulp and nanoemulsion prepared from sugar beet pectin and pomegranate extract (PGE) were used for making films and [...] Read more.
Bio-based polymer composites find increasing research and industrial interest in different areas of our life. In this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) isolated from sugar beet pulp and nanoemulsion prepared from sugar beet pectin and pomegranate extract (PGE) were used for making films and used as coating with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities for paper. For Pectin/PGE nanoemulsion preparation, different ratios of PGE were mixed with pectin using ultrasonic treatment; the antibacterial properties were evaluated to choose the formula with the adequate antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity of the nanoemulsion with the highest antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. The nanoemulsion with the optimum antibacterial activity was mixed with different ratios of CNFs. Mechanical, greaseproof, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial properties of the CNFs/Pectin/PGE films were evaluated. Finally, the CNFs/Pectin/PGE formulation with the highest antibacterial activity was tested as a coating material for paper. Mechanical, greaseproof, and air porosity properties, as well as water vapor permeability and migration of the coated layer from paper sheets in different media were evaluated. The results showed promising applicability of the CNFs/Pectin/PGE as films and coating material with antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as good stability for packaging aqueous, fatty, and acidic food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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12 pages, 4188 KiB  
Article
Pressure-Steam Heat Treatment-Enhanced Anti-Mildew Property of Arc-Shaped Bamboo Sheets
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3644; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173644 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Bamboo is one of the most promising biomass materials in the world. However, the poor anti-mildew property and poor dimensional stability limits its outdoor applications. Current scholars focus on the modification of bamboo through heat treatment. Arc-shaped bamboo sheets are new bamboo products [...] Read more.
Bamboo is one of the most promising biomass materials in the world. However, the poor anti-mildew property and poor dimensional stability limits its outdoor applications. Current scholars focus on the modification of bamboo through heat treatment. Arc-shaped bamboo sheets are new bamboo products for special decoration in daily life. In this paper, we reported pressure-steam heat treatment and explored the effect of pressure-steam on the micro-structure, crystallinity index, anti-mildew, chemical composition, physical properties, and mechanical properties of bamboo via X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), wet chemistry method and nanoindentation (NI). Herein, saturated-steam heat treatment was applied for modified moso bamboo for enhancing the anti-mildew properties and mechanical properties of moso bamboo. Results showed that with the introduction of saturated steam, the content of hemicellulose and cellulose decreased, while the lignin-relative content increased significantly. The anti-mildew property of moso bamboo was enhanced due to the decomposition of polysaccharide. Last, the modulus of elasticity and hardness of treated moso bamboo cell walls were enhanced after saturated-steam heat treatment. For example, the MOE of the treated moso bamboo cell wall increased from 12.7 GPa to 15.7 GPa. This heat treatment strategy can enhance the anti-mildew property of moso bamboo and can gain more attention from entrepreneurs and scholars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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13 pages, 2926 KiB  
Article
Enhancing for Bagasse Enzymolysis via Intercrystalline Swelling of Cellulose Combined with Hydrolysis and Oxidation
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3587; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173587 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
To overcome the biological barriers formed by the lignin–carbohydrate complex for releasing fermentable sugars from cellulose by enzymolysis is both imperative and challenging. In this study, a strategy of intergranular swelling of cellulose combined with hydrolysis and oxidation was demonstrated. Pretreatment of the [...] Read more.
To overcome the biological barriers formed by the lignin–carbohydrate complex for releasing fermentable sugars from cellulose by enzymolysis is both imperative and challenging. In this study, a strategy of intergranular swelling of cellulose combined with hydrolysis and oxidation was demonstrated. Pretreatment of the bagasse was evaluated by one bath treatment with phosphoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The chemical composition, specific surface area (SSA), and pore size of bagasse before and after pretreatment were investigated, while the experiments on the adsorption equilibrium of cellulose to cellulase and reagent reuse were also performed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed for microscopic morphology observations and glucose analysis, respectively. The results showed that pretreated bagasse was deconstructed into cellulose with a nanofibril network, most of the hemicellulose (~100%) and lignin (~98%) were removed, and the SSA and void were enlarged 11- and 5-fold, respectively. This simple, mild preprocessing method enhanced cellulose accessibility and reduced the biological barrier of the noncellulose component to improve the subsequent enzymolysis with a high glucose recovery (98.60%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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13 pages, 6105 KiB  
Article
Effects of Fluorine-Based Modification on Triboelectric Properties of Cellulose
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173536 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
The hydroxyl groups on the cellulose macromolecular chain cause the cellulose surface to have strong reactivity. In this study, 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDOTES) was used to modify cellulose to improve its triboelectric properties, and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was assembled. The introduction [...] Read more.
The hydroxyl groups on the cellulose macromolecular chain cause the cellulose surface to have strong reactivity. In this study, 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDOTES) was used to modify cellulose to improve its triboelectric properties, and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was assembled. The introduction of fluorine groups reduced the surface potential of cellulose and turned it into a negative phase, which enhanced the ability to capture electrons. The electrical properties increased by 30% compared with unmodified cellulose. According to the principles of TENGs, a self-powered human-wearable device was designed using PDOTES-paper, which could detect movements of the human body, such as walking and running, and facilitated a practical method for the preparation of efficient wearable sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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15 pages, 4095 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs)-Nanocellulose Composite and Its Thermal Degradation Studied by TGA/FTIR
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153158 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3104
Abstract
At present, the synthesis methods of crystalline porous materials often involve powder products, which not only affects the practical application but also has complex synthesis operations and limited scale. Based on the mechanochemical method, we choose COF-TpPa-1, preparing TpPa-1-DANC composites. Covalent organic frameworks [...] Read more.
At present, the synthesis methods of crystalline porous materials often involve powder products, which not only affects the practical application but also has complex synthesis operations and limited scale. Based on the mechanochemical method, we choose COF-TpPa-1, preparing TpPa-1-DANC composites. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a kind of crystalline material formed by covalent bonds of light elements. COFs possess well pore structure and high thermal stability. However, the state of synthesized powders limits their application. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising renewable micron materials with abundant hydroxyl groups on their surface. It is possible to prepare high-strength materials such as film, water, and aerogel. Firstly, the nanocellulose was oxidized by the sodium periodate method to obtain aldehyde cellulose nanocrystals (DANC). TpPa-1-DANC not only had the crystal characteristic peak of COFs at 2θ ≈ 5° but also had a BET surface area of 247 m2/g. The chemical bonds between COFs and DANC formed by Schiff base reaction appeared in FTIR and XPS. The pyrolysis behavior of the composite was characterized by TG-IR, which showed that the composite had good thermal stability. With the advantages of nanocellulose as a material in every dimension, we believe that this method can be conducive to the large-scale synthesis of COFs composites, and has the possibility of multi-form synthesis of COFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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14 pages, 4087 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Structural Elucidation of Lignin and Cellulose Isolated Using DES from Bagasse Based on Alkaline and Hydrothermal Pretreatment
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142756 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
The separation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components using deep eutectic solvent, which is a green solvent, to obtain corresponding chemicals can realize the effective separation and high-value utilization of these components at low cost. In this study, we used waste biomass sugarcane [...] Read more.
The separation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components using deep eutectic solvent, which is a green solvent, to obtain corresponding chemicals can realize the effective separation and high-value utilization of these components at low cost. In this study, we used waste biomass sugarcane bagasse as the raw material, choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor, and lactic acid as the hydrogen bond donor to synthesize a deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride/lactic acid (L-DES) and treated sugarcane bagasse pretreated by alkali or hydrothermal methods to separate cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In addition, we comparatively studied the effect of different pretreatment methods on lignin removal by DES and found that the lignin removal rate by L-DES after alkaline pretreatment was significantly higher than that after hydrothermal pretreatment, and the mechanism of action causing this difference is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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11 pages, 7541 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Mechanism of Chloropropanol by Crystalline Nanocellulose
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091746 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Paper packaging materials are widely used as sustainable green materials in food packaging. The production or processing of paper materials is conducted in an environment that contains organic chlorides; therefore, potential food safety issues exist. In this study, the adsorption behavior of organic [...] Read more.
Paper packaging materials are widely used as sustainable green materials in food packaging. The production or processing of paper materials is conducted in an environment that contains organic chlorides; therefore, potential food safety issues exist. In this study, the adsorption behavior of organic chlorides on paper materials was investigated. Chloropropanol, which has been extensively studied in the field of food safety, was employed as the research object. We studied the adsorption mechanism of chloropropanol on a crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) model. The results demonstrated that physical adsorption was the prevailing process, and the intermolecular hydrogen bonds acted as the driving force for adsorption. The adsorption effect assumed greatest significance under neutral and weakly alkaline conditions. A good linear relationship between the amount of chloropropanol adsorbed and the amount of CNC used was discovered. Thus, the findings of this study are crucial in monitoring the safety of products in systems containing chloropropanol and other chlorinated organic substances. This is particularly critical in the production of food-grade paper packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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13 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Demineralization and Pyrolysis Performance of Eucalyptus Hydrothermal Pretreatment
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071333 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The preparation of bio-oil through biomass pyrolysis is promoted by different demineralization processes to remove alkali and alkaline earth metal elements (AAEMs). In this study, the hydrothermal pretreatment demineralization was optimized by the response surface method. The pretreatment temperature, time and pH were [...] Read more.
The preparation of bio-oil through biomass pyrolysis is promoted by different demineralization processes to remove alkali and alkaline earth metal elements (AAEMs). In this study, the hydrothermal pretreatment demineralization was optimized by the response surface method. The pretreatment temperature, time and pH were the response elements, and the total dissolution rates of potassium, calcium and magnesium were the response values. The interactions of response factors for AAEMs removal were analyzed. The interaction between temperature and time was significant. The optimal AAEMs removal process was obtained with a reaction temperature of 172.98 °C, time of 59.77 min, and pH of 3.01. The optimal dissolution rate of AAEMs was 47.59%. The thermal stability of eucalyptus with and without pretreatment was analyzed by TGA. The hydrothermal pretreatment samples exhibit higher thermostability. The composition and distribution of pyrolysis products of different samples were analyzed by Py-GC/MS. The results showed that the content of sugars and high-quality bio-oil (C6, C7, C8 and C9) were 60.74% and 80.99%, respectively, by hydrothermal pretreatment. These results show that the removal of AAEMs through hydrothermal pretreatment not only improves the yield of bio-oil, but also improves the quality of bio-oil and promotes an upgrade in the quality of bio-oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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14 pages, 3487 KiB  
Article
Hemicellulose and Nano/Microfibrils Improving the Pliability and Hydrophobic Properties of Cellulose Film by Interstitial Filling and Forming Micro/Nanostructure
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071297 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
In this paper, nano/microfibrils were applied to enhance the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of the sugarcane bagasse fiber films. The successful preparation of nano/microfibrils was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fiber length analyzer (FLA), and ion chromatography (IC). The [...] Read more.
In this paper, nano/microfibrils were applied to enhance the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of the sugarcane bagasse fiber films. The successful preparation of nano/microfibrils was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fiber length analyzer (FLA), and ion chromatography (IC). The transparency, morphology, mechanical and hydrophobic properties of the cellulose films were evaluated. The results show that the nanoparticle was formed by the hemicellulose diffusing on the surface of the cellulose and agglomerating in the film-forming process at 40 °C. The elastic modulus of the cellulose film was as high as 4140.60 MPa, and the water contact angle was increased to 113°. The micro/nanostructures were formed due to hemicellulose adsorption on nano/microfilament surfaces. The hydrophobicity of the films was improved. The directional crystallization of nano/microfibrous molecules was found. Cellulose films with a high elastic modulus and high elasticity were obtained. It provides theoretical support for the preparation of high-performance cellulose film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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Review

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32 pages, 4786 KiB  
Review
Nanocellulose-Based Passivated-Carbon Quantum Dots (P-CQDs) for Antimicrobial Applications: A Practical Review
Polymers 2023, 15(12), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15122660 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Passivated-carbon quantum dots (P-CQDs) have been attracting great interest as an antimicrobial therapy tool due to their bright fluorescence, lack of toxicity, eco-friendly nature, simple synthetic schemes, and possession of photocatalytic functions comparable to those present in traditional nanometric semiconductors. Besides synthetic precursors, [...] Read more.
Passivated-carbon quantum dots (P-CQDs) have been attracting great interest as an antimicrobial therapy tool due to their bright fluorescence, lack of toxicity, eco-friendly nature, simple synthetic schemes, and possession of photocatalytic functions comparable to those present in traditional nanometric semiconductors. Besides synthetic precursors, CQDs can be synthesized from a plethora of natural resources including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Converting MCC into NCC is performed chemically via the top-down route, while synthesizing CODs from NCC can be performed via the bottom-up route. Due to the good surface charge status with the NCC precursor, we focused in this review on synthesizing CQDs from nanocelluloses (MCC and NCC) since they could become a potential source for fabricating carbon quantum dots that are affected by pyrolysis temperature. There are several P-CQDs synthesized with a wide spectrum of featured properties, namely functionalized carbon quantum dots (F-CQDs) and passivated carbon quantum dots (P-CQDs). There are two different important P-CQDs, namely 2,2′-ethylenedioxy-bis-ethylamine (EDA-CQDs) and 3-ethoxypropylamine (EPA-CQDs), that have achieved desirable results in the antiviral therapy field. Since NoV is the most common dangerous cause of nonbacterial, acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, this review deals with NoV in detail. The surficial charge status (SCS) of the P-CQDs plays an important role in their interactions with NoVs. The EDA-CQDs were found to be more effective than EPA-CQDs in inhibiting the NoV binding. This difference may be attributed to their SCS as well as the virus surface. EDA-CQDs with surficial terminal amino (-NH2) groups are positively charged at physiological pH (-NH3+), whereas EPA-CQDs with surficial terminal methyl groups (-CH3) are not charged. Since the NoV particles are negatively charged, they are attracted to the positively charged EDA-CQDs, resulting in enhancing the P-CQDs concentration around the virus particles. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to be comparable to the P-CQDs in the non-specific binding with NoV capsid proteins, through complementary charges, π-π stacking, and/or hydrophobic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Applications, and Future Perspectives)
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