Special Issue "Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Amit Kumar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari 09123, Italy
Interests: molecular dynamics simulations; density functional theory; protein–ligand; protein–protein interactions; biochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biopolymers display versatile properties with applications in medicine, pharmaceutical, food packaging, electronics, tissue engineering, agriculture, and forestry. Promising physicochemical and bioactive properties have established their use as wound dressing materials, and in cosmetics too. Proteins are one of the most studied biopolymers, which play an important task in recognition, bioenergetics, and interactions in biologically relevant model systems. This issue provides an opportunity to discuss trends in the field of biopolymers for medical, macromolecules, and food applications.

Dr. Amit Kumar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biopolymers
  • proteins
  • enzyme
  • medical applications
  • macromolecules applications
  • food applications

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Inhibitory Effects of Pectic Polysaccharide Isolated from Diospyros kaki Leaves on Tumor Cell Angiogenesis via VEGF and MMP-9 Regulation
Polymers 2021, 13(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010064 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Persimmon leaves are an attractive source of phytochemicals with potential health benefits. However, there are only a few reports on the chemical properties and biological activity of the polysaccharide fractions (PLE-I–III) of persimmon leaves. We evaluated the angiogenesis-inhibiting ability of pectic-polysaccharides. The molecular [...] Read more.
Persimmon leaves are an attractive source of phytochemicals with potential health benefits. However, there are only a few reports on the chemical properties and biological activity of the polysaccharide fractions (PLE-I–III) of persimmon leaves. We evaluated the angiogenesis-inhibiting ability of pectic-polysaccharides. The molecular weight of PLEs was determined using a high-performance size-exclusion chromatography system. Tube formation assay of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was performed using Matrigel-coated 96-well plates. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), PI3K, Akt, and p38 phosphorylation levels were determined using Western blotting; VEGF and MMP-9 transcript levels were measured using SYBR Green qRT-PCR. PLE-I–III significantly inhibited HUVEC tube formation at 12.5 and 25 μg/mL. Among them, PLE-II showed the strongest anti-tube formation activity, and the mRNA/protein expression of angiogenesis-related factors (VEGF/MMP-9) was significantly reduced by PLE-II. PLE-II also suppressed the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and p38, JNK, and NF-κB p65 in HUVECs. These results suggest that the polysaccharide PLE-II isolated from persimmon leaves inhibited VEGF and MMP-9 expression in HUVECs via regulation of PI3K/AKT, p38, JNK, and NF-κB p65 signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Efficient Biofilms Eradication by Enzymatic-Cocktail of Pancreatic Protease Type-I and Bacterial α-Amylase
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12123032 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Removal of biofilms is extremely pivotal in environmental and medicinal fields. Therefore, reporting the new-enzymes and their combinations for dispersal of infectious biofilms can be extremely critical. Herein, for the first time, we accessed the enzyme “protease from bovine pancreas type-I (PtI)” for [...] Read more.
Removal of biofilms is extremely pivotal in environmental and medicinal fields. Therefore, reporting the new-enzymes and their combinations for dispersal of infectious biofilms can be extremely critical. Herein, for the first time, we accessed the enzyme “protease from bovine pancreas type-I (PtI)” for anti-biofilm properties. We further investigated the anti-biofilm potential of PtI in combination with α-amylase from Bacillus sp. (αA). PtI showed a very significant biofilm inhibition effect (86.5%, 88.4%, and 67%) and biofilm prevention effect (66%, 64%, and 70%), against the E. coli, S. aureus, and MRSA, respectively. However, the new enzyme combination (Ec-PtI+αA) exhibited biofilm inhibition effect (78%, 90%, and 93%) and a biofilm prevention effect (44%, 51%, and 77%) against E. coli, S. aureus, and MRSA, respectively. The studied enzymes were found not to be anti-bacterial against the E. coli, S. aureus, and MRSA. In summary, the PtI exhibited significant anti-biofilm effects against S. aureus, MRSA, and E. coli. Ec-PtI+αA exhibited enhancement of the anti-biofilm effects against S. aureus and MRSA biofilms. Therefore, this study revealed that this Ec-PtI+αA enzymatic system can be extremely vital for the treatment of biofilm complications resulting from E. coli, S. aureus, and MRSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Bioactive Protecting Coating of Guar Gum with Thyme Oil to Extend Shelf Life of Tilapia (Oreoschromis niloticus) Fillets
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12123019 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Edible coatings are safe, legal, and sensory acceptable for food applications and they can be incorporated as natural additives due to their antimicrobial activity, thickening capacity, nutrient content, and bioactive agents for protecting seafood from physical, chemical, and microbiological damage that affects its [...] Read more.
Edible coatings are safe, legal, and sensory acceptable for food applications and they can be incorporated as natural additives due to their antimicrobial activity, thickening capacity, nutrient content, and bioactive agents for protecting seafood from physical, chemical, and microbiological damage that affects its shelf-life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the guar gum bioactive coating with thyme oil on the quality of tilapia fish fillets for 15 days of storage at 4 °C, as a means to extend shelf-life. pH, moisture, ash, fat, color, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), microbiological, and sensory examinations were investigated, and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance. The treatments were control (uncoated, UC), GGC (coated with guar gum, GGC), and guar gum combined with thyme oil (GGCTH). Tilapia fillets were stored at 4 °C, the safe temperature for refrigerated storage for 15 days. GGCTH had a slower increase of pH after 15 days of storage in comparison with GGC and UC (p < 0.05). GGC and GGCTH resulted in lower and lowest lightness (L*; p < 0.05) values, lower and lowest redness (a*; p < 0.01) values, and greater and greatest yellowness (b*; p < 0.05) values compared to UC, respectively. UC reduced shear force at 5 (0.37 kgf), 10 (0.32 kgf), and 15 (0.30 kgf) days post-storage in comparison with GGC (0.43, 0.43, and 0.43 kgf) and GGCTH (0.43, 0.44, and 0.44 kgf), respectively. There was less (p < 0.05) deterioration, as well as differences in textural and sensorial variables between uncoated and coated fish fillets. The microbiological analyses demonstrated that there was greater microbial growth in the uncoated fillets than in the coated ones. It was concluded that this bioactive coating with thyme oil retards microbial colonization of fish and reduces degradability of quality variables, therefore, it is a reliable and effective alternative to extend the shelf-life of tilapia fillets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Chitosan by γ-Irradiation from the Carapace of Horseshoe Crab
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102361 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Natural product extraction is ingenuity that permits the mass manufacturing of specific products in a cost-effective manner. With the aim of obtaining an alternative chitosan supply, the carapace of dead horseshoe crabs seemed feasible. This sparked an investigation of the structural changes and [...] Read more.
Natural product extraction is ingenuity that permits the mass manufacturing of specific products in a cost-effective manner. With the aim of obtaining an alternative chitosan supply, the carapace of dead horseshoe crabs seemed feasible. This sparked an investigation of the structural changes and antioxidant capacity of horseshoe crab chitosan (HCH) by γ-irradiation using 60Co source. Chitosan was extracted from the horseshoe crab (Tachypleus gigas; Müller) carapace using heterogeneous chemical N-deacetylation of chitin, followed by the irradiation of HCH using 60Co at a dose-dependent rate of 10 kGy/hour. The average molecular weight was determined by the viscosimetric method. Regarding the chemical properties, the crystal-like structures obtained from γ-irradiated chitosan powders were determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The change in chitosan structure was evident with dose-dependent rates between 10 and 20 kGy/hour. The antioxidant properties of horseshoe crab-derived chitosan were evaluated in vitro. The 20 kGy γ-irradiation applied to chitosan changed the structure and reduced the molecular weight, providing sufficient degradation for an increase in antioxidant activity. Our findings indicate that horseshoe crab chitosan can be employed for both scald-wound healing and long-term food preservation due to its buffer-like and radical ion scavenging ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Characterization of Flaxseed Oil Bimodal Emulsions Prepared with Flaxseed Oil Cake Extract Applied as a Natural Emulsifying Agent
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102207 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Currently, a majority of oilseeds plants are converted into byproducts and waste materials during processing. Press cakes are rich in valuable biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides (fiber, lignans, etc.). In this study flaxseed oil cake extract (FOCE) was used to stabilize flaxseed [...] Read more.
Currently, a majority of oilseeds plants are converted into byproducts and waste materials during processing. Press cakes are rich in valuable biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides (fiber, lignans, etc.). In this study flaxseed oil cake extract (FOCE) was used to stabilize flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. The effect of FOCE with various flaxseed oil concentrations (10–50% v/v) on several physicochemical properties of emulsions, such as stability, rheology, color and particle size was investigated. The rheological parameters suggested that all samples were non-Newtonian fluids, whereas particle size measurements and calculation SPAN index provided information about the broadness of emulsions particle size distribution. FOCE was able to efficiently stabilize oil/water interfaces with a high oil content. Results obtained for FOCE were compared with effects for synthetic emulsifier (Tween 80) and separated FOCE compounds (flaxseed gum and flaxseed protein). FOCE emulsifying activity is a result of different water-holding and oil-binding capacities of flaxseed gum and protein. This result is an intriguing conclusion regarding the necessity for using pure emulsifiers, showing the possibility of using a bio-based extract containing biopolymers, which is part of the principles of circular economy and the idea of zero-waste. The results give the opportunity to use FOCE as an ingredient in efficient flaxseed oil emulsions stabilizer for food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Enhanced Intestinal Immune Response in Mice after Oral Administration of Korea Red Ginseng-Derived Polysaccharide
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102186 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
(1) Background: The immunostimulatory role of the polysaccharide fraction (KRG-P) of Korea red ginseng (KRG) was studied in cells. However, its immunomodulatory activity is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the chemical properties of KRG-P and its intestinal immune responses in vitro and in vivo. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The immunostimulatory role of the polysaccharide fraction (KRG-P) of Korea red ginseng (KRG) was studied in cells. However, its immunomodulatory activity is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the chemical properties of KRG-P and its intestinal immune responses in vitro and in vivo. (2) Methods: KRG-P monosaccharide composition and molecular weight were determined using high-performance liquid and size-exclusion chromatography systems. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and α-defensin-1 transcript levels were measured using a SYBR Green qRT-PCR; defensin-1, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IgA protein levels were determined using Western blotting and ELISA kits. (3) Results: The molecular weight of KRG-P was estimated to be 106 kDa, and it contained neutral sugar (74.3%), uronic acid (24.6%), and proteins (1%). In vitro studies of intestinal immunomodulatory activity of KRG-P indicated that GM-CSF and IgA levels increased in Peyer’s patch cells to higher levels than those obtained with KRG and induced bone marrow cell proliferation. In in vivo study, oral KRG-P administration to mice upregulated the expression of α-defensin-1 and IgA in the small intestinal tissue and that of secreted IgA in the feces. (4) Conclusions: KRG-P contributed to the modulation of intestinal immunity and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis against intestinal infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Denaturation Behavior and Kinetics of Single- and Multi-Component Protein Systems at Extrusion-Like Conditions
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12092145 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
In this study, the influence of defined extrusion-like treatment conditions on the denaturation behavior and kinetics of single- and multi-component protein model systems at a protein concentration of 70% (w/w) was investigated. α-Lactalbumin (αLA) and β-Lactoglobulin (βLG), and whey protein isolate [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of defined extrusion-like treatment conditions on the denaturation behavior and kinetics of single- and multi-component protein model systems at a protein concentration of 70% (w/w) was investigated. α-Lactalbumin (αLA) and β-Lactoglobulin (βLG), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were selected as single- and multi-component protein model systems, respectively. To apply defined extrusion-like conditions, treatment temperatures in the range of 60 and 100 °C, shear rates from 0.06 to 50 s⁻1, and treatment times up to 90 s were chosen. While an aggregation onset temperature was determined at approximately 73 °C for WPI systems at a shear rate of 0.06 s⁻1, two significantly different onset temperatures were determined when the shear rate was increased to 25 and 50 s⁻1. These two different onset temperatures could be related to the main fractions present in whey protein (βLG and αLA), suggesting shear-induced phase separation. Application of additional mechanical treatment resulted in an increase in reaction rates for all the investigated systems. Denaturation was found to follow 2.262 and 1.865 order kinetics for αLA and WPI, respectively. The reaction order of WPI might have resulted from a combination of a lower reaction order in the unsheared system (i.e., fractional first order) and higher reaction order for sheared systems, probably due to phase separation, leading to isolated behavior of each fraction at the local level (i.e., fractional second order). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Article
Ciprofloxacin-Collagen-Based Materials with Potential Oral Surgical Applications
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12091915 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
We report in this paper the synthesis and characterization of a new collagen-based material. This material was obtained in a spongy form and was functionalized with an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. The targeted applications of these kind of materials concern the post-operative prophylaxis. The in [...] Read more.
We report in this paper the synthesis and characterization of a new collagen-based material. This material was obtained in a spongy form and was functionalized with an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. The targeted applications of these kind of materials concern the post-operative prophylaxis. The in vitro tests (antimicrobial, cytotoxic, drug release) showed that sponges with a concentration of 0.75 g of ciprofloxacin per gram of collagen could be beneficial for the desired applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Review

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Review
Modified Fish Gelatin as an Alternative to Mammalian Gelatin in Modern Food Technologies
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12123051 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
This review considers the main properties of fish gelatin that determine its use in food technologies. A comparative analysis of the amino acid composition of gelatin from cold-water and warm-water fish species, in comparison with gelatin from mammals, which is traditionally used in [...] Read more.
This review considers the main properties of fish gelatin that determine its use in food technologies. A comparative analysis of the amino acid composition of gelatin from cold-water and warm-water fish species, in comparison with gelatin from mammals, which is traditionally used in the food industry, is presented. Fish gelatin is characterized by a reduced content of proline and hydroxyproline which are responsible for the formation of collagen-like triple helices. For this reason, fish gelatin gels are less durable and have lower gelation and melting temperatures than mammalian gelatin. These properties impose significant restrictions on the use of fish gelatin in the technology of gelled food as an alternative to porcine and bovine gelatin. This problem can be solved by modifying the functional characteristics of fish gelatin by adding natural ionic polysaccharides, which, under certain conditions, are capable of forming polyelectrolyte complexes with gelatin, creating additional nodes in the spatial network of the gel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Review
Circular Intensity Differential Scattering for Label-Free Chromatin Characterization: A Review for Optical Microscopy
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102428 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) provides a differential measurement of the circular right and left polarized light and has been proven to be a gold standard label-free technique to study the molecular conformation of complex biopolymers, such as chromatin. In early works, it [...] Read more.
Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) provides a differential measurement of the circular right and left polarized light and has been proven to be a gold standard label-free technique to study the molecular conformation of complex biopolymers, such as chromatin. In early works, it has been shown that the scattering component of the CIDS signal gives information from the long-range chiral organization on a scale down to 1/10th–1/20th of the excitation wavelength, leading to information related to the structure and orientation of biopolymers in situ at the nanoscale. In this paper, we review the typical methods and technologies employed for measuring this signal coming from complex macro-molecules ordering. Additionally, we include a general description of the experimental architectures employed for spectroscopic CIDS measurements, angular or spectral, and of the most recent advances in the field of optical imaging microscopy, allowing a visualization of the chromatin organization in situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Review
Alginate: From Food Industry to Biomedical Applications and Management of Metabolic Disorders
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102417 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Initially used extensively as an additive and ingredient in the food industry, alginate has become an important compound for a wide range of industries and applications, such as the medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors. In the food industry, alginate has been used to [...] Read more.
Initially used extensively as an additive and ingredient in the food industry, alginate has become an important compound for a wide range of industries and applications, such as the medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors. In the food industry, alginate has been used to coat fruits and vegetables, as a microbial and viral protection product, and as a gelling, thickening, stabilizing or emulsifying agent. Its biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity and the possibility of it being used in quantum satis doses prompted scientists to explore new properties for alginate usage. Thus, the use of alginate has been expanded so as to be directed towards the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries, where studies have shown that it can be used successfully as biomaterial for wound, hydrogel, and aerogel dressings, among others. Furthermore, the ability to encapsulate natural substances has led to the possibility of using alginate as a drug coating and drug delivery agent, including the encapsulation of probiotics. This is important considering the fact that, until recently, encapsulation and coating agents used in the pharmaceutical industry were limited to the use of lactose, a potentially allergenic agent or gelatin. Obtained at a relatively low cost from marine brown algae, this hydrocolloid can also be used as a potential tool in the management of diabetes, not only as an insulin delivery agent but also due to its ability to improve insulin resistance, attenuate chronic inflammation and decrease oxidative stress. In addition, alginate has been recognized as a potential weight loss treatment, as alginate supplementation has been used as an adjunct treatment to energy restriction, to enhance satiety and improve weight loss in obese individuals. Thus, alginate holds the promise of an effective product used in the food industry as well as in the management of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. This review highlights recent research advances on the characteristics of alginate and brings to the forefront the beneficial aspects of using alginate, from the food industry to the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Review
Antimicrobial Activities of Starch-Based Biopolymers and Biocomposites Incorporated with Plant Essential Oils: A Review
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102403 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Recently, many scientists and polymer engineers have been working on eco-friendly materials for starch-based food packaging purposes, which are based on biopolymers, due to the health and environmental issues caused by the non-biodegradable food packaging. However, to maintain food freshness and quality, it [...] Read more.
Recently, many scientists and polymer engineers have been working on eco-friendly materials for starch-based food packaging purposes, which are based on biopolymers, due to the health and environmental issues caused by the non-biodegradable food packaging. However, to maintain food freshness and quality, it is necessary to choose the correct materials and packaging technologies. On the other hand, the starch-based film’s biggest flaws are high permeability to water vapor transfer and the ease of spoilage by bacteria and fungi. One of the several possibilities that are being extensively studied is the incorporation of essential oils (EOs) into the packaging material. The EOs used in food packaging films actively prevent inhibition of bacteria and fungi and have a positive effect on food storage. This work intended to present their mechanical and barrier properties, as well as the antimicrobial activity of anti-microbacterial agent reinforced starch composites for extending product shelf life. A better inhibition of zone of antimicrobial activity was observed with higher content of essential oil. Besides that, the mechanical properties of starch-based polymer was slightly decreased for tensile strength as the increasing of essential oil while elongation at break was increased. The increasing of essential oil would cause the reduction of the cohesion forces of polymer chain, creating heterogeneous matrix and subsequently lowering the tensile strength and increasing the elongation (E%) of the films. The present review demonstrated that the use of essential oil represents an interesting alternative for the production of active packaging and for the development of eco-friendly technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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Review
Bacterial Nanocellulose—A Biobased Polymer for Active and Intelligent Food Packaging Applications: Recent Advances and Developments
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102209 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3576
Abstract
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent findings related to bacterial cellulose application in bio-packaging industry. This constantly growing sector fulfils a major role by the maintenance of product safety and quality, protection against environmental impacts that affect [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent findings related to bacterial cellulose application in bio-packaging industry. This constantly growing sector fulfils a major role by the maintenance of product safety and quality, protection against environmental impacts that affect the shelf life. Conventional petroleum-based plastic packaging are still rarely recyclable and have a number of harmful environmental effects. Herein, we discuss the most recent studies on potential good alternative to plastic packaging—bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), known as an ecological, safe, biodegradable, and chemically pure biopolymer. The limitations of this bio-based packaging material, including relatively poor mechanical properties or lack of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, can be successfully overcome by its modification with a wide variety of bioactive and reinforcing compounds. BNC active and intelligent food packaging offer a new and innovative approach to extend the shelf life and maintain, improve, or monitor product quality and safety. Incorporation of different agents BNC matrices allows to obtain e.g., antioxidant-releasing films, moisture absorbers, antimicrobial membranes or pH, freshness and damage indicators, humidity, and other biosensors. However, further development and implementation of this kind of bio-packaging will highly depend on the final performance and cost-effectiveness for the industry and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers for Medicinal, Macromolecules, and Food Applications)
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