Special Issue "Biomaterials in Medical Applications"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hsiuying Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Institute of Statistics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
2. Institute of Statistics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis; microRNA; molecular biomarkers; phylogenetic analysis; bioinformatics; industry statistics; microrna
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural biomaterials are materials extracted from a living organism that have the advantages of non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In recent years, the use of natural biomaterials has steadily increased due to the high demand for medical applications. They have been successfully used as hydrogels, scaffolds, matrices, and implants in tissue engineering, wound management, drug delivery, and nanotechnology. Since the demand for polymers in medical applications has been significantly increasing, more advanced research on extracting biomaterials, exploring new biomaterials, and developing the biomaterial industry is particularly important.

In addition, although biodegradability is an advantage of biomaterials, it is also a disadvantage because they may easily suffer from wear and tear due to intensive interaction with the body. Hence, more studies investigating the effect of biomaterial treatment and understanding the related biological mechanisms can contribute to the efficient use of biomaterial in medical applications.

Therefore, this Special Issue on Biomaterials in Medical Applications invites submissions of reviews and original papers that cover any interesting biomaterial topics on the effect of biomaterial therapy, biological mechanism of biomaterials, biomedical applications, tissue engineering, and other related subjects.

Prof. Dr. Hsiuying Wang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • biomaterial therapy
  • biomaterial industry
  • biomedical applications
  • biological mechanism
  • tissue engineering

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Multifunctional Biodegradable Vascular PLLA Scaffold with Improved X-ray Opacity, Anti-Inflammation, and Re-Endothelization
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121979 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) has been used as a biodegradable vascular scaffold (BVS) material due to high mechanical property, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. However, acidic byproducts from hydrolysis of PLLA reduce the pH after the surrounding implanted area and cause inflammatory responses. As a result, [...] Read more.
Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) has been used as a biodegradable vascular scaffold (BVS) material due to high mechanical property, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. However, acidic byproducts from hydrolysis of PLLA reduce the pH after the surrounding implanted area and cause inflammatory responses. As a result, severe inflammation, thrombosis, and in-stent restenosis can occur after implantation by using BVS. Additionally, polymers such as PLLA could not find on X-ray computed tomography (CT) because of low radiopacity. To this end, here, we fabricated PLLA films as the surface of BVS and divided PLLA films into two coating layers. At the first layer, PLLA film was coated by 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) with poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) for radiopaque and neutralization of acidic environment, respectively. The second layer of coated PLLA films is composed of polydopamine (PDA) and then cystamine (Cys) for the generation of nitric oxide (NO) release, which is needed for suppression of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). The characterization of the film surface was conducted via various analyses. Through the surface modification of PLLA films, they have multifunctional abilities to overcome problems of BVS effectively such as X-ray penetrability, inflammation, thrombosis, and neointimal hyperplasia. These results suggest that the modification of biodegradable PLLA using TIBA, MH, PDA, and Cys will have important potential in implant applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Medical Applications)
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Article
An In-Vitro Evaluation of the Characteristics of Zein-Based Films for the Release of Lactobionic Acid and the Effects of Oleic Acid
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111826 - 31 May 2021
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Abstract
Lactobionic acid (LBA) is widely used in different industrial sectors owing to its biocompatibility characteristics as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In this study, mixtures of the protein zein with LBA and with the addition of oleic acid (OA) as a ternary [...] Read more.
Lactobionic acid (LBA) is widely used in different industrial sectors owing to its biocompatibility characteristics as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In this study, mixtures of the protein zein with LBA and with the addition of oleic acid (OA) as a ternary system were investigated as drug delivery films for the release of LBA. The chosen combinations exploit the vast difference in water solubility between LBA and the other two components (zein and OA). DSC thermograms and dynamic mechanical spectra, alongside electron microscopy images, were used to describe the microstructural features of the films and were found to provide insights for the release of LBA from the two examined zein-based films immersed in an aqueous physiological solution. For both film systems, a burst release behavior was observed, followed by a rapid and total extraction of LBA. The required immersion time for the total extraction of LBA was greatly reduced when oleic acid was added to the precursor solution mixture for producing the films. The LBA released from the zein-based films was found to exhibit both the expected antioxidant properties as well as exerting bacteriostatic effects towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Medical Applications)
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Methacrylated Kefiran Hydrogels: Towards Tissue Engineering Applications
Polymers 2021, 13(8), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081342 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
Hydrogel application feasibility is still limited mainly due to their low mechanical strength and fragile nature. Therefore, several physical and chemical cross-linking modifications are being used to improve their properties. In this research, methacrylated Kefiran was synthesized by reacting Kefiran with methacrylic anhydride [...] Read more.
Hydrogel application feasibility is still limited mainly due to their low mechanical strength and fragile nature. Therefore, several physical and chemical cross-linking modifications are being used to improve their properties. In this research, methacrylated Kefiran was synthesized by reacting Kefiran with methacrylic anhydride (MA). The developed MA-Kefiran was physicochemically characterized, and its biological properties evaluated by different techniques. Chemical modification of MA-Kefiran was confirmed by 1H-NMR and FTIR and GPC-SEC showed an average Mw of 793 kDa (PDI 1.3). The mechanical data obtained revealed MA-Kefiran to be a pseudoplastic fluid with an extrusion force of 11.21 ± 2.87 N. Moreover, MA-Kefiran 3D cryogels were successfully developed and fully characterized. Through micro-CT and SEM, the scaffolds revealed high porosity (85.53 ± 0.15%) and pore size (33.67 ± 3.13 μm), thick pore walls (11.92 ± 0.44 μm) and a homogeneous structure. Finally, MA-Kefiran revealed to be biocompatible by presenting no hemolytic activity and an improved cellular function of L929 cells observed through the AlamarBlue® assay. By incorporating methacrylate groups in the Kefiran polysaccharide chain, a MA-Kefiran product was developed with remarkable physical, mechanical, and biological properties, resulting in a promising hydrogel to be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Medical Applications)
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Review

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Review
Recent Advances in Chemically-Modified and Hybrid Carrageenan-Based Platforms for Drug Delivery, Wound Healing, and Tissue Engineering
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111744 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Recently, many studies have focused on carrageenan-based hydrogels for biomedical applications thanks to their intrinsic properties, including biodegradability, biocompatibility, resembling native glycosaminoglycans, antioxidants, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and anticoagulant properties. They can easily change to three-dimensional hydrogels using a simple ionic crosslinking process. However, there [...] Read more.
Recently, many studies have focused on carrageenan-based hydrogels for biomedical applications thanks to their intrinsic properties, including biodegradability, biocompatibility, resembling native glycosaminoglycans, antioxidants, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and anticoagulant properties. They can easily change to three-dimensional hydrogels using a simple ionic crosslinking process. However, there are some limitations, including the uncontrollable exchange of ions and the formation of a brittle hydrogel, which can be overcome via simple chemical modifications of polymer networks to form chemically crosslinked hydrogels with significant mechanical properties and a controlled degradation rate. Additionally, the incorporation of various types of nanoparticles and polymer networks into carrageenan hydrogels has resulted in the formation of hybrid platforms with significant mechanical, chemical and biological properties, making them suitable biomaterials for drug delivery (DD), tissue engineering (TE), and wound healing applications. Herein, we aim to overview the recent advances in various chemical modification approaches and hybrid carrageenan-based platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Medical Applications)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Collagen Matrix vs. Autogenous Connective Tissue Graft for Soft Tissue Augmentation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111810 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Soft tissues have been shown to be critical for the maintenance of both teeth and implants. Currently, regenerative soft tissue techniques propose the use of collagen matrices, which can avoid the drawbacks derived from the obtainment of autogenous tissue graft. A systematic review [...] Read more.
Soft tissues have been shown to be critical for the maintenance of both teeth and implants. Currently, regenerative soft tissue techniques propose the use of collagen matrices, which can avoid the drawbacks derived from the obtainment of autogenous tissue graft. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of collagen matrices (CM) compared to autogenous connective tissue graft (CTG) to improve soft tissue dimensions. An electronic and manual literature searches were performed to identify randomized clinical trials (RCT) or controlled clinical trials (CCT) that compared CTG and CM. Pooled data of width of keratinized tissue (KT) and mucosal thickness (MT) were collected and weighted means were calculated. Heterogeneity was determined using Higgins (I2). If I2 > 50% a random-effects model was applied. Nineteen studies were included based on the eligibility criteria. When using CTG a higher MT gain (0.32 mm, ranging from 0.49 to 0.16 mm) was obtained than when employing CM. Similar result was obtained for the width of KT gain, that was 0.46 mm higher (ranging from 0.89 to 0.02 mm) when employing CTG. However, it can be stated that, although autogenous CTG achieves higher values, CM are an effective alternative in terms of total width of KT and MT gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Medical Applications)
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