Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Electroactive Polymers

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 17034

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan
Interests: composites; conducting polymers; biomimetic; anticorrosion; supercapacitor; hydrogel; sensor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electroactive polymers are essential and can be used in different practical industrial fields due to their unique properties of reversible redox and reversible doping/de-doping. They can be fabricated in different shapes (e.g., coatings, membranes, films, fibers, foams, hydrogels, etc.) and applied in various in applications such as anticorrosion, electrochromic windows, supercapacitors, solar cells, lithium batteries, electrochemical sensing, gas sensing, gas separation membranes, electromagnetic shielding, antistatic, tissue engineering, etc. This Special Issue of Polymers will cover the whole line of recent research involved in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of electroactive polymers.

Prof. Dr. Jui-Ming Yeh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • composites
  • electroactive polymers
  • anticorrosion
  • electrochromic windows
  • supercapacitors
  • solar cells
  • lithium batteries
  • electrochemical sensing
  • gas sensing
  • tissue engineering

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 6694 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of a Conductive Polymer Blend Based on PEDOT:PSS and Its Electromagnetic Applications
by Hong-Kyu Jang, Jinbong Kim, Ji-Sang Park, Jin Bum Moon, Jaecheol Oh, Woo-Kyoung Lee and Min-Gyu Kang
Polymers 2022, 14(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14030393 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3247
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to prepare a resistive lossy material using conducting polymers for electromagnetic wave absorbers. This paper presents a conductive paste largely composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) with a polyurethane binder. The various secondary compounds are added in small amounts to [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to prepare a resistive lossy material using conducting polymers for electromagnetic wave absorbers. This paper presents a conductive paste largely composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) with a polyurethane binder. The various secondary compounds are added in small amounts to an aqueous blended solution in order to enhance the electrical and mechanical properties of the conductive thin film. The synthesized conductive paste is characterized through electrical, chemical, and morphological analyses. The electrical conductivity of the thin film is measured using a four-point probe and surface profiler. The chemical and morphological changes are studied in various experiments using a Raman microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a scanning electron microscope, and an atomic force microscope. In order to verify the applicability of the synthesized conductive paste, which is composed of 70 wt% PEDOT:PSS, 30 wt% polyurethane, and secondary additives (DMAE 0.4 wt%, A-187 0.5 wt%, DMSO 7 wt%, Dynol 604 0.1 wt%, PUR 40 2.5 wt%), the Salisbury screen absorber is fabricated and evaluated in the X-band. According to the results, the absorber resonates at 9.7 GHz, the reflection loss is −38.6 dB, and the 90% absorption bandwidth is 3.4 GHz (8.2 to 11.6 GHz). Through this experiment, the applicability of the PEDOT:PSS-based conductive paste is sufficiently verified and it is found that excellent radar-absorbing performance can be realized. Full article
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16 pages, 4380 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Functional Properties of Sodium Phytate Doped Polyaniline Nanofibers Modified FTO Electrodes for High-Performance Binder Free Symmetric Supercapacitors
by Sami Ur Rahman, Philipp Röse, Anwar ul Haq Ali Shah, Ulrike Krewer, Salma Bilal and Shehna Farooq
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142329 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
The performance of high-rate supercapacitors requires fine morphological and electrical properties of the electrode. Polyaniline (PANI), as one of the most promising materials for energy storage, shows different behaviour on different substrates. The present study reports on the surface modification of fluorine doped [...] Read more.
The performance of high-rate supercapacitors requires fine morphological and electrical properties of the electrode. Polyaniline (PANI), as one of the most promising materials for energy storage, shows different behaviour on different substrates. The present study reports on the surface modification of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) with the sodium phytate doped PANI without any binder and its utilization as a novel current collector in symmetric supercapacitor devices. The electrochemical behaviour of the sodium phytate doped PANI thin film with and without a binder on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) as current collector was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode without a binder showed higher electrocatalytic efficiency. A symmetrical cell configuration was therefore constructed with the binder-free electrodes. The device showed excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacities of 550 Fg−1 at 1 Ag−1 and 355 Fg−1 at 40 Ag−1 calculated from galvanostatic discharge curves. The low charge transfer and solution resistances (RCT and RS) of 7.86 Ωcm² and 3.58 × 10−1 Ωcm², respectively, and superior rate capability of 66.9% over a wide current density range of 1 Ag−1 to 40 Ag−1 and excellent cycling stability with 90% of the original capacity over 1000 charge/discharge cycles at 40 Ag−1, indicated it to be an efficient energy storage device. Moreover, the gravimetric energy and power density of the supercapacitor was remarkably high, providing 73.8 Whkg−1 at 500 Wkg−1, respectively. The gravimetric energy density remained stable as the power density increased. It even reached up to 49.4 Whkg−1 at a power density of up to 20 Wkg−1. Full article
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10 pages, 4854 KiB  
Article
Polytriphenylamine and Poly(styrene-co-hydroxystyrene) Blends as High-Performance Anticorrosion Coating for Iron
by Ting-Hsuan Lee, Jen-Hao Tsai, Hong-Yu Chen and Ping-Tsung Huang
Polymers 2021, 13(10), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13101629 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
An electroactive polytriphenylamine (PTPA-C6) is blended with poly(styrene-co-hydroxystyrene) (PS-co-PHS) as coating layers to enhance protection efficiency of PTPA-C6 on iron substrate in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Experimental results show that incorporation of hydroxyl group to the polystyrene not [...] Read more.
An electroactive polytriphenylamine (PTPA-C6) is blended with poly(styrene-co-hydroxystyrene) (PS-co-PHS) as coating layers to enhance protection efficiency of PTPA-C6 on iron substrate in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Experimental results show that incorporation of hydroxyl group to the polystyrene not only increases the miscibility of PTPA-C6 with PS through the hydrogen bond formation, but also enhances the bonding strength between the polymer coating layer and iron substrate. These improvements lead to superior enhancement in anticorrosion performance of PTPA-C6, even after thermal treatment. Protection efficiency (PE) of PTPA-C6 increases from 81.52% of the PTPA-C6 itself to over 94.40% under different conditions (PEmax = 99.19%). Full article
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16 pages, 5737 KiB  
Article
H2S-Sensing Studies Using Interdigitated Electrode with Spin-Coated Carbon Aerogel-Polyaniline Composites
by Aamna Bibi, Yuola Rose M. Rubio, Karen S. Santiago, His-Wei Jia, Mahmoud M. M. Ahmed, Yi-Feng Lin and Jui-Ming Yeh
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091457 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2669
Abstract
In this paper, carbon aerogel (CA)-polyaniline (PANI) composites were prepared and first applied in the study of H2S gas sensing. Here, 1 and 3 wt% of as-obtained CA powder were blended with PANI to produce composites, which are denoted by PANI-CA-1 [...] Read more.
In this paper, carbon aerogel (CA)-polyaniline (PANI) composites were prepared and first applied in the study of H2S gas sensing. Here, 1 and 3 wt% of as-obtained CA powder were blended with PANI to produce composites, which are denoted by PANI-CA-1 and PANI-CA-3, respectively. For the H2S gas-sensing studies, the interdigitated electrode (IDE) was spin-coated by performing PANI and PANI-CA composite dispersion. The H2S gas-sensing properties were studied in terms of the sensor’s sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability. IDE coated with PANI-CA composites, as compared with pristine PANI, achieved higher sensor sensitivity, higher selectivity and good repeatability. Moreover, composites that contain higher loading of CA (e.g., 3 wt%) perform better than composites with lower loading of CA. At 1 ppm, PANI-CA-3 displayed increased sensitivity of 452% at relative humidity of 60% with a fast average response time of 1 s compared to PANI. Full article
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15 pages, 3332 KiB  
Article
Effect of π-Conjugated Spacer in N-Alkylphenoxazine-Based Sensitizers Containing Double Anchors for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
by Yung-Sheng Yen and Velu Indumathi
Polymers 2021, 13(8), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081304 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
A series of novel double-anchoring dyes for phenoxazine-based organic dyes with two 2-cyanoacetic acid acceptors/anchors, and the inclusion of a 2-ethylhexyl chain at the nitrogen atom of the phenoxazine that is connected with furan, thiophene, and 3-hexylthiophene as a linker, are used as [...] Read more.
A series of novel double-anchoring dyes for phenoxazine-based organic dyes with two 2-cyanoacetic acid acceptors/anchors, and the inclusion of a 2-ethylhexyl chain at the nitrogen atom of the phenoxazine that is connected with furan, thiophene, and 3-hexylthiophene as a linker, are used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The double-anchoring dye exhibits strong electronic coupling with TiO2, provided that there is an efficient charge injection rate. The result showed that the power conversion efficiency of DP-2 with thiophene linker-based cell reached 3.80% higher than that of DP-1 with furan linker (η = 1.53%) under standard illumination. The photovoltaic properties are further tuned by co-adsorption strategy, which improved power conversion efficiencies slightly. Further molecular theoretical computation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of the dyes provide further insight into the molecular geometry and the impact of the different π-conjugated spacers on the photophysical and photovoltaic performance. Full article
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11 pages, 2613 KiB  
Article
A Self-Healing Ionic Liquid-Based Ionically Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Electrochromic Devices
by Wanyu Chen, Siyuan Liu, Le Guo, Guixia Zhang, Heng Zhang, Meng Cao, Lili Wu, Tianxing Xiang and Yong Peng
Polymers 2021, 13(5), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050742 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
An ionic liquid-based ionically cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte (GPE-ILs) was successfully synthesized using acrylic acid, 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ionic liquids. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) with an architecture of glass/FTO/WO3/GPE-ILs/FTO/glass were fabricated by a laminating technology. The devices showed performances of [...] Read more.
An ionic liquid-based ionically cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte (GPE-ILs) was successfully synthesized using acrylic acid, 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ionic liquids. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) with an architecture of glass/FTO/WO3/GPE-ILs/FTO/glass were fabricated by a laminating technology. The devices showed performances of large optical modulation of 49.9% at 650 nm, short switching times with the coloration time (tc) of 7 s and the bleaching time (tb) of 4 s, high coloration efficiency of 96.2 cm2 C−1, and cycling stability of 200 cycles. The GPE-ILs exhibits high ionic conductivity, superior thermal stability and good self-healing ability. GPE-ILs demonstrates an ionic conductivity of 3.19 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 25 °C and the same ions migration behaviors with most widely used liquid electrolyte between −10 and 80 °C maintains more than 80% of its tensile strength after self-healing and received only 5% weight loss at 300 °C. Full article
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