Polymer-Based Adsorbents II

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Physics and Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2024) | Viewed by 9344

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Department of Organic, Biochemical and Food Engineering, ‘Cristofor Simionescu’ Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environment Protection, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 73 D. Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi, Romania
Interests: adsorption; biosorption; natural/synthetic adsorbents; wastewater treatment; chemical pollutants; organic dyes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Materials are the essence of the development of human civilization. Their evolution preceded, and sometimes succeeded, human and/or technological development. New materials, in their various forms and structures—whether simple or composite, natural or synthetic, obtained by chemical synthesis or biotechnology or coming from the processing of renewable raw materials or classical synthetic materials—are the basis for the development of various modern technologies and the manufacturing of high-quality products or of high-performance separation methods applicable in various fields, ranging from environmental protection to ensuring peoples’ quality of life (e.g., medicine).

However, adsorption represents a viable alternative due to its major advantages of high efficiency and low cost, increased process sensibility, increased selectivity, reduced matrix effects, and the possibility of the simultaneous achievement of pre-concentration and proper estimation. The greatest advantage of this method, however, is the possibility of using a vast list of materials as adsorbents. The choice of adsorbent is usually based on the respective requirements around selectivity, sorption capacity, kinetic features, physical–chemical stability, mechanical strength, ease of regeneration, and availability at low cost. As they meet many of these criteria and have great adsorptive features, synthetic and engineered materials such as synthetic resins, modified celluloses, polyamides, ion-exchange celluloses, functionalized polymers (with chelating groups, textile dyes), and natural polymers are often excellent candidates. 

Prof. Dr. Daniela Suteu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • adsorbents
  • adsorption
  • aqueous solution
  • biosorption
  • chemical functionalized polymers
  • cellulose
  • environmental protection
  • lignocelluloses
  • natural polymers
  • synthetic polymers

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2152 KiB  
Article
Saccharomyces pastorianus Residual Biomass Immobilized in a Polymer Matrix as a Biosorbent for Reactive Dye Removal: Investigations in a Dynamic System
by Daniela Suteu, Alexandra Cristina Blaga, Lacramioara Rusu and Alexandra Maria Tanasa
Polymers 2024, 16(4), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16040491 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
The use of residual microbial biomass from various industries in emerging pollutant removal strategies represents a new area of research in the field. In this case, we examined how to remove reactive dyes from an aqueous solution utilizing a biosorbent made of residual [...] Read more.
The use of residual microbial biomass from various industries in emerging pollutant removal strategies represents a new area of research in the field. In this case, we examined how to remove reactive dyes from an aqueous solution utilizing a biosorbent made of residual biomass from immobilized Saccharomyces pastorianus (S. pastorianus) in a polymer matrix using a dynamic system. Fluidized bed column biosorption investigations were carried out on a laboratory scale. Brilliant Red HE-3B was chosen as the target molecule. The main parameters considered for this purpose were the flow rate (4.0 mL/min; 6.1 mL/min), initial pollutant concentration (51.2 mg/L; 77.84 mg/L), and biosorbent mass (16 g; 20 g). The experimental data of the fluidized bed study were evaluated by mathematical modeling. The Yoon–Nelson, Bohart–Adams, Clark, and Yan models were investigated for an appropriate correlation with the experimental data. An acceptable fit was obtained for a flow rate of 4 mL/min, an initial pollutant concentration of 51.2 mg/L, and a biosorbent amount of 20 g. The obtained results indicate that the biosorbent can be used efficiently in a dynamic system both for the removal of the studied dye and in extended operations with a continuous flow of wastewater. As a conclusion, the investigated biocomposite material can be considered a viable biosorbent for testing in the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous environments and creates the necessary conditions for the extension of studies toward the application of these types of biosorbents in the treatment of industrial effluents loaded with organic dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Adsorbents II)
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15 pages, 4418 KiB  
Article
Design and Synthesis of N-Doped Porous Carbons for the Selective Carbon Dioxide Capture under Humid Flue Gas Conditions
by Mahmoud M. Abdelnaby, Mansur Aliyu, Medhat A. Nemitallah, Ahmed M. Alloush, El-Hassan M. Mahmoud, Khaled M. Ossoss, Mostafa Zeama and Moataz Dowaidar
Polymers 2023, 15(11), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15112475 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
The design of novel porous solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture is critical in developing carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). We have synthesized a series of nitrogen-rich porous organic polymers (POPs) from crosslinking melamine and pyrrole monomers. The final polymer’s nitrogen content [...] Read more.
The design of novel porous solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture is critical in developing carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). We have synthesized a series of nitrogen-rich porous organic polymers (POPs) from crosslinking melamine and pyrrole monomers. The final polymer’s nitrogen content was tuned by varying the melamine ratio compared to pyrrole. The resulting polymers were then pyrolyzed at 700 °C and 900 °C to produce high surface area nitrogen-doped porous carbons (NPCs) with different N/C ratios. The resulting NPCs showed good BET surface areas reaching 900 m2 g−1. Owing to the nitrogen-enriched skeleton and the micropore nature of the prepared NPCs, they exhibited CO2 uptake capacities as high as 60 cm3 g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar with significant CO2/N2 selectivity. The materials showed excellent and stable performance over five adsorption/desorption cycles in the dynamic separation of the ternary mixture of N2/CO2/H2O. The method developed in this work and the synthesized NPCs’ performance towards CO2 capture highlight the unique properties of POPs as precursors for synthesizing nitrogen-doped porous carbons with a high nitrogen content and high yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Adsorbents II)
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23 pages, 27618 KiB  
Article
Selective Adsorption Behavior and Mechanism for Cd(II) in Aqueous Solution with a Recoverable Magnetie-Surface Ion-Imprinted Polymer
by Siqing Ye, Weiye Zhang, Xingliang Hu, Hongxing He, Yi Zhang, Weili Li, Guangyuan Hu, Yue Li and Xiujun Deng
Polymers 2023, 15(11), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15112416 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
A novel recoverable magnetic Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer was synthesized on the surface of silica-coated Fe3O4 particles via the surface imprinting technique and chemical grafting method. The resulting polymer was used as a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) [...] Read more.
A novel recoverable magnetic Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer was synthesized on the surface of silica-coated Fe3O4 particles via the surface imprinting technique and chemical grafting method. The resulting polymer was used as a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption experiments revealed that Fe3O4@SiO2@IIP had a maximum adsorption capacity of up to 29.82 mg·g−1 for Cd(II) at an optimal pH of 6, with the adsorption equilibrium achieved within 20 min. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm adsorption model. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II) on the imprinted polymer was spontaneous and entropy-increasing. Furthermore, the Fe3O4@SiO2@IIP could rapidly achieve solid–liquid separation in the presence of an external magnetic field. More importantly, despite the poor affinity of the functional groups constructed on the polymer surface for Cd(II), we improved the specific selectivity of the imprinted adsorbent for Cd(II) through surface imprinting technology. The selective adsorption mechanism was verified by XPS and DFT theoretical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Adsorbents II)
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19 pages, 19971 KiB  
Article
Dyes Confinement in the Nano Scale and Converting Poly Vinyl Alcohol to Be Optical-Active Polymeric Nanocomposites with High Thermal Stability
by Adil Alshoaibi
Polymers 2023, 15(10), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15102310 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
In the present research, groups of nanolayered structures and nanohybrids based on organic green dyes and inorganic species are designated to act as fillers for PVA to induce new optical sites and increase its thermal stability through producing polymeric nanocomposites. In this trend, [...] Read more.
In the present research, groups of nanolayered structures and nanohybrids based on organic green dyes and inorganic species are designated to act as fillers for PVA to induce new optical sites and increase its thermal stability through producing polymeric nanocomposites. In this trend, different percentages of naphthol green B were intercalated as pillars inside the Zn-Al nanolayered structures to form green organic-inorganic nanohybrids. The two-dimensional green nanohybrids were identified by X-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM. According to the thermal analyses, the nanohybrid, which has the highest amount of green dyes, was used for modifying the PVA through two series. In the first series, three nanocomposites were prepared depending on the green nanohybrid as prepared. In the second series, the yellow nanohybrid, which was produced from the green nanohybrid by thermal treatment, was used to produce another three nanocomposites. The optical properties revealed that the polymeric nanocomposites depending on green nanohybrids became optical-active in UV and visible regions because the energy band gap decreased to 2.2 eV. In addition, the energy band gap of the nanocomposites which depended on yellow nanohybrids was 2.5 eV. The thermal analyses indicated that the polymeric nanocomposites are thermally more stable than that of the original PVA. Finally, the dual functionality of organic-inorganic nanohybrids that were produced from the confinement of organic dyes and the thermal stability of inorganic species converted the non-optical PVA to optical-active polymer in a wide range with high thermal stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Adsorbents II)
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17 pages, 4680 KiB  
Article
Sulfonated PAM/PPy Cryogels with Lowered Evaporation Enthalpy for Highly Efficient Photothermal Water Evaporation
by Shi-Chang Hou, Dao-Wei Zhang, Jun Chen, Xiao-Xiao Guo, Abdul Haleem and Wei-Dong He
Polymers 2023, 15(9), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15092108 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Because of the increasing scarcity of water resources, the desalination of seawater by photothermal evaporation with harvested solar energy has gradually become a popular research topic. The interconnected macroporous cryogel prepared from polymerization and crosslinking below the freezing temperature of the reactant solution [...] Read more.
Because of the increasing scarcity of water resources, the desalination of seawater by photothermal evaporation with harvested solar energy has gradually become a popular research topic. The interconnected macroporous cryogel prepared from polymerization and crosslinking below the freezing temperature of the reactant solution has an excellent performance in photothermal water evaporation after loading photothermal materials. In this study, polyacrylamide (PAM) cryogels were prepared by cryo-polymerization and sulfonated in an alkaline solution containing formaldehyde and Na2SO3. Importantly, the evaporation enthalpy of water in sulfonated PAM cryogel was reduced to 1187 J·g−1 due to the introduction of sulfonate groups into PAM, which was beneficial to increase the photothermal evaporation rate and efficiency. The sulfonated PAM cryogels loaded with polypyrrole and the umbrella-shaped melamine foam substrate were combined to form a photothermal evaporation device, and the evaporation rate was as high as 2.50 kg·m−2·h−1 under one-sun radiation. Meanwhile, the evaporation rate reached 2.09 kg·m−2·h−1 in the 14 wt% high-concentration saline solution, and no salt crystals appeared on the surface of the cryogel after 5 h of photothermal evaporation. Therefore, it was evidenced that the presence of sulfonate groups not only reduced the evaporation enthalpy of water but also prevented salting-out from blocking the water delivery channel during photothermal evaporation, with a sufficiently high evaporation rate, providing a reliable idea of matrix modification for the design of high-efficiency photothermal evaporation materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Adsorbents II)
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27 pages, 4826 KiB  
Article
Sodium Alginate/β-Cyclodextrin Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes Hydrogel as Alternative Adsorbent for Nickel(II) Metal Ion Removal
by Aiza Farhani Zakaria, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Norizah Abdul Rahman and Noorfatimah Yahaya
Polymers 2022, 14(24), 5524; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14245524 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Water pollution issues, particularly those caused by heavy metal ions, have been significantly growing. This paper combined biopolymers such as sodium alginate (SA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to improve adsorption performance with the help of calcium ion as the cross-linked agent. Moreover, the addition [...] Read more.
Water pollution issues, particularly those caused by heavy metal ions, have been significantly growing. This paper combined biopolymers such as sodium alginate (SA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to improve adsorption performance with the help of calcium ion as the cross-linked agent. Moreover, the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the hybrid hydrogel matrix was examined. The adsorption of nickel(II) was thoroughly compared between pristine sodium alginate/β-cyclodextrin (SA-β-CD) and sodium alginate/β-cyclodextrin immobilized carbon nanotubes (SA-β-CD/CNTs) hydrogel. Both hydrogels were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The results showed SA-β-CD/CNTs hydrogel exhibits excellent thermal stability, high specific surface area and large porosity compared with SA-β-CD hydrogel. Batch experiments were performed to study the effect of several adsorptive variables such as initial concentration, pH, contact time and temperature. The adsorption performance of the prepared SA-β-CD/CNTs hydrogel was comprehensively reported with maximum percentage removal of up to 79.86% for SA-β-CD/CNTs and 69.54% for SA-β-CD. The optimum adsorption conditions were reported when the concentration of Ni(II) solution was maintained at 100 ppm, pH 5, 303 K, and contacted for 120 min with a 1000 mg dosage. The Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model are the best fits to describe the adsorption behavior. A thermodynamic study was also performed. The probable interaction mechanisms that enable the successful binding of Ni(II) on hydrogels, including electrostatic attraction, ion exchange, surface complexation, coordination binding and host–guest interaction between the cationic sites of Ni(II) on both SA-β-CD and SA-β-CD/CNTs hydrogel during the adsorption process, were discussed. The regeneration study also revealed the high efficiency of SA-β-CD/CNTs hydrogel on four successive cycles compared with SA-β-CD hydrogel. Therefore, this work signifies SA-β-CD/CNTs hydrogel has great potential to remove Ni(II) from an aqueous environment compared with SA-β-CD hydrogel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Adsorbents II)
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