Special Issue "Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
Interests: allelopathy; allelochemical; chemical interaction; mode of action; momilactone; rice allelopathy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Allelopathy is an important phenomenon in nature. Allelopathy is probably involved in all aspects of natural ecosystems, such as competition and succession of plant communities. Although we have been aware of the existence of allelopathic interactions between different plant species for many years, Hans Molisch outlined the concept of allelopathy in 1937. Since his definition of allelopathy, research of allelopathy has grown, and hundreds of papers have been published each year in the last decade. We have only discovered a small fraction of the information, but knowledge is accumulating exponentially.

Despite the tremendous growth in allelopathic research in recent years, however, very little research has been done on allelopathy with bioassay-directed isolation and structural elucidation of allelochemicals in plants. Determination of the genetic and biosynthetic pathways of allelochemicals is also challenging. Many of the compounds which are considered to be allelochemicals have little or no biological activity on plants in soil due to their instability, rapid degradation, and interaction with soil. Therefore, soil plays an important role in allelopathy. Another area where research is needed is microbial involvement in allelopathy. Soil microbes can degrade allelochemicals and also transform less phytotoxic compounds to more phytotoxic ones. It has also been found that allelochemicals change the soil microflora populations and compositions.

Much of the research in allelopathy has mentioned that allelopathy can be used to control weed and to reduce synthetic chemical input into agriculture. There are efforts to generate more allelopathic cultivars of crops through the manipulation of the genes involved in the synthesis of allelochemicals. Some of the new information in allelopathy has the potential for use in understanding and controlling weed in agriculture. We look forward to your contributions providing exciting discoveries and significant examples of allelopathy in this Special Issue, which will help us toward a better understanding of allelopathy.

Dr. Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Chemical ecology
  • Allelochemical
  • Allelochemical and soil interaction
  • Allelochemical and microbe interaction
  • Allelopathic cultivar
  • Genetic and biosynthetic pathway of allelochemical
  • Mode of action
  • Root exudation
  • Weed control

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Phytotoxic Activity and Identification of Phytotoxic Substances from Schumannianthus dichotomus
Plants 2020, 9(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010102 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
The phytotoxic potential of plants and their constituents against other plants is being increasingly investigated as a possible alternative to synthetic herbicides to control weeds in crop fields. In this study, we explored the phytotoxicity and phytotoxic substances of Schumannianthus dichotomus, a [...] Read more.
The phytotoxic potential of plants and their constituents against other plants is being increasingly investigated as a possible alternative to synthetic herbicides to control weeds in crop fields. In this study, we explored the phytotoxicity and phytotoxic substances of Schumannianthus dichotomus, a perennial wetland shrub native to Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. Leaf extracts of S. dichotomus exerted strong phytotoxicity against two dicot species, alfalfa and cress, and two monocot species, barnyard grass and Italian ryegrass. A bioassay-driven purification process yielded two phenolic derivatives, syringic acid and methyl syringate. Both constituents significantly inhibited the growth of cress and Italian ryegrass in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition (I50 value) of the shoot and root growth of cress were 75.8 and 61.3 μM, respectively, for syringic acid, compared with 43.2 and 31.5 μM, respectively, for methyl syringate. Similarly, to suppress the shoot and root growth of Italian rye grass, a greater amount of syringic acid (I50 = 213.7 and 175.9 μM) was needed than methyl syringate (I50 = 140.4 to 130.8 μM). Methyl syringate showed higher phytotoxic potential than syringic acid, and cress showed higher sensitivity to both substances. This study is the first to report on the phytotoxic potential of S. dichotomus and to identify phytotoxic substances from this plant material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals)
Open AccessArticle
Tree Fern Cyathea lepifera May Survive by Its Phytotoxic Property
Plants 2020, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010046 - 28 Dec 2019
Abstract
Cyatheaceae (tree ferns) appeared during the Jurassic period and some of the species still remain. Those species may have some morphological and/or physiological characteristics for survival. A tree fern was observed to suppress the growth of other ligneous plants in a tropical forest. [...] Read more.
Cyatheaceae (tree ferns) appeared during the Jurassic period and some of the species still remain. Those species may have some morphological and/or physiological characteristics for survival. A tree fern was observed to suppress the growth of other ligneous plants in a tropical forest. It was assumed that the fern may release toxic substances into the forest floor, but those toxic substances have not yet been identified. Therefore, we investigated the phytotoxicity and phytotoxic substances of Cyathea lepifera (J. Sm. ex Hook.) Copel. An aqueous methanol extract of C. lepifera fronds inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of dicotyledonous garden cress (Lepidum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and monocotyledonous ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.). The results suggest that C. lepifera fronds may have phytotoxicity and contain some phytotoxic substances. The extract was purified through several chromatographic steps during which inhibitory activity was monitored, and p-coumaric acid and (-)-3-hydroxy-β-ionone were isolated. Those compounds showed phytotoxic activity and may contribute to the phytotoxic effects caused by the C. lepifera fronds. The fronds fall and accumulate on the forest floor through defoliation, and the compounds may be released into the forest soils through the decomposition process of the fronds. The phytotoxic activities of the compounds may be partly responsible for the fern’s survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals)
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Open AccessArticle
An Allelopathic Role for Garlic Root Exudates in the Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cucumber in a Hydroponic Co-Culture System
Plants 2020, 9(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010045 - 27 Dec 2019
Abstract
Garlic is considered to have a strong positive effect on the growth and yield of receptors under soil cultivation conditions. However, how this positive promotion is produced by changing the growth environment of the receptors or directly acting on the receptors is still [...] Read more.
Garlic is considered to have a strong positive effect on the growth and yield of receptors under soil cultivation conditions. However, how this positive promotion is produced by changing the growth environment of the receptors or directly acting on the receptors is still not very clear. The direct influence of co-culturing with different quantities of garlic plants (the control 5, 10, 15, 20) on the growth and biochemical processes of cucumber plants was studied using a hydroponic co-culture system. Different numbers of garlic bulbs inhibited the growth of cucumber plants and increased the production and induction of reactive oxygen species, which accompanied the enhancement of lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to cucumber. This allelopathic exposure further reduced the chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rate, and consequently impaired the photosynthetic performance of photosystem II (PSII). Garlic root exudates increased the leaves’ carbohydrates accumulation, such as soluble sugar contents and sucrose levels by regulating the activities of metabolismic enzymes; however, no such accumulation was observed in the roots. Our results suggested that garlic root exudates can mediate negative plant–plant interactions and its phytotoxic influence on cucumber plants may have occurred through the application of oxidative stress, which consequently imbalanced the source-to-sink photo-assimilate flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Habitat Affects the Chemical Profile, Allelopathy, and Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils and Phenolic Enriched Extracts of the Invasive Plant Heliotropium Curassavicum
Plants 2019, 8(11), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110482 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The variation in habitat has a direct effect on the plants and as a consequence, changes their content of the bioactive constituents and biological activities. The present study aimed to explore the variation in the essential oils (EOs) and phenolics of Heliotropium curassavicum [...] Read more.
The variation in habitat has a direct effect on the plants and as a consequence, changes their content of the bioactive constituents and biological activities. The present study aimed to explore the variation in the essential oils (EOs) and phenolics of Heliotropium curassavicum collected from the coastal and inland habitats. Additionally, we determined their antioxidant and allelopathic activity against the weed, Chenopodium murale. Fifty-six compounds were identified as overall from EOs, from which 25 components were identified from the coastal sample, and 52 from the inland one. Sesquiterpenes were the main class in both samples (81.67% and 79.28%), while mono (3.99% and 7.21%) and diterpenes (2.9% and 1.77%) represented minors, respectively. Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, farnesyl acetone, humulene oxide, farnesyl acetone C, and nerolidol epoxy acetate were identified as major compounds. The HPLC analysis of MeOH extracts of the two samples showed that chlorogenic acid, rutin, and propyl gallate are major compounds in the coastal sample, while vanilin, quercetin, and 4′,7-dihydroxyisoflavone are majors in the inland one. The EOs showed considerable phytotoxicity against C. murale with IC50 value of 2.66, 0.59, and 0.70 mg mL−1 for germination, root, and shoot growth, respectively from the inland sample. While the coastal sample attained the IC50 values of 1.58, 0.45, and 0.66 mg mL−1. MeOH extracts revealed stronger antioxidant activity compared to the EOs. Based on IC50 values, the ascorbic acid revealed 3-fold of the antioxidant compared to the EO of the coastal sample and 4-fold regarding the inland sample. However, the ascorbic acid showed 3-fold of the antioxidant activity of the MeOH extracts of coastal and inland samples. Although H. curassavicum is considered as a noxious, invasive plant, the present study revealed that EO and MeOH extracts of the H. curassavicum could be considered as promising, eco-friendly, natural resources for antioxidants as well as weed control, particularly against the weed, C. murale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

An allelopathic role for garlic root exudate in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism on Cucumis sativus in a hydroponic co-culture system

Zhihui Cheng

Department of Vegetable Sciences, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China

Abstract: Garlic has been considered as strong allelopathic plant, the mechanism of garlic phytotoxicity on physiological basis is not well clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying influence of garlic root exudates on some metabolic and biochemical processes in cucumber. A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to investigate the effect of co-culturing with different quantity of garlic plants (CK, 5, 10, 15 and 20) on two cucumber plants. Plant growth, oxidative damage, photosynthesis characteristics, chlorophyll fluoresce and carbohydrate metabolism of cucumber plants were determined in this study. The sensitivity of cucumber plants was generally dependent upon the amount of tested co-cultured garlic plants that refers to cucumber growth association with concentration of garlic root exudates. Inclusion of different number of garlic bulbs inhibited the growth of cucumber plants, increased the generation and induction of reactive oxygen species which accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation, and caused the oxidative damage of cucumber. This allelopathic exposure further reduced the chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rate and consequently impaired the photosynthetic performance of photosystem II (PSII). Garlic root exudates increased the leaves carbohydrates accumulation such as soluble sugar contents and sucrose levels by regulating the activities of metabolismic enzymes. By contrast, no such accumulation was observed in roots tissues. Our results suggested that garlic root exudates can mediate negative plant-plant interactions and their phytotoxic influence on cucumber plants may occur through the imposition of an oxidative stress and consequently imbalanced the source-to-sink photo-assimilate flow.

Keywords: Phytotoxicity, Garlic root exudates, Oxidative stress, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Carbohydrate metabolism

 

The Interaction between Leaf Allelopathy and Symbiosis with Rhizobium of Ulex europaeus on Hawaii Island

Hozawa Mika

Abstract: The magnitude of leaf allelopathy of invasive Ulex europaeus collected in two different habitats was tested: adjacent to Acacia koa forest and about 50m away from A. koa forest. A. koa is indigenous to Hawaii and known to have tight symbiotic relationship with Bradyrhizobium for nitrogen fixing. As a result, the allelopathy of the leaves growing adjacent to A. koa forest was significantly weaker than that of the leaves growing away from A. koa. This result suggested that the magnitude of leaf allelopathy of U. europaeus was regulated according to the existence of Bradyrhizobia.

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