Next Article in Journal
Identification of Antimicrobial Compounds from Sandwithia guyanensis-Associated Endophyte Using Molecular Network Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
Phytotoxic Activity and Identification of Phytotoxic Substances from Schumannianthus dichotomus
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
An Allelopathic Role for Garlic Root Exudates in the Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cucumber in a Hydroponic Co-Culture System
Open AccessArticle

Tree Fern Cyathea lepifera May Survive by Its Phytotoxic Property

1
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
3
Faculty of Education, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Maruwa Biochemical Co., Ltd., Oaza-hoshinosato, Ami-machi, Inashiki-Gun, Ibaraki 300-0326, Japan.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010046
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 26 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals)
Cyatheaceae (tree ferns) appeared during the Jurassic period and some of the species still remain. Those species may have some morphological and/or physiological characteristics for survival. A tree fern was observed to suppress the growth of other ligneous plants in a tropical forest. It was assumed that the fern may release toxic substances into the forest floor, but those toxic substances have not yet been identified. Therefore, we investigated the phytotoxicity and phytotoxic substances of Cyathea lepifera (J. Sm. ex Hook.) Copel. An aqueous methanol extract of C. lepifera fronds inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of dicotyledonous garden cress (Lepidum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and monocotyledonous ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.). The results suggest that C. lepifera fronds may have phytotoxicity and contain some phytotoxic substances. The extract was purified through several chromatographic steps during which inhibitory activity was monitored, and p-coumaric acid and (-)-3-hydroxy-β-ionone were isolated. Those compounds showed phytotoxic activity and may contribute to the phytotoxic effects caused by the C. lepifera fronds. The fronds fall and accumulate on the forest floor through defoliation, and the compounds may be released into the forest soils through the decomposition process of the fronds. The phytotoxic activities of the compounds may be partly responsible for the fern’s survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cyathea lepifera; tree fern; growth inhibitor; phytotoxicity Cyathea lepifera; tree fern; growth inhibitor; phytotoxicity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ida, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Teruya, T.; Suenaga, K.; Kato-Noguchi, H. Tree Fern Cyathea lepifera May Survive by Its Phytotoxic Property. Plants 2020, 9, 46.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop