Special Issue "Breeding of Crop Disease-Resistant Cultivars"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2023 | Viewed by 4501

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tomislav Duvnjak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Breeding and Genetics of Industrial Plants, Agricultural Institute Osijek, Juzno predgradje 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: Soybean and sunflower diseases; artificial infections
Dr. Aleksandra Sudarić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Breeding and Genetics of Industrial Plants, Agricultural Institute Osijek, Juzno predgradje 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: Soybean breeding and genetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Archeological records tell us that for the past several millennia plant cultivation has been an inseparable part of human society. Modern agriculture has the great potential to “feed the world” but, on the other hand, could be catastrophically “out of step” with the environment. Plant breeding has been the most successful approach for developing new crop varieties since domestication, making major advances in feeding the world and societal development possible and creating “harmony” between agriculture and the environment. Crop improvements through plant breeding programs, primarily focusing on improving a crop’s environmental adaptability and biotic stress tolerance in order to increase yield, have allowed agricultural production to keep pace with human population growth.

Crops are susceptible to a large set of pathogens including fungi, bacteria, and viruses, which cause important economic losses. The enhancement of plant resistance plays an important role in adjusting crop production to meet global population increases.

Genetic resistance represents the most economical approach to crop protection. One goal of understanding plant/pathogen interactions at the molecular level is to facilitate disease resistance in crop species. Disease resistance is often the most dynamic component of the crop breeding process, requiring continual updating owing to pathogen adaptation to plant genotypes to engineer resistance that is broad (effective against most or all genotypes of the pathogen) and durable (lasting through many cropping seasons). Due to the high evolutionary potential of many plant pathogens, novel genotypes no longer sensitive to the resistance gene or the phytosanitary product can rapidly emerge via mutation or recombination.

During pre-genomic years, traditional breeding programs were uncertain and imprecise, leading, for instance, to the transfer of large genome regions instead of just single gene insertions. New breeding techniques are attracting attention in plant research and concern many different areas, plant pathogen resistance among others, including the most recent and powerful molecular approaches for precise genetic modifications of single or multiple gene targets.

Research on the interactions between plants and pathogens has become one of the most rapidly moving fields in the plant sciences, findings of which have contributed to the development of new strategies and technologies for crop protection.

Creation of crops resistant/tolerant to economically important diseases is an exciting area of research. We have therefore established a Special Issue dedicated to “Breeding of crop disease-resistant cultivars” and invite you to contribute. This Special Issue will focus on newly created cultivars resistant or less susceptible to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, interactions between plants and pathogens, resistance genes, breeding methods, and other issues concerning the creation of disease-resistant cultivars.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Tomislav Duvnjak
Dr. Aleksandra Sudarić

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant breeding
  • disease resistance
  • tolerance
  • plant-pathogen interactions
  • resistance genes
  • breeding methods

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Improving Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seed Yield through Selection under Infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121538 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), the Queen of oilseeds, is infected with different pathogens, restricting its yield. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami is the most destructive disease of sesame worldwide, causing economic losses. This work aimed to develop new high-yielding strains, resistant and/or [...] Read more.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), the Queen of oilseeds, is infected with different pathogens, restricting its yield. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami is the most destructive disease of sesame worldwide, causing economic losses. This work aimed to develop new high-yielding strains, resistant and/or tolerant to Fusarium. Two cycles of pedigree selection were achieved under infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami. Two populations in the F2 (600 plants each) were used. The selection criteria were five single traits and another three restricted by yield. The restricted selection was better in preserving variability than the single trait selection. The observed genetic gain in percentage from the mid-parent in the F4-generation was significant for the eight selection criteria. Single trait selection proved to be an effective method for improving the selection criterion, but it caused deleterious effects on the other correlated traits in most cases. The seed yield increased by 30.67% and 20.31% from the better parent in the first and second populations, respectively. The infection% was significantly reduced by 24.04% in the first, and 9.3% in the second, population. The selection index improved seed yield, and its attributes can be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding of Crop Disease-Resistant Cultivars)
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Article
Genome-Wide Associations with Resistance to Bipolaris Leaf Spot (Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker) in a Northern Switchgrass Population (Panicum virgatum L.)
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101362 - 20 May 2022
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Abstract
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a northern native perennial grass, suffers from yield reduction from Bipolaris leaf spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker. This study aimed to determine the resistant populations via multiple phenotyping approaches and identify potential resistance genes [...] Read more.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a northern native perennial grass, suffers from yield reduction from Bipolaris leaf spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker. This study aimed to determine the resistant populations via multiple phenotyping approaches and identify potential resistance genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the switchgrass northern association panel. The disease resistance was evaluated from both natural (field evaluations in Ithaca, New York and Phillipsburg, Philadelphia) and artificial inoculations (detached leaf and leaf disk assays). The most resistant populations based on a combination of three phenotyping approaches—detached leaf, leaf disk, and mean from two locations—were ‘SW788’, ‘SW806’, ‘SW802’, ‘SW793’, ‘SW781’, ‘SW797’, ‘SW798’, ‘SW803’, ‘SW795’, ‘SW805’. The GWAS from the association panel showed 27 significant SNPs on 12 chromosomes: 1K, 2K, 2N, 3K, 3N, 4N, 5K, 5N, 6N, 7K, 7N, and 9N. These markers accumulatively explained the phenotypic variance of the resistance ranging from 3.28 to 26.52%. Within linkage disequilibrium of 20 kb, these SNP markers linked with the potential resistance genes included the genes encoding for NBS-LRR, PPR, cell-wall related proteins, homeostatic proteins, anti-apoptotic proteins, and ABC transporter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding of Crop Disease-Resistant Cultivars)
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Article
Genetic Loci Associated with Resistance to Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in Squash
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091935 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) is an aphid-transmitted potyvirus that causes severe yield losses in squash (Cucurbita moschata) production worldwide. Development of resistant cultivars using traditional breeding approaches relies on rigorous and resource-intensive phenotypic assays. QTL-seq, a whole genome re-sequencing based [...] Read more.
Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) is an aphid-transmitted potyvirus that causes severe yield losses in squash (Cucurbita moschata) production worldwide. Development of resistant cultivars using traditional breeding approaches relies on rigorous and resource-intensive phenotypic assays. QTL-seq, a whole genome re-sequencing based bulked segregant analysis, is a powerful tool for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in crop plants. In the current study, the QTL-seq approach was used to identify genetic loci associated with ZYMV resistance in an F2 population (n = 174) derived from a cross between Nigerian Local (resistant) and Butterbush (susceptible). Whole genome re-sequencing of the parents and bulks of resistant and susceptible F2 progeny revealed a mapping rate between 94.04% and 98.76%, and a final effective mapping depth ranging from 81.77 to 101.73 across samples. QTL-seq analysis identified four QTLs significantly (p < 0.05) associated with ZYMV resistance on chromosome 2 (QtlZYMV-C02), 4 (QtlZYMV-C04), 8 (QtlZYMV-C08) and 20 (QtlZYMV-C20). Seven markers within the QTL intervals were tested for association with ZYMV resistance in the entire F2 population. For QtlZYMV-C08, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker (KASP-6) was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with ZYMV resistance, while two SNPs (KASP-1 and KASP-3) and an indel (Indel-2) marker were linked to resistance within QtlZYMV-C20. KASP-3 and KASP-6 are non-synonymous SNPs leading to amino acid substitutions in candidate disease resistant gene homologs on chromosomes 20 (CmoCh20G003040.1) and 8 (CmoCh08G007140.1), respectively. Identification of QTL and SNP markers associated with ZYMV resistance will facilitate marker-assisted selection for ZYMV resistance in squash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding of Crop Disease-Resistant Cultivars)
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Article
Evaluation of Wheat Germplasm for Resistance to Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina) and Identification of the Sources of Lr Resistance Genes Using Molecular Markers
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071484 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Ptr), is a significant disease of spring wheat spread in Kazakhstan. The development of resistant cultivars importantly requires the effective use of leaf rust resistance genes. This study aims to: (i) determine variation in Ptr [...] Read more.
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Ptr), is a significant disease of spring wheat spread in Kazakhstan. The development of resistant cultivars importantly requires the effective use of leaf rust resistance genes. This study aims to: (i) determine variation in Ptr population using races from the East Kazakhstan, Akmola, and Almaty regions of Kazakhstan; (ii) examine resistance during seedling and adult plant stages; and (iii) identify the sources of Lr resistance genes among the spring wheat collection using molecular markers. Analysis of a mixed population of Ptr identified 25 distinct pathotypes. Analysis of these pathotypes using 16 Thatcher lines that are near-isogenic for leaf rust resistance genes (Lr) showed different virulence patterns, ranging from least virulent “CJF/B” and “JCL/G” to highly virulent “TKT/Q”. Most of the pathotypes were avirulent to Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, and Lr25 and virulent to Lr1, Lr2a, Lr3ka, Lr11, and Lr30. The Ptr population in Kazakhstan is diverse, as indicated by the range of virulence observed in five different races analyzed in this study. The number of genotypes showed high levels of seedling resistance to each of the five Ptr races, thus confirming genotypic diversity. Two genotypes, Stepnaya 62 and Omskaya 37, were highly resistant to almost all five tested Ptr pathotypes. Stepnaya 62, Omskaya 37, Avangard, Kazakhstanskaya rannespelaya, and Kazakhstanskaya 25 were identified as the most stable genotypes for seedling resistance. However, most of the varieties from Kazakhstan were susceptible in the seedling stage. Molecular screening of these genotypes showed contrasting differences in the genes frequencies. Among the 30 entries, 22 carried leaf rust resistance gene Lr1, and two had Lr9 and Lr68. Lr10 and Lr28 were found in three and four cultivars, respectively. Lr19 was detected in Omskaya 37. Two single cultivars separately carried Lr26 and Lr34, while Lr37 was not detected in any genotypes within this study. Field evaluation demonstrated that the most frequent Lr1 gene is ineffective. Kazakhstanskaya 19 and Omskaya 37 had the highest number of resistance genes: three and four Lr genes, respectively. Two gene combinations (Lr1, Lr68) were detected in Erythrospermum 35 and Astana. The result obtained may assist breeders in incorporating effective Lr genes into new cultivars and developing cultivars resistant to leaf rust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding of Crop Disease-Resistant Cultivars)
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