State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Communication and Network".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 10866

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the rapid emergence of data-hungry services such as ultra-high-definition (UHD) video streaming, online video gaming, virtual/augmented/extended reality (VR/AR/XR), Industry 4.0 and Internet of things (IoT) in recent years, the demand for high-speed communication is continuously increasing. Among various communication technologies, optical communication has been widely recognized as a promising solution. This Special Issue focuses on the state-of-the-art optical communication technologies in China, which covers all aspects of optical communication including optical fiber communication, optical wireless communication, optical networking, visible light communication, visible light positioning, radio-over-fiber, microwave and THz photonics, digital signal processing and machine learning techniques for optical communication, etc.

Dr. Chen Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3999 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization for Submarine Cable Route Planning Based on the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm
by Zanshan Zhao, Jingting Wang, Guanjun Gao, Haoyu Wang and Daobin Wang
Photonics 2023, 10(8), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10080896 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
It is essential to design an appropriate submarine cable route to reduce costs and improve reliability. A methodology that can be used for multi-objective optimization in submarine cable route planning is proposed and numerically studied in this paper. The costs and risks are [...] Read more.
It is essential to design an appropriate submarine cable route to reduce costs and improve reliability. A methodology that can be used for multi-objective optimization in submarine cable route planning is proposed and numerically studied in this paper. The costs and risks are numerically assessed and mapped to the geographical map. The pheromone and heuristic functions of the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm are associated with the geographical map of costs and risks, which enables it to search for a submarine cable route with multi-objective optimization. The results show that the submarine cable route designed by the methodology can effectively avoid high-cost and high-risk regions, which means that the designed submarine cable route is cost-effective and highly reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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13 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Nonlinearity-Tolerant Probabilistically-Shaped Four-Dimensional Modulation at Spectral Efficiency of 9 Bits/Four-Dimensional Symbol
by Pengpeng Wei, Bo Song, Yixin Zhang and Xiang Li
Photonics 2023, 10(8), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10080865 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Network traffic between data centers has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, an optical modulation format with high spectral efficiency is desired in inter-data center links at data rates of more than 400 Gb/s in each wavelength. In order to further improve the [...] Read more.
Network traffic between data centers has grown rapidly in recent years. Therefore, an optical modulation format with high spectral efficiency is desired in inter-data center links at data rates of more than 400 Gb/s in each wavelength. In order to further improve the transmission performance in single-span inter-data center links, a nonlinearity-tolerant probabilistically-shaped 4D modulation format with a spectral efficiency of 9 bits/4D symbol is proposed. The proposed modulation format fills the gap between polarization-multiplexed 16- and 32-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM and PM-32QAM). In numerical simulations, we compare our proposed modulation format with probability-amplitude-shaped 64QAM (PAS-64QAM) and 512-set-partitioned 32QAM (512SP-32QAM) at a spectral efficiency of 9 bits/4D symbol in a single-span transmission link. The simulation results indicate that the proposed modulation format shows better linear and nonlinear performances than a 512SP-32QAM format. Compared with PAS-64QAM format, the proposed modulation format can provide similar transmission performance with improved fiber nonlinear tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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19 pages, 2394 KiB  
Article
Indoor Visible Light Positioning Based on Channel Estimation and Cramér–Rao Low Bound Analysis with Random Receiving Orientation of User Equipment
by Lijun Deng, Yangyu Fan, Qiong Zhao and Pengfei Wu
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070812 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
The accuracy of line-of-sight (LOS)-based indoor visible light positioning (VLP) depends directly on the accuracy of the received LOS power. In an actual indoor visible light communication (VLC) system, the total received power contains the LOS power and diffuse power, and the proportion [...] Read more.
The accuracy of line-of-sight (LOS)-based indoor visible light positioning (VLP) depends directly on the accuracy of the received LOS power. In an actual indoor visible light communication (VLC) system, the total received power contains the LOS power and diffuse power, and the proportion of diffuse component varies significantly with the receiving orientation of the user equipment (UE). In the trilateration positioning process, this is bound to bring a very high level of inaccuracy for at least one or two of them when determining the distance between the positioned LED and UE. To solve this problem, we employed channel estimation and Parseval’s theorem to remove the diffuse component from the total received power. The simulation results show that the higher the channel estimation accuracy, the smaller the discrepancy between the estimated and actual LOS power, and the greater the localization accuracy. At the same channel estimation accuracy, the comparison results demonstrate that the localization performance of the proposed method is higher than LLS-1, in which the total received power is directly adopted to estimate the distance. The localization performance of LLS-2 deteriorates significantly compared to the proposed method. This result indicates that the receiving orientation cannot be neglected during the distance estimation process even though the estimated accuracy of LOS power is high. Deriving the Cramér–Rao low bound (CRLB) for LOS-based indoor VLP with receiving orientation, we compared the localization performance for the proposed method with LLS-1, LLS-2, and the CRLB at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The results show that the localization error of all the received positions in the room can reach the CRLB at approximately 25 dB. However, localization errors based on LLS-1 and LLS-2 cannot achieve the theoretical CRLB even at a high SNR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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12 pages, 379 KiB  
Article
Energy Efficiency Optimization for SLIPT-Enabled NOMA System
by Danyang Chen, Qingxuan Wang, Jianping Wang, Zhao Li, Shuai Wu, Rui Hao, Kai Fan, Huimin Lu and Jianli Jin
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070791 - 9 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
For the upcoming sixth generation (6G) networks, the application of simultaneous lightwave information and power transfer (SLIPT) in a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system is a potential solution to improve energy efficiency (EE). In this paper, we propose a novel SLIPT-enabled NOMA multi-user [...] Read more.
For the upcoming sixth generation (6G) networks, the application of simultaneous lightwave information and power transfer (SLIPT) in a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system is a potential solution to improve energy efficiency (EE). In this paper, we propose a novel SLIPT-enabled NOMA multi-user system with power splitting (PS) protocol and investigate the effect of system parameters on EE. In addition, to enhance the energy harvesting and information receiving performance of the proposed system, we build up an optimization framework that aims to maximize the EE of the system by jointly optimizing the power allocation of the users and the PS coefficient. We introduce a two-step particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve this problem while satisfying the constraints of maximum transmit power, the minimum achievable data rate, and the minimum harvested energy. The numerical results demonstrate the SLIPT-enabled NOMA system using PSO algorithm has significantly improved up to 3.83 ×106 bit/s/J in terms of EE over the traditional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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12 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Positioning Algorithm for Tilted Receiver Using RSS and TDOA with Gaussian Process
by Xunhe Zuo, Zixiong Wang, Jinlong Yu and Yang Jiang
Photonics 2023, 10(5), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10050538 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
In the visible light positioning (VLP) system, the received signal strength (RSS) algorithm has a better signal noise ratio performance than the time difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithm, while the RSS algorithm needs to work under the condition that the transmitter and receiver [...] Read more.
In the visible light positioning (VLP) system, the received signal strength (RSS) algorithm has a better signal noise ratio performance than the time difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithm, while the RSS algorithm needs to work under the condition that the transmitter and receiver are strictly parallel. However, the receiver is prone to tilt due to environmental disturbances, which reduces the accuracy of the RSS algorithm. For the tilted receiver, the TDOA algorithm has a higher positioning accuracy than the RSS algorithm. In order to take full advantage of the two algorithms, we propose a hybrid positioning algorithm to locate the tilted receiver by using a Gaussian process (GP). The scheme separately uses RSS and the distance difference as the inputs of the GP model to estimate the position of the receiver. Then, according to the proposed positioning selection strategy, the more credible estimated position in our opinion is selected as the final estimated position. In addition, RSS information in the hybrid algorithm is extracted from the TDOA signal, which allows the hybrid algorithm to prevent an increase in the complexity of the VLP system. During the training and testing, RSS is normalized to meet the order-of-magnitude requirements of the GP model on the input data. Simulation results validate the hybrid algorithm based on a two-dimensional positioning system for the tilted receiver. When the standard deviations of the azimuth angle and elevation angle are 1°, the positioning accuracy of the hybrid algorithm is 53.7% higher than that of the RSS algorithm using an artificial neural network, and 49.9% higher than that of the RSS algorithm using a GP. The localization error under 1° standard deviations of azimuth and elevation angles is 20.2% lower than that under 20° standard deviations of the two angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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17 pages, 11642 KiB  
Article
Rate-Splitting-Based Generalized Multiple Access for Band-Limited Multi-User VLC
by Yuru Tang, Chen Chen, Min Liu, Pengfei Du and H. Y. Fu
Photonics 2023, 10(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10040446 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a rate-splitting-based generalized multiple access (GMA) scheme for band-limited multi-user visible light communication (VLC) systems. By splitting and transmitting the input data of each user in a joint orthogonal multiple access (OMA) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) manner, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a rate-splitting-based generalized multiple access (GMA) scheme for band-limited multi-user visible light communication (VLC) systems. By splitting and transmitting the input data of each user in a joint orthogonal multiple access (OMA) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) manner, the proposed rate-splitting-based GMA scheme can obtain better bandwidth utilization than OMA and suffer less severe interference than NOMA. In order to achieve the maximum sum rate over typical low-pass VLC channels, the optimal rate-splitting-based GMA scheme was first obtained through theoretical analysis and computer simulations. Subsequently, the superiority of the optimal rate-splitting-based GMA scheme over both OMA and NOMA under various channel conditions, user separations, and error propagation levels was further verified by the theoretical, simulation, and experimental results. In particular, the experimental results showed that, when the error propagation ratio was increased from 0 to 0.2, the sum rate reduction ratio was significantly reduced from 31.4% to 7.5% by replacing NOMA with the obtained optimal rate-splitting-based GMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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21 pages, 7874 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effect of Optical Beams on Hybrid VLC/RF Transmission Characteristics
by Jupeng Ding, Chih-Lin I, Kai Zhao and Shuxian Liu
Photonics 2023, 10(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10020185 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
The hybrid visible light communication/radio frequency (VLC/RF) transmission system could offer consistent coverage and high throughput, which are inherited from the VLC and RF link components separately. However, almost all current hybrid VLC/RF schemes are limited in scenarios adopting light emitting diodes (LED) [...] Read more.
The hybrid visible light communication/radio frequency (VLC/RF) transmission system could offer consistent coverage and high throughput, which are inherited from the VLC and RF link components separately. However, almost all current hybrid VLC/RF schemes are limited in scenarios adopting light emitting diodes (LED) sources with basic Lambertian optical beams, and fail to investigate the scenarios using sources with distinct non-Lambertian optical beams. For exploring this effect of optical beams on hybrid VLC/RF transmission performance, typical symmetric and non-symmetric optical beams are introduced to constitute representative non-Lambertian VLC/RF links. Moreover, the heterogeneous optical beams-based hybrid VLC/RF transmission scheme is proposed and estimated under a hard switching mechanism. Numerical results show that, compared with an approximate 234.39 Mbps maximum throughput of the conventional hybrid Lambertian VLC/RF configuration, the counterparts of the hybrid non-Lambertian VLC/RF configuration with the Rebel and NSPW optical beams are 203.39 Mbps and 279.34 Mbps, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed heterogeneous beams-based hybrid scheme is applied via Lambertian and non-Lambertian candidate beams, with the average throughput increased to 186.45 Mbps from the original approximate 174.14 Mbps of the conventional Lambertian hybrid VLC/RF configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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Review

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19 pages, 2647 KiB  
Review
Constraints and Recent Solutions of Optical Camera Communication for Practical Applications
by Pinpin Zhang, Ziwei Liu, Xin Hu, Yimao Sun, Xiong Deng, Binbin Zhu and Yanbing Yang
Photonics 2023, 10(6), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10060608 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Visible light communication (VLC) has emerged as a promising technology for wireless communication due to its advantages of the vast optical spectrum, high energy efficiency, and no electromagnetic interference radiation. With the widespread adoption of LED infrastructure and camera-equipped smart devices, optical camera [...] Read more.
Visible light communication (VLC) has emerged as a promising technology for wireless communication due to its advantages of the vast optical spectrum, high energy efficiency, and no electromagnetic interference radiation. With the widespread adoption of LED infrastructure and camera-equipped smart devices, optical camera communication (OCC) has gained momentum as a pragmatic version of VLC based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices. Compared with VLC systems based on photodiodes (PD), the information-carrying capability of OCC enables it to provide a wide range of services in the areas of intelligent transportation, indoor positioning, underwater communication, and the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper presents a brief overview of the OCC system, focuses on the constraints affecting OCC performance, and offers feasible solutions for dependable data transmission in complex and diverse scenarios. Finally, this paper summarizes the potential extended applications of OCC, hoping to push this advanced form of optical wireless communication toward practical deployments in our daily lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Communication in China)
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