Special Issue "Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732). This special issue belongs to the section "Optoelectronics and Optical Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jin-wei Shi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University Jungli, Taiwan
Interests: high-speed photodiode/avalanche photodiode for fiber communications; high-speed/high-power photodiode for THz applications; high-brightness/high-speed VCSEL array for 3D sensing; high-speed VCSELs for data communications; high-speed and low-driving voltage optical phase-shifter and modulator on Silicon photonic platform; high-Speed III-nitride LEDs for VLC and POF communications
Prof. Dr. Andreas Beling
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Interests: high-speed photodiode/avalanche photodiode for fiber communications; high-speed/high-power photodiode for THz applications; microwave photonic; integrated optoelectronics; optical interconnect; optical waveguide
Prof. Dr. Nobuhiko Nishiyama
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: membrane photonic circuits; Si/III-V hybrid integration; heterogeneous integration; metamaterial devices; Lidar; grid-free WDM; topological

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The market of data communication has been booming recently. Compared with the traditional telecommunication market, the required linking distance is much shorter for data communication (<2 km), and it thus allows us to directly transmit the high-speed data over fiber without serious limitations of chromatic dispersion and propagation loss on the maximum data rate. From 2016 to now, the data rate of Ethernet has been dramatically increased from 40, 100, and over 400 Gbit/sec. This strongly drives the development of high-speed light sources and detectors for such emerging application. In addition, the ultra-fast optoelectronic devices play an important role in next-generation millimeter wave (MMW) wireless communication systems. The radio-over-fiber technique can be used in these systems to replace the lossy and bulky MMW waveguides or coaxial cables by optical fibers. The purpose of this Special Issue is to highlight the progress in ultra-high speed optical transmitters, photoreceivers, optical modulators, and integrated optoelectronics devices applied to advanced data/tele-communications over optical fibers, radio-over-fiber communications, and terahertz communications.

Topics include:

  1. High-speed semiconductor lasers (DFBs and VCSELs);
  2. High-speed photodetectors (ultra-fast photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes);
  3. High-speed modulators (electro-absorption and electro-optics modulators);
  4. High-speed Integrated optoelectronics devices and photonic integrated circuits for high-speed communications (electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), integrated transmitter and receivers);
  5. High-speed laser drivers and photoreceivers for fiber communications.

Prof. Nobuhiko Nishiyama
Prof. Andreas Beling
Prof. Jin-wei Shi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Avalanche Photodiodes with Dual Multiplication Layers for High-Speed and Wide Dynamic Range Performances
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040098 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
In this work, we demonstrate In0.52Al0.48As top/backside-illuminated avalanche photodiodes (APD) with dual multiplication layers for high-speed and wide dynamic range performances. Our fabricated top-illuminated APDs, with a partially depleted p-type In0.53Ga0.47As absorber layer and thin [...] Read more.
In this work, we demonstrate In0.52Al0.48As top/backside-illuminated avalanche photodiodes (APD) with dual multiplication layers for high-speed and wide dynamic range performances. Our fabricated top-illuminated APDs, with a partially depleted p-type In0.53Ga0.47As absorber layer and thin In0.52Al0.48As dual multiplication (M-) layer (60 and 88 nm), exhibit a wide optical-to-electrical bandwidth (16 GHz) with high responsivity (2.5 A/W) under strong light illumination (around 1 mW). The measured bias dependent 3-dB O-E bandwidth was pinned at 16 GHz without any serious degradation near the saturation current output. To further increase the speed, we downscaled the active diameter and adopted a back-side illuminated structure with flip-chip bonding for batter optical alignment tolerance. A significant improvement in maximum bandwidth was demonstrated (25 versus 18 GHz). On the other hand, we adopted a thick dual M-layer (200 and 300 nm) and 2 μm absorber layer in the APD design to circumvent the problem of serious bandwidth degradation under high gain (>100) and high-power operation which significantly enhanced the dynamic range. Due to dual M-layer, the carriers could be energized in the first M-layer then propagate to the second M-layer to trigger the avalanche process. In both cases, despite variation in thickness of the absorber and M-layer, the cascade avalanche process leads to values close to the ultra-high gain bandwidth product (GBP) of around 460 GHz with a responsivity of 0.4 and 1 A/W at unit gain for the thin and thick M-layer devices, respectively. We successfully achieved a good sensitivity of around −20.6 dBm optical modulation amplitude (OMA) at a data rate of 25.78 Gb/s, by packaging the fabricated APDs (thin dual M-layer (60 and 88 nm) version) with a 25 Gb/s trans-impedance amplifier in a 100 Gb/s ROSA package. The results show that, the incorporation of a dual multiplication (M) layer structure in the APD opens a new window to obtaining the higher GBP in order to meet the requirements for high-speed transmission without the need of further downscaling the multiplication layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
47.5 GHz Membrane-III-V-on-Si Directly Modulated Laser for Sub-pJ/bit 100-Gbps Transmission
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020031 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 957 | Correction
Abstract
Near-future upgrades of intra data center networks and high-performance computing systems would require optical interconnects capable of operating at beyond 100 Gbps/lane. In order for this evolution to be achieved in a sustainable way, high-speed yet energy-efficient transceivers are in need. Towards this [...] Read more.
Near-future upgrades of intra data center networks and high-performance computing systems would require optical interconnects capable of operating at beyond 100 Gbps/lane. In order for this evolution to be achieved in a sustainable way, high-speed yet energy-efficient transceivers are in need. Towards this direction we have previously demonstrated directly-modulated lasers (DMLs) capable of operating at 50 Gbps/lane with sub-pJ/bit efficiencies based on our novel membrane-III-V-on-Si technology. However, there exists an inherent tradeoff between modulation speed and power consumption due to the carrier-photon dynamics in DMLs. In this work, we alleviate this tradeoff by introducing photon–photon resonance dynamics in our energy-efficient membrane DMLs-on-Si design and demonstrate a device with a maximum 3-dB bandwidth of 47.5 GHz. This denotes a bandwidth increase of more than 2x times compared to our previous membrane DMLs-on-Si. Moreover, the DML is capable of delivering 60-GBaud PAM-4 signals under Ethernet’s KP4-FEC threshold (net data rate of 113.42 Gbps) over 2-km of standard single-mode fiber transmission. DC energy-efficiencies of 0.17 pJ/bit at 25 °C and 0.34 pJ/bit at 50 °C have been achieved for the > 100-Gbps signals. Deploying such DMLs in an integrated multichannel transceiver should ensure a smooth evolution towards Terabit-class Ethernet links and on-board optics subsystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Communication
InP-Components for 100 GBaud Optical Data Center Communication
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010018 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented. Because of their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the devices are of interest for intra-data center communication. Since the EML and the photodetector chips are compatible with current [...] Read more.
Externally modulated DFB lasers (EML) and vertically illuminated photodetectors are presented. Because of their excellent high-speed behavior and operation wavelength of 1310 nm, the devices are of interest for intra-data center communication. Since the EML and the photodetector chips are compatible with current systems, these devices are candidates for upgrading existing transceivers to higher baud rates. Therefore, a proof of concept for 100 GBaud data transmission with the presented components is demonstrated. Even without predistortion, the experiments show clearly open eye diagrams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Coplanar Electrode Polymer Modulators Incorporating Fluorinated Polyimide Backbone Electro-Optic Polymer
Photonics 2020, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics7040100 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
High-speed coherent optical communication has been expanding to handle the ever-increasing data traffic, and the large modulation bandwidth of electro-optic (EO) polymer modulators has been especially appreciated. However, to be useful in optical communication, the EO polymer device should address several issues, such [...] Read more.
High-speed coherent optical communication has been expanding to handle the ever-increasing data traffic, and the large modulation bandwidth of electro-optic (EO) polymer modulators has been especially appreciated. However, to be useful in optical communication, the EO polymer device should address several issues, such as thermal stability, photo-oxidation, and bias drift. In this work, as a part of the experiments to address these challenges, an EO polymer with a fluorinated polyimide backbone is utilized to create EO polymer modulators with improved thermal stability. A coplanar electrode structure is introduced to enhance the poling efficiency and reduce the bias drift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Review

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Review
Precise Optical Modulation and Its Application to Optoelectronic Device Measurement
Photonics 2021, 8(5), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8050160 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Optoelectronic devices which play important roles in high-speed optical fiber networks can offer effective measurement methods for optoelectronic devices including optical modulators and photodetectors. Precise optical signal modulation is required for measurement applications. This paper focuses on high-speed and precise optical modulation devices [...] Read more.
Optoelectronic devices which play important roles in high-speed optical fiber networks can offer effective measurement methods for optoelectronic devices including optical modulators and photodetectors. Precise optical signal modulation is required for measurement applications. This paper focuses on high-speed and precise optical modulation devices and their application to device measurement. Optical modulators using electro-optic effect offers precise control of lightwaves for wideband signals. As examples, this paper describes frequency response measurement of photodetectors using high-precision amplitude modulation and wavelength domain measurement of optical filters using fast optical frequency sweep. Precise and high-speed modulation can be achieved by active trimming which compensates device structure imbalance due to fabrication error, where preciseness can be described by on-off extinction ratio. A Mach-Zehnder modulator with sub Mach-Zehnder interferometors can offer high extinction-ratio optical intensity modulation, which can be used for precise optoelectronic frequency response measurement. Precise modulation would be also useful for multi-level modulation schemes. To investigate impact of finite extinction ratio on optical modulation, duobinary modulation with small signal operation was demonstrated. For optical frequency domain analysis, single sideband modulation, which shifts optical frequency, can be used for generation of stimulus signals. Rapid measurement of optical filters was performed by using an optical sweeper consisting of an integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator for optical frequency control and an arbitrary waveform generator for generation of a source frequency chirp signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Review
Integrated Components and Solutions for High-Speed Short-Reach Data Transmission
Photonics 2021, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8030077 - 14 Mar 2021
Viewed by 945
Abstract
According to different transmission distances, application scenarios of a data center mainly include intra- and inter-data center optical interconnects. The intra-data center optical interconnect is considered as a few kilometers optical interconnect between servers and racks inside a data center, which accounts for [...] Read more.
According to different transmission distances, application scenarios of a data center mainly include intra- and inter-data center optical interconnects. The intra-data center optical interconnect is considered as a few kilometers optical interconnect between servers and racks inside a data center, which accounts for nearly 80% of data traffic of a data center. The other one, inter-data center optical interconnect, is mainly applied in tens of kilometers data transmission among different data centers. Since data exchange in data centers generally occurs between many servers and racks, and a lot of transmitter and receiver components are required, optical interconnects become highly sensitive to component costs. In this paper, we firstly review the development and applications of mainstream transmitter components (e.g., VCSEL, DML, EML, MZM, and monolithic integrated transmitter) and receiver components (e.g., single-end photodetector, Kramers-Kronig receiver, Stokes vector receiver, and monolithic integrated receiver), which have been widely applied in short-reach transmission systems. Then, two types of integrated solutions including simplified detection scheme and transceiver integration scheme are presented in detail. Finally, we summarize and discuss the technological and component options for different transmission distances. We believe that monolithic integrated components, especially transceiver integration, will become a powerful solution for next-generation high-speed short-reach transmission systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Review
Inverted p-down Design for High-Speed Photodetectors
Photonics 2021, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8020039 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
We discuss the structural consideration of high-speed photodetectors used for optical communications, focusing on vertical illumination photodetectors suitable for device fabrication and optical coupling. We fabricate an avalanche photodiode that can handle 100-Gbit/s four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (50 Gbaud) signals, and pin photodiodes for [...] Read more.
We discuss the structural consideration of high-speed photodetectors used for optical communications, focusing on vertical illumination photodetectors suitable for device fabrication and optical coupling. We fabricate an avalanche photodiode that can handle 100-Gbit/s four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (50 Gbaud) signals, and pin photodiodes for 100-Gbaud operation; both are fabricated with our unique inverted p-side down (p-down) design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Review
Recent Advances in High Speed Photodetectors for eSWIR/MWIR/LWIR Applications
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010014 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
High speed photodetectors operating at a telecommunication band (from 1260 to 1625 nm) have been well studied with the development of an optical fiber communication system. Recent innovations of photonic systems have raised new requirements on the bandwidth of photodetectors with cutoff wavelengths [...] Read more.
High speed photodetectors operating at a telecommunication band (from 1260 to 1625 nm) have been well studied with the development of an optical fiber communication system. Recent innovations of photonic systems have raised new requirements on the bandwidth of photodetectors with cutoff wavelengths from extended short wavelength infrared (eSWIR) to long wavelength infrared (LWIR). However, the frequency response performance of photodetectors in these longer wavelength bands is less studied, and the performances of the current high-speed photodetectors in these bands are still not comparable with those in the telecommunication band. In this paper, technical routes to achieve high response speed performance of photodetectors in the extended short wavelength infrared/mid wavelength infrared/long wavelength infrared (eSWIR/MWIR/LWIR) band are discussed, and the state-of-the-art performances are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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Other

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Correction
Correction: Diamantopoulos et al. 47.5 GHz Membrane-III-V-on-Si Directly Modulated Laser for Sub-pJ/bit 100-Gbps Transmission. Photonics 2021, 8, 31
Photonics 2021, 8(10), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8100407 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
In the original article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ultra High Speed Optoelectronic Devices)
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