Special Issue "Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luca Potì Website E-Mail
Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni - CNIT, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Interests: Optical Communications and Networks; High Capacity Systems; Quantum Communications; Photonic Integrated Circuits; Optical Networks Field Trials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lightwave communications and optical networks have played a key role in the development of the Internet and services. Nowadays, with the advent of 5G philosophy and technologies, and new concepts such as the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, optical communications represents a reliable and consolidated infrastructure that needs to evolve in order to fulfill new requirements. Network segments are even changing dynamically and optical communications get closer to radio access. Concepts such as power consumption, flexibility, interoperability, security, adaptation, machine learning, and cloud computing will drive the evolution of network, services, business, and lifestyle.

This Special Issue of Photonics will focus on new research results and practical solutions in the field of “Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks”, and solicits contributions in, but not limited to:

  • Multimode and multicore fiber and fiber amplifiers for spatial division multiplexing
  • Quantum communication systems and networks
  • Modelling, design, and implementation of digital signal processing for long-haul, medium- and short-range optical communication systems
  • Line terminals, optical transmitter and receiver subsystems for advanced modulation formats and increased speed and/or capacity
  • Optical performance monitoring techniques and subsystems
  • Lab and field implementation of optical fibre transmission links and networks
  • Satellite communication links
  • Capacity, reach, flexibility limits of optical transmission systems and solutions to overcome the current limitations
  • Machine learning for optical signal processing
  • Microwave Photonics Subsystems for 5G, e.g., optical beamforming, opto-eletronic oscillators, clock distribution, photonics-based RF signal up- and down- conversion, photonics-based RF filtering
  • Millimeter-wave and Terahertz photonics
  • Architecture and control of data center and HPCS (High Performance Computing System)
  • Control, orchestration, and management functions, as well as integration with higher layer network services
  • Machine learning and artificial intelligence for advanced networking and monitoring
  • Design of high connectivity contentionless node architectures, including protection and failure recovery
  • Optical backhaul/fronthaul networks
  • Photonics for Cloud services
  • Convergence of optical and wireless networks
Prof. Dr. Luca Potì
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Photonics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Doubly Orthogonal Wavelet Packets for Multi-Users Indoor Visible Light Communication Systems
Photonics 2019, 6(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6030085 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a data communication technology that modulates the intensity of the light to transmit the information mostly by means of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The data rate is mainly throttled by the limited bandwidth of the LEDs. To combat, [...] Read more.
Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a data communication technology that modulates the intensity of the light to transmit the information mostly by means of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The data rate is mainly throttled by the limited bandwidth of the LEDs. To combat, Multi-carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is a favorable technique for achieving higher data rates along with reduced Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) and easy access to multi-users at the cost of slightly reduced compromised spectral efficiency and Multiple Access Interference (MAI). In this article, a multi-user VLC system is designed using a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) that eradicates the use of cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of wavelets. Moreover, the design also comprises suitable signature codes, which are generated by employing double orthogonality depending upon Walsh codes and Wavelet Packets. The proposed multi-user system is simulated in MATLAB software and its overall performance is assessed using line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) configurations. Furthermore, two sub-optimum multi-users detection schemes such as zero forcing (ZF) and minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) are also used at the receiver. The simulated results illustrate that the doubly orthogonal signature waveform-based DWT-MC-CDMA with MMSE detection scheme outperforms the Walsh code-based multi-user system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of a Multi-Colour Visible Light Communication System Based on a Light-to-Frequency Receiver
Photonics 2019, 6(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6020042 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Colour-shift keying (CSK) is a visible light communication (VLC) modulation scheme used in the existing IEEE 802.15.7 standard. In CSK, information is transmitted by changing the light intensities of the RGB LEDs. In this work, a low-complexity VLC system is proposed using CSK [...] Read more.
Colour-shift keying (CSK) is a visible light communication (VLC) modulation scheme used in the existing IEEE 802.15.7 standard. In CSK, information is transmitted by changing the light intensities of the RGB LEDs. In this work, a low-complexity VLC system is proposed using CSK modulation and a novel receiver based on a light-to-frequency (LTF) converter. At the receiver, CSK symbols are interpreted and decoded in terms of frequencies, which are processed by a counter module of a generic microcontroller, thus avoiding the use of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which results in a low-cost VLC system. The main contributions of this work are summarized in the following key points: (1) A low-complexity receiver for CSK modulation is introduced; (2) A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for CSK constellation design is suggested considering the restrictions of the LTF based receiver; (3) Experimental and theoretical validation is perfomed for the proposed multi-colour VLC system. The results show that this system can provide a transmission speed of 100 kbps using a 4-CSK-LTF constellation for a symbol error rate (SER) of 10 4 and a signal to noise ratio (SNR) around 35 dB. These results suggest that the analysed system could find applications on those scenarios where low transmission speeds and ease of deployment are the goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Modified Design of a Hexagonal Circular Photonic Crystal Fiber with Large Negative Dispersion Properties and Ultrahigh Birefringence for Optical Broadband Communication
Photonics 2019, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6010019 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a modified design of a hexagonal circular photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) which obtains a large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence simultaneously. The optical properties of the proposed HC-PCF were investigated using the finite element method (FEM) incorporated with [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a modified design of a hexagonal circular photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) which obtains a large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence simultaneously. The optical properties of the proposed HC-PCF were investigated using the finite element method (FEM) incorporated with a circular perfectly matched layer at the boundary. The simulation results showed large negative dispersion of −1044 ps/nm.km and ultrahigh birefringence of 4.321 × 10−2 at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm for the optimum geometrical parameters. Our proposed HC-PCF exhibited the desirable optical properties without non-circular air holes in the core and cladding region which facilitates the fabrication process. The large negative dispersion of the proposed microstructure over the wide spectral range, i.e., 1350 nm to 1600 nm, and high birefringence make it a suitable candidate for high-speed optical broadband communication and different sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Space Switches in Data Centers: Issues with Transport Protocols
Photonics 2019, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6010016 - 22 Feb 2019
Abstract
A number of new architectures for data centre networks employing reconfigurable, SDN controlled, all-optical networks have been reported in recent years. In most cases, additional capacity was added to the system which unsurprisingly improved performance. In this study, a generalised network model that [...] Read more.
A number of new architectures for data centre networks employing reconfigurable, SDN controlled, all-optical networks have been reported in recent years. In most cases, additional capacity was added to the system which unsurprisingly improved performance. In this study, a generalised network model that emulates the behaviour of these types of network was developed but where the total capacity is maintained constant so that system behaviour can be understood. An extensive emulated study is presented which indicates that the reconfiguration of such a network can have a detrimental impact on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) congestion control mechanisms that can degrade the performance of the system. A number of simple scheduling mechanisms were investigated and the results show that an on-demand scheduling mechanism could deliver a throughput increase of more than ∼50% without any increase in total installed network capacity. These results, therefore, indicate the need to link the network resource management with new datacentre network architectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying the Contribution of Carrier Shot Noise and Random Carrier Recombination to Excess Frequency Noise in Tunable Lasers
Photonics 2019, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6010004 - 05 Jan 2019
Abstract
Tunable lasers are necessary devices for modern-day telecommunications and sensing systems. Tunable lasers based on altering the refractive index of the tuning sections of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) by varying the injected electrical current show significantly more instantaneous random changes in the instantaneous [...] Read more.
Tunable lasers are necessary devices for modern-day telecommunications and sensing systems. Tunable lasers based on altering the refractive index of the tuning sections of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) by varying the injected electrical current show significantly more instantaneous random changes in the instantaneous lasing frequency (or excess FM-noise) compared to non-tunable distributed feedback lasers. We identifies shot noise and random carrier recombination as being the culprits of the excess FM-noise of DBR lasers, and demonstrated this by invoking detailed analytical and numerical analyses of the stochastic carrier fluctuations in the tuning sections, as well as a simplified quasi-static laser tuning model to convert the carrier fluctuations into random instantaneous fluctuations. We found that the spectral density of the FM-noise was mostly in the range 0.5 MHz–10 MHz, and this is in agreement with many independently published results. Our analytical treatment allowed us to conclude that it would be advantageous to reduce the refractive index dependence on the carriers in order to reduce the excess FM-noise while still maintaining the tuning functionality. The simplified numerical model allowed us to create a system simulator to help further develop signal processing techniques to counteract against these instantaneous laser frequency fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Optical Spatial Modulation in Atmospheric Turbulence Channel
Photonics 2018, 5(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5040053 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, spatial pulse position modulation (SPPM) is used as a case study to investigate the performance of the optical spatial modulation (SM) technique in outdoor atmospheric turbulence (AT). A closed-form expression for the upper bound on the asymptotic symbol error rate [...] Read more.
In this paper, spatial pulse position modulation (SPPM) is used as a case study to investigate the performance of the optical spatial modulation (SM) technique in outdoor atmospheric turbulence (AT). A closed-form expression for the upper bound on the asymptotic symbol error rate (SER) of SPPM in AT is derived and validated by closely-matching simulation results. The error performance is evaluated in weak to strong AT conditions. As the AT strength increases from weak to strong, the channel fading coefficients become more dispersed and differentiable. Thus, a better error performance is observed under moderate-to-strong AT compared to weak AT. The performance in weak AT can be improved by applying unequal power allocation to make free-space optical communication (FSO) links more distinguishable at the receiver. Receive diversity is considered to mitigate irradiance fluctuation and improve the robustness of the system to turbulence-induced channel fading. The diversity order is computed as half of the number of detectors. Performance comparisons, in terms of energy and spectral efficiencies, are drawn between the SPPM scheme and conventional MIMO schemes such as repetition coding and spatial multiplexing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Chirp in High-Capacity Optical Metro Networks Employing Directly-Modulated VCSELs
Photonics 2018, 5(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5040051 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Directly modulated long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are considered for the implementation of sliceable bandwidth/bitrate variable transceivers for very high capacity transmission (higher than 50 Gb/s per wavelength) in metropolitan area systems characterized by reduced cost, power consumption, and footprint. The [...] Read more.
Directly modulated long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are considered for the implementation of sliceable bandwidth/bitrate variable transceivers for very high capacity transmission (higher than 50 Gb/s per wavelength) in metropolitan area systems characterized by reduced cost, power consumption, and footprint. The impact of the frequency chirp measured for InP VCSELs with different kinds of design (high-bandwidth very short cavity and widely-tunable with micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) top mirror) is analyzed in case of discrete multitone (DMT) direct modulation in combination with 25-GHz wavelength selective switch (WSS) filtering. The maximum transmitted capacity for both dual side- and single side-band DMT modulation is evaluated as a function of the number of crossed nodes in a mesh metro network, comparing VCSEL based transmitters performance also with the case of external electro-absorption modulator use. Finally, the maximum reach achieved based on the received optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and the fiber span length is discussed. The results confirm the possibility to use directly-modulated long-wavelength VCSELs for the realization of sliceable bandwidth/bitrate variable transmitters targeting 50-Gb/s capacity per polarization, also in the presence of 5 crossed WSSs for reaches of hundreds of kilometers in multi-span Erbium-doped fiber amplified (EDFA) metro links supported by coherent detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Multilevel Pulse Width Modulation for Analog Mobile Fronthaul
Photonics 2018, 5(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5040049 - 23 Nov 2018
Abstract
The evolution of radio access networks is towards a centralized architecture (C-RAN), with massive antenna deployments and large radio-frequency bandwidths. In the next future, traditional optical transport technologies based on digital radio over fiber will no longer be able to support the mobile [...] Read more.
The evolution of radio access networks is towards a centralized architecture (C-RAN), with massive antenna deployments and large radio-frequency bandwidths. In the next future, traditional optical transport technologies based on digital radio over fiber will no longer be able to support the mobile fronthaul traffic connecting antennas hosted at remote radio units and centralized baseband units. Analog radio over fiber can be selected to support the mobile fronthaul (MFH) network and, in particular, pulse width modulation (PWM) is a viable alternative for analog signal transport. In order to increase the MFH spectral efficiency, we propose to exploit multilevel PWM (M-PWM) in a wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (WDM-PON) network, comparing its performance with a conventional 2-level PWM solution. Experimental results show successful transmission over 7.5-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) of up to 16 aggregated LTE-like 20-MHz signals with 64-QAM on each subcarrier, while up to eight aggregated LTE-like 20-MHz signals with 256-QAM could be supported. M-PWM thus allows either using higher order modulation formats or aggregating a higher number of LTE channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
TDM-PON PAM Downstream Transmission for 25 Gbit/s and Beyond
Photonics 2018, 5(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5040045 - 02 Nov 2018
Abstract
The optical access network is currently driving studies on transmissions beyond 10 Gbit/s. This paper reports an analysis of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), seen as a promising candidate for future Passive Optical Networks (PON). Previous 25 Gbit/s real-time PAM4 results are extrapolated here [...] Read more.
The optical access network is currently driving studies on transmissions beyond 10 Gbit/s. This paper reports an analysis of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), seen as a promising candidate for future Passive Optical Networks (PON). Previous 25 Gbit/s real-time PAM4 results are extrapolated here with simulations to higher bit rates and a higher number of PAM levels. Our main goal is to evaluate the compliancy of PAM with the existing standards and legacy networks as far as fiber length, optical budget class, and wavelength plan are concerned. The simulations enlighten us as to the challenges of multilevel modulation formats, such as noise and jitter, compared to the currently adopted Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Programmable Adaptive BVT for Future Optical Metro Networks Adopting SOA-Based Switching Nodes
Photonics 2018, 5(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5030024 - 13 Aug 2018
Abstract
Adaptive Sliceable-Bandwidth Variable Transceivers (S-BVTs) are key enablers for future optical networks. In particular, those based on Discrete MultiTone (DMT) modulation and Direct Detection (DD) can be considered a flexible solution suitable to address the cost efficiency requirement of optical metro networks. In [...] Read more.
Adaptive Sliceable-Bandwidth Variable Transceivers (S-BVTs) are key enablers for future optical networks. In particular, those based on Discrete MultiTone (DMT) modulation and Direct Detection (DD) can be considered a flexible solution suitable to address the cost efficiency requirement of optical metro networks. In this paper, we propose to use a cost-effective S-BVT option/implementation in optical metro networks adopting switching nodes based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) technology. Bit loading (BL) and power loading (PL) algorithms are applied to the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) modules, to maximize the performance and/or the capacity as well as enhance the flexibility and adaptability of the system. Our analysis considers switching nodes based on SOAs with and without filtering elements and fiber spans of 25 km. We present the results up to 100 km, with and without SOA-based nodes. Firstly, we analyze the adaptive BVT transmission using the Margin Adaptive (MA) BL/PL algorithm at a fixed bit rate of 28 Gb/s. The possibility of controlling the SOAs current is a key factor to face the transmission impairments due to the fiber and the filtering elements. We also analyze the system considering Rate Adaptive (RA) transmission at a fixed target Bit Error Rate (BER) of 3.8 × 10−3, showing that a maximum capacity above 34 Gb/s can be achieved for a single span of 25 km. Although the cascading of filtering elements still constitutes a limiting factor, we show that an improvement of the net bit rate performance can be obtained thanks to the combined use of BVT and SOA technology at the switching nodes, resulting in a promising approach for designing future optical metro networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Free Space Intra-Datacenter Interconnects Based on 2D Optical Beam Steering Enabled by Photonic Integrated Circuits
Photonics 2018, 5(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5030021 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Data centers are continuously growing in scale and can contain more than one million servers spreading across thousands of racks; requiring a large-scale switching network to provide broadband and reconfigurable interconnections of low latency. Traditional data center network architectures, through the use of [...] Read more.
Data centers are continuously growing in scale and can contain more than one million servers spreading across thousands of racks; requiring a large-scale switching network to provide broadband and reconfigurable interconnections of low latency. Traditional data center network architectures, through the use of electrical packet switches in a multi-tier topology, has fundamental weaknesses such as oversubscription and cabling complexity. Wireless intra-data center interconnection solutions have been proposed to deal with the cabling problem and can simultaneously address the over-provisioning problem by offering efficient topology re-configurability. In this work we introduce a novel free space optical interconnect solution for intra-data center networks that utilizes 2D optical beam steering for the transmitter, and high bandwidth wide-area photodiode arrays for the receiver. This new breed of free space optical interconnects can be developed on a photonic integrated circuit; offering ns switching at sub-μW consumption. The proposed interconnects together with a networking architecture that is suitable for utilizing those devices could support next generation intra-data center networks, fulfilling the requirements of seamless operation, high connectivity, and agility in terms of the reconfiguration time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Demonstration of an SDM Network Testbed for Joint Spatial Circuit and Packet Switching
Photonics 2018, 5(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5030020 - 28 Jul 2018
Abstract
We demonstrate a spatial division multiplexing (SDM) network testbed composed of three nodes connected via 19-core multi-core fibers. Each node is capable of joint spatial circuit switching and joint packet switching to support 10 Tb/s spatial circuit super channels and 1 Tb/s line [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a spatial division multiplexing (SDM) network testbed composed of three nodes connected via 19-core multi-core fibers. Each node is capable of joint spatial circuit switching and joint packet switching to support 10 Tb/s spatial circuit super channels and 1 Tb/s line rate spatial packet super channels. The performance of the proposed hybrid network is evaluated, showing successful co-existence of both systems in the same network to provide high capacity and high granularity services. Finally, we demonstrate an optical channel selection associated with the quality of service requirements on the SDM network testbed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Statistical Assessment of Open Optical Networks
Photonics 2019, 6(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6020064 - 05 Jun 2019
Abstract
In order to cope with the increase of the final user traffic, operators and vendors are pushing towards physical layer aware networking as a way to maximize the network capacity. To this aim, optical networks are becoming more and more open by exposing [...] Read more.
In order to cope with the increase of the final user traffic, operators and vendors are pushing towards physical layer aware networking as a way to maximize the network capacity. To this aim, optical networks are becoming more and more open by exposing physical parameters enabling fast and reliable estimation of the lightpath quality of transmission. This comes in handy not only from the point of view of the planning and managing of the optical paths but also on a more general picture of the whole optical network performance. In this work, the Statistical Network Assessment Process (SNAP) is presented. SNAP is an algorithm allowing for estimating different network metrics such as blocking probability or link saturation, by generating traffic requests on a graph abstraction of the physical layer. Being aware of the physical layer parameters and transceiver technologies enables assessing their impact on high level network figures of merit. Together with a detailed description of the algorithm, we present a comprehensive review of several results on the networking impact of multirate transceivers, flex-grid spectral allocation as a means to finely exploit lightpath capacity and of different Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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Open AccessReview
Disaster-Resilient Optical Network Survivability: A Comprehensive Survey
Photonics 2018, 5(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5040035 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Network survivability endeavors to ensure the uninterrupted provisioning of services by the network operators in case of a disaster event. Studies and news reports show that network failures caused by physical attacks and natural disasters have significant impacts on the optical networks. Such [...] Read more.
Network survivability endeavors to ensure the uninterrupted provisioning of services by the network operators in case of a disaster event. Studies and news reports show that network failures caused by physical attacks and natural disasters have significant impacts on the optical networks. Such network failures may lead to a section of a network to cease to function, resulting in non-availability of services and may increase the congestion within the rest of the network. Therefore, fault tolerant and disaster-resilient optical networks have grasped the attention of the research community and have been a critical concern in network studies during the last decade. Several studies on protection and restoration techniques have been conducted to address the network component failures. This study reviews related previous research studies to critically discuss the issues regarding protection, restoration, cascading failures, disaster-based failures, and congestion-aware routing. We have also focused on the problem of simultaneous cascading failures (which may disturb the data traffic within a layer or disrupt the services at upper layers) along with their mitigating techniques, and disaster-aware network survivability. Since traffic floods and network congestion are pertinent problems, they have therefore been discussed in a separate section. In the end, we have highlighted some open issues in the disaster-resilient network survivability for research challenges and discussed them along with their possible solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lightwave Communications and Optical Networks)
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