Special Issue "Viral Diseases of Fish"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Luis Perez Garcia-Estañ
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche, Spain
Interests: fish viruses; antivirals; immune response

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquaculture is today a global industry, providing a source of proteins to the world’s population. Although the fish farming industry continues to make progress, intensive aquaculture is constantly threatened by infectious diseases that cause huge economic losses both in production and employment. In particular, fish viral diseases are a cause of major concern. In the last year, outbreaks affecting carp in California and UK, tilapia in Africa, or salmon in Australia have shown that disease prevention and control are key factors in the sustainability and development of the sector.

This Special Issue aims to cover the broad spectrum of research on fish viruses. We hope to assemble a series of contributions offering a comprehensive view of the variety of virus families making the biggest impact on fish health: Rhabdoviridae, Birnaviridae, Nodaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Herpesviridae, and Iridoviridae. Studies on the life cycle of newly discovered and re-emerging viruses associated with some of the latest outbreaks will also be a focus due to the scarce information available on these little-known viruses. For this Special Issue of Pathogens, we invite you to submit papers on the newest advances in disease control, antiviral therapy, and vaccinology, as well as groundbreaking concepts in immunology relevant to the protection of fish against disease. Papers describing “proof of concept” use of novel technologies with the potential to open new avenues for antiviral treatments will also be welcome.

We look forward to publishing your latest research with new exciting findings on fish viral infections.

Prof. Dr. Luis Perez Garcia-Estañ
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aquaculture
  • Viral diseases
  • Emerging viruses
  • Antiviral therapy
  • Vaccines
  • Immune response
  • Diagnosis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Genome and Phylogenetic Analysis of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Strain SNU1 Isolated in Korea
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040200 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), one of the most important pathogenic fish viruses, affects trout fisheries and causes considerable economic losses. Currently, in Korea, more studies on IHNV infection are being reported. However, relatively less data is available on Korean isolates than on [...] Read more.
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), one of the most important pathogenic fish viruses, affects trout fisheries and causes considerable economic losses. Currently, in Korea, more studies on IHNV infection are being reported. However, relatively less data is available on Korean isolates than on those from other countries. Few studies have focused on gene sequence analyses of IHNV glycoprotein (G) gene and almost none have focused on other gene fragments. Therefore, considering the dearth of adequate phylogenetic and genomic studies on Korean IHNV strains because of the lack of data, our study aimed to provide sufficient relevant data by sequencing the complete genome of the IHNV strain SNU1, which was recently isolated from a Korean rainbow trout farm. Moreover, we focused on expanding the perspectives on the phylogenesis of IHNV isolates from Korea and other Asian countries. IHNV was isolated from pooled hematopoietic tissue samples using Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells, and phylogenetic analysis and genome study were conducted using complete G, N, and nonvirion (NV) gene sequences. Our main achievements were the development of a phylogenetic analytical method based on the NV gene and complete genome sequence analysis of the IHNV strain SNU1, which was compared with other Asian isolate sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Old and the New on Viral Diseases in Sturgeon
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020146 - 21 Feb 2020
Abstract
Although sturgeon production by aquaculture has increased worldwide, a major factor limiting its expansion are infectious diseases, although few data about viral diseases are available however. This review provides a rapid overview of viral agents detected and described to date. Following a general [...] Read more.
Although sturgeon production by aquaculture has increased worldwide, a major factor limiting its expansion are infectious diseases, although few data about viral diseases are available however. This review provides a rapid overview of viral agents detected and described to date. Following a general introduction on viral diseases are four sections arranged by virus classification: sturgeon nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, herpesviruses, white sturgeon adenovirus 1, and other viruses. Molecular diagnosis is currently the best tool to detect viral diseases, since cell culture isolation is not yet applicable for the detection of most sturgeon viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish)
Open AccessReview
Betanodavirus and VER Disease: A 30-year Research Review
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020106 - 09 Feb 2020
Abstract
The outbreaks of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), represent one of the main infectious threats for marine aquaculture worldwide. Since the first description of the disease at the end of the 1980s, a considerable amount of research [...] Read more.
The outbreaks of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), represent one of the main infectious threats for marine aquaculture worldwide. Since the first description of the disease at the end of the 1980s, a considerable amount of research has gone into understanding the mechanisms involved in fish infection, developing reliable diagnostic methods, and control measures, and several comprehensive reviews have been published to date. This review focuses on host–virus interaction and epidemiological aspects, comprising viral distribution and transmission as well as the continuously increasing host range (177 susceptible marine species and epizootic outbreaks reported in 62 of them), with special emphasis on genotypes and the effect of global warming on NNV infection, but also including the latest findings in the NNV life cycle and virulence as well as diagnostic methods and VER disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish)
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Open AccessReview
The Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) and its Virulence Determinants: What is Known and What Should be Known
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020094 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a disease of great concern in aquaculture, mainly among salmonid farmers, since losses in salmonid fish—mostly very young rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnery) fry and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolt—frequently reach 80–90% of stocks. The [...] Read more.
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a disease of great concern in aquaculture, mainly among salmonid farmers, since losses in salmonid fish—mostly very young rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnery) fry and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolt—frequently reach 80–90% of stocks. The virus causing the typical signs of the IPN disease in salmonids, named infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), has also been isolated from other fish species either suffering related diseases (then named IPNV-like virus) or asymptomatic; the general term aquabirnavirus is used to encompass all these viruses. Aquabirnaviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral bisegmented dsRNA viruses, whose genome codifies five viral proteins, three of which are structural, and one of them is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Due to the great importance of the disease, there have been great efforts to find a way to predict the level of virulence of IPNV isolates. The viral genome and proteins have been the main focus of research. However, to date such a reliable magic marker has not been discovered. This review describes the processes followed for decades in the attempts to discover the viral determinants of virulence, and to help the reader understand how viral components can be involved in virulence modulation in vitro and in vivo. There is also a brief description of the disease, of host defenses, and of the molecular structure and function of the virus and its viral components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Carp Edema Virus and Cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 Coinfection is Associated with Mass Mortality of Koi (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) in the Republic of Korea
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030222 (registering DOI) - 17 Mar 2020
Abstract
As koi and common carp gain importance in the Korean fish industry, the need for better diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of associated diseases has increased. In June 2019, the first known case of mass mortality involving cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) and the second involving [...] Read more.
As koi and common carp gain importance in the Korean fish industry, the need for better diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of associated diseases has increased. In June 2019, the first known case of mass mortality involving cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) and the second involving carp edema virus (CEV) occurred in a koi farm in Jeolla-do, Korea. Notably, the CEV exhibited a closer phylogenetic relationship with certain CEV strains originating from Poland, Germany, and India than with strains originating from China or Japan. Epidemiological studies and detailed surveillance and control for CEV and CyHV-3 are needed along with quarantine inspections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish)
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Open AccessCase Report
Two New Sturgeon Species are Susceptible to Acipenser Iridovirus European (AcIV-E) Infection
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030156 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
We report the first case of Acipenser iridovirus European (AcIV-E) infection in starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) and in sterlet (A. ruthenus) reared in Northern Italy. During 2018, mortality began in A. stellatus and A. ruthenus specimens reared in co-habitation [...] Read more.
We report the first case of Acipenser iridovirus European (AcIV-E) infection in starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) and in sterlet (A. ruthenus) reared in Northern Italy. During 2018, mortality began in A. stellatus and A. ruthenus specimens reared in co-habitation with Russian sturgeon positive for AcIV-E. Molecular analyses were done on the gills to amplify a fragment of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene using real-time PCR against AcIV-E. DNA of the positive samples was further sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The MCP gene sequences were highly similar to a virus previously identified in Italy (nucleotide identities between 99.38% and 99.69%). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed our hypothesis of passage of the virus from the infected Russian sturgeon. The detection of AcIV-E in new species of the Acipenseridae family may impact on sturgeon production, with relevant economic losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Diseases of Fish)
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