Special Issue "The Interaction between Pathogens and the Chicken Innate Immune System"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022 | Viewed by 2444

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christine Jansen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: avian immunology; host-pathogen interactions; natural killer cells
Dr. Robin van den Biggelaar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomolecular Health Sciences, Division of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
Interests: immunology; cell biology; vaccines; host pathogen interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens, which acts in a rapid and non-specific way. It consists of mucosal barriers, soluble factors such as antimicrobial peptides, and complement factors as well as a large cellular compartments including granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. This combination of antimicrobial molecules and innate immune cells results in most cases in protection against pathogens. When pathogens are not cleared by these early defense mechanisms, the initial encounter between the innate immune system and pathogens also determines the subsequent actions of the adaptive immune system.

Activation of the adaptive immune system results in long-term immunological memory, which is pathogen-specific. Recently, it has been shown that chicken innate immune cells are also able to develop immunological memory, a concept described as trained innate immunity which is not pathogen-specific, which may lead to enhanced protection against multiple pathogens.

Compared to knowledge of mammalian immune systems, chicken immunology is still in its infancy. However, the completion of the chicken genome and the development of techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics, advanced microscopy, and multicolor flow cytometry rapidly increase our understanding of the chicken immune system in health and disease.

The focus of this Special Issue will be the interaction between pathogens and the chicken innate immune system and how this will affect the outcome of this interaction for either pathogen or host. Special focus will be on the mechanism by which pathogens either activate or evade the different components of the innate immune system.

This knowledge will be important for the design of effective vaccines and other intervention strategies that enhance the responsiveness of the chicken innate immune system, with the ultimate goal of making chickens more resistant to infectious diseases.

Dr. Christine Jansen
Dr. Robin van den Biggelaar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • chicken immunology
  • innate
  • pathogens
  • natural killer cells
  • macrophages
  • antimicrobial peptides

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
Avian Macrophage Responses to Virulent and Avirulent Clostridium perfringens
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010100 - 15 Jan 2022
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Abstract
The present study evaluated the avian macrophage responses against Clostridium perfringens that varied in their ability to cause necrotic enteritis in chickens. Strains CP5 (avirulent-netB+), CP1 (virulent-netB+), and CP26 (highly virulent-netB+tpeL+) were used to evaluate [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the avian macrophage responses against Clostridium perfringens that varied in their ability to cause necrotic enteritis in chickens. Strains CP5 (avirulent-netB+), CP1 (virulent-netB+), and CP26 (highly virulent-netB+tpeL+) were used to evaluate their effect on macrophages (MQ-NCSU cells) and primary splenic and cecal tonsil mononuclear cells. The bacilli (whole cells) or their secretory products from all three strains induced a significant increase in the macrophage transcription of Toll-like receptor (TLR)21, TLR2, interleukin (IL)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD80 genes as well as their nitric oxide (NO) production and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II surface expression compared to an unstimulated control. The CP1 and CP26-induced expression of interferon (IFN)γ, IL-6, CD40 genes, MHC-II upregulation, and NO production was significantly higher than that of CP5 and control groups. Furthermore, splenocytes and cecal tonsillocytes stimulated with bacilli or secretory products from all the strains showed a significant increase in the frequency of macrophages, their surface expression of MHC-II and NO production, while CP26-induced responses were significantly higher for the rest of the groups. In summary, macrophage interaction with C. perfringens can lead to cellular activation and, the ability of this pathogen to induce macrophage responses may depend on its level of virulence. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Interplay between Salmonella and Intestinal Innate Immune Cells in Chickens
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111512 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Salmonellosis is a common infection in poultry, which results in huge economic losses in the poultry industry. At the same time, Salmonella infections are a threat to public health, since contaminated poultry products can lead to zoonotic infections. Antibiotics as feed additives have [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis is a common infection in poultry, which results in huge economic losses in the poultry industry. At the same time, Salmonella infections are a threat to public health, since contaminated poultry products can lead to zoonotic infections. Antibiotics as feed additives have proven to be an effective prophylactic option to control Salmonella infections, but due to resistance issues in humans and animals, the use of antimicrobials in food animals has been banned in Europe. Hence, there is an urgent need to look for alternative strategies that can protect poultry against Salmonella infections. One such alternative could be to strengthen the innate immune system in young chickens in order to prevent early life infections. This can be achieved by administration of immune modulating molecules that target innate immune cells, for example via feed, or by in-ovo applications. We aimed to review the innate immune system in the chicken intestine; the main site of Salmonella entrance, and its responsiveness to Salmonella infection. Identifying the most important players in the innate immune response in the intestine is a first step in designing targeted approaches for immune modulation. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Title: The role of dendritic cells in the host response to Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) as shown by transcriptomic analysis of susceptible and resistant birds
Author: Jacqueline Smith et al.
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