Special Issue "Echinococcus"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jacek Karamon DVM, PhD, ScD
Website
Guest Editor
National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Interests: parasitology; veterinary parasitology; Echinococcus; zoonotic parasites; diagnostics; molecular parasitology
Dr. Tomasz Cencek DVM, PhD, ScD
Website
Guest Editor
National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Parasitology, al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Interests: parasitology; veterinary parasitology; control of parasitic infections; zoonotic parasites; food safety; soil-transmitted helminths

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

You are kindly invited to publish your work in the new Special Issue of Pathogens (IF = 3.405) which is focused on Echinococcus spp. and echinococcosis. Echinococcus (mainly E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l.) is widely distributed and one of the most dangerous zoonotic parasites in the world. Epidemiological studies on the occurrence of this infection in humans as well as in animals that may be a source of infection for people are extremely important. Therefore, a lot of investigations on the development and improvement of diagnostic methods have been carried out. Moreover, many different programs of monitoring and control of echinococcosis in human and animal hosts have been elaborated and applied. What is more, all of these actions are supported by fast development of genetic studies concerning this tapeworm. This Special Issue gives the opportunity to publish research papers and reviews that cover this wide thematic scope.

Dr. Jacek Karamon DVM, PhD, ScD
Dr. Tomasz Cencek DVM, PhD, ScD
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Echinococcus
  • echinococcosis
  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • Echinococcus granuolsus s.l. prevalence
  • diagnostics
  • control
  • genetics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Microsatellite Investigations of Multiple Echinococcus Granulosus Sensu Stricto Cysts in Single Hosts Reveal Different Patterns of Infection Events between Livestock and Humans
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060444 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a worldwide zoonosis and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the most common species associated with animal and human diseases. The objective of this study was to obtain a better [...] Read more.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a worldwide zoonosis and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the most common species associated with animal and human diseases. The objective of this study was to obtain a better understanding of CE infection in livestock and humans from very low and high endemic areas—France and Tunisia—by studying the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. at the intra-individual host level. This genetic diversity was studied using EgSca6 and EgSca11 microsatellite profiles in 93 sheep from France and Tunisia, and in 12 cattle and 31 children from Tunisia only, all presenting multiple CE cysts (2 to 10 cysts). Overall, 96% of sheep, 92% of cattle, and 48% of children had at least two cysts with different microsatellite profiles. Inversely, 35% of sheep, 17% of cattle, and 65% of children had at least two cysts with the same microsatellite profile. The genotyping results for the CE samples highlight high and similar genetic diversity in France and Tunisia, suggesting that the probability of being successively infected by CE of the same microsatellite profile was rare in both countries. Therefore, our results suggest that in rare cases, several eggs of the same microsatellite profile, from two to seven in our data, can be ingested simultaneously in a single infection event and develop into several cysts in livestock and children. They also indicate that multiple infection events are frequent in livestock, even in a low endemic country such as France, and are less frequent but not negligible in children in a high endemic country such as Tunisia. Moreover, this is the first time that genetic evidence of secondary CE has been found. Further studies are needed to better assess the pattern of infection events in livestock and humans, especially by studying the genetic diversity of adult worms in definitive hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcus)
Open AccessArticle
Genotyping Echinococcus multilocularis in Human Alveolar Echinococcosis Patients: An EmsB Microsatellite Analysis
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040282 - 13 Apr 2020
Abstract
For clinical epidemiology specialists, connecting the genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis to sources of infection or particular sites has become somewhat of a holy grail. It is very difficult to trace the infection history of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patients as there may be [...] Read more.
For clinical epidemiology specialists, connecting the genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis to sources of infection or particular sites has become somewhat of a holy grail. It is very difficult to trace the infection history of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patients as there may be an incubation period of five to 15 years before reliable diagnosis. Moreover, the variability of parasitic manifestations in human patients raises the possibility of genetically different isolates of E. multilocularis having different levels of pathogenicity. Thus, the exposure of human patients to different strains or genotypes circulating in geographically different environments may lead to different disease outcomes. Molecular tools, such as the microsatellite marker EmsB, were required to investigate these aspects. This genetic marker was previously tested on a collection of 1211 European field samples predominantly of animal origin, referenced on a publicly available database. In this study, we investigated a panel of 66 metacestode samples (between 1981 and 2019) recovered surgically from 63 patients diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis originating from four European countries (France, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium). In this study, we identified nine EmsB profiles, five of which were found in patients located in the same areas of France and Switzerland. One profile was detected on both sides of the French-Swiss border, whereas most patients from non-endemic regions clustered together in another profile. EmsB profiles appeared to remain stable over time because similar profiles were detected in patients who underwent surgery recently and patients who underwent surgery some time ago. This study sheds light on possible pathways of contamination in humans, including proximity contamination in some cases, and the dominant contamination profiles in Europe, particularly for extrahepatic lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcus)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The Molecular Epidemiology of Echinococcus infections
Authors: Andrew Thompson
Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences Murdoch University Murdoch WA 6150 Australia
Abstract: Molecular epidemiology is the application of molecular tools to determine the causation of disease. With infectious diseases, such as echinococcosis, this applies to identifying and characterising the aetiological agents and elucidating host range. Such an approach has been very successful with the causative agents of echinococcosis, species of Echinococcus, initially by providing a workable and practical taxonomy and subsequently determining transmission patterns in endemic areas. This review summarises the taxonomy and nomenclature of species of Echinococcus and provides an overview of the ecology of Echinococcus transmission, particularly in areas where more than one species of Echinococcus is maintained in cycles of transmission that may interact. Emphasis is given to emerging issues in the epidemiology of echinococcosis particularly regarding wildlife and urbanisation.

Title: Microsatellite investigations of multiple Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts in single host reveal different patterns of infection events between livestock and humans
Authors: Selim M’rad1, Myriam Oudni-M’rad1, Vanessa Bastid2, Laure Bournez2, Sana Mosbahi3, Abdelallatif Nouri3, Hamouda Babba1,4, Frédéric Grenouillet5, Franck Boué3, Gérald Umhang2
Affiliation: 1 University of Monastir, Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Medical and Molecular Parasitology-Mycology (LP3M), LR12ES08, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia 2Anses LRFSN, Wildlife surveillance and eco-epidemiology unit, National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp., Malzéville, France 3 Paediatric Surgery Department, F. Bourguiba Hospital, Monastir, Medical School, Tunisia 4 Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, EPS F. Bourguiba, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia 5 Chrono-Environnement UMR 6249 Research Team, CNRS-University of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is a worldwide zoonosis and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the most common species associated with animal and human pathology. The objective of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the CE infection in livestock and humans from very low and high endemic areas − France and Tunisia − by studying the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. at the intra-individual host level. This genetic diversity was studied using EgSca6 and EgSca11 microsatellites profiles in 93 sheep from France and Tunisia, 12 cattle and 31 children from Tunisia only, all infected by multiple CE cysts (2 to 10 cysts). Overall, 96% of sheep, 92% of cattle and 48% of children had at least two cysts with different microsatellites profiles. Inversely, 35% of sheep, 17% of cattle and 65% of children had at least two cysts with the same microsatellites profiles. The genotyping results of the CE samples highlights a high and similar genetic diversity in France and Tunisia, suggesting that the probability of being successively infected by CE of the same microsatellite profile was rare in both countries. Therefore, our results suggest that in rare cases, several eggs of the same microsatellite profile, from two to seven in our data, can be ingested simultaneously in a single infection event and develop into several cysts in livestock and children. They also indicate that multiple infection events are frequent in livestock, even in a low endemic country such as France, and are less frequent but not negligible in children in a high endemic country such as Tunisia. Moreover, it’s the first time that genetic evidence of secondary CE is given. Further studies are needed to better assess the pattern of infection events in livestock and humans, especially by studying the genetic diversity of adult worm in definitive hosts.

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