Special Issue "Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 16584

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. David Carmena
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Parasitology Reference and Research Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Health Institute Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Spain
Interests: David's research focuses on zoonotic diseases caused by protist (Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis, Enterocytozoon) and helminth (Echinococcus) species, with a particular interest in those aspects related to the diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, transmission dynamics and evaluation socioeconomic impact caused by these pathogens, both from the human and animal health perspective
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. David González-Barrio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Parasitology Reference and Research Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Health Institute Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Spain
Interests: David´s research is mainly focused on shared emerging diseases between domestic animals, wildlife, and humans, with a special interest in diagnostics, epidemiology, and molecular epidemiology in their main wildlife reservoirs.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Ms. Pamela Carolina Köster
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Parasitology Reference and Research Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Health Institute Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Spain
Interests: Pamela's research is mainly focused on the detection and molecular characterization of diarrhoea-causing enteric protists in wildlife, with a special interest in endangered non-human primate species. Her research includes the identification and characterization of zoonotic transmission events and how anthropic activities influence the health status of free-living animal communities.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The enteric protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are the most common diarrhoea-causing protozoan parasites worldwide. Cryptosporidium spp. is a leading cause of diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years in poor-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Although infection by G. duodenalis is rarely a fatal condition, giardiasis is commonly associated with childhood growth faltering and cognitive impairment. Because of their significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in low-income countries, giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis joined the “Neglected Disease Initiative” launched by the World Health Organization in 2004. Both Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are ubiquitous in the environment and can infect a wide range of hosts with different specificities, meaning that humans may acquire the infection via waterborne, foodborne, or zoonotic transmission.

Recent advances in detection and molecular epidemiology have indicated that certain species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis have an expanded range of suitable hosts, suggesting that their transmission pathways are more intricate than previously thought, challenging our current notion of host specificities. Therefore, there is a clear need for more studies aiming at investigating the frequency and molecular diversity of these parasites in humans, production and companion animals, and wildlife species. This information would be extremely useful to elucidate the transmission dynamics of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, and to investigate the exact contribution of zoonotic events to human infections.

For this Special Issue, we invite you to send contributions on any aspects that may help to clarify the detection, epidemiology, genetic diversity, and transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis from a public veterinary health perspective. Under the One Health umbrella, environmental studies investigating the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens in surface water and food matrices are also welcome.

Dr. David Carmena
Dr. David González-Barrio
Ms. Pamela Carolina Köster
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Cryptosporidium
  • Giardia
  • epidemiology
  • transmission
  • zoonoses
  • detection
  • genotyping

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020141 - 24 Jan 2022
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Abstract
Cryptosporidium spp [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Molecular Investigation of Zoonotic Intestinal Protozoa in Pet Dogs and Cats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091107 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are common enteric pathogens that reside in the intestines of humans and animals. These pathogens have a broad host range and worldwide distribution, but are mostly known for their ability to cause diarrhea. However, very [...] Read more.
Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are common enteric pathogens that reside in the intestines of humans and animals. These pathogens have a broad host range and worldwide distribution, but are mostly known for their ability to cause diarrhea. However, very limited information on prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. in pet dogs and cats are available in China. In the present study, a total of 433 fecal samples were collected from 262 pet dogs and 171 pet cats in Yunnan province, southwestern China, and the prevalence and the genotypes of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. were investigated by nested PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The prevalence of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. was 13.7% (36/262), 8.0% (21/262), and 4.6% (12/262) in dogs, and 1.2% (2/171), 2.3% (4/171) and 0.6% (1/171) in cats, respectively. The different living conditions of dogs is a risk factor that is related with the prevalence of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi (p < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant difference in prevalence of three pathogens in cats. DNA sequencing and analyses showed that four E. bieneusi genotypes (PtEb IX, CD9, DgEb I and DgEb II), one Cryptosporidium spp. (C. canis) and two G. duodenalis assemblages (C and D) were identified in dogs; two E. bieneusi genotypes (Type IV and CtEb I), one Cryptosporidium spp. (C. felis) and one G. duodenalis assemblage (F) were identified in cats. Three novel E. bieneusi genotypes (DgEb I, DgEb II and CtEb I) were identified, and the human-pathogenic genotypes/species Type IV C. canis and C. felis were also observed in this study, indicating a potential zoonotic threat of pet dogs and cats. Our results revealed the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. infection in pet dogs and cats in Yunnan province, southwestern China, and suggested the potential threat of pet dogs and cats to public health. Full article
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Article
Subtyping Cryptosporidium xiaoi, a Common Pathogen in Sheep and Goats
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070800 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
Cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrhea in sheep and goats. Among the over 40 established species of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium xiaoi is one of the dominant species infecting ovine and caprine animals. The lack of subtyping tools makes it impossible to examine [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrhea in sheep and goats. Among the over 40 established species of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium xiaoi is one of the dominant species infecting ovine and caprine animals. The lack of subtyping tools makes it impossible to examine the transmission of this pathogen. In the present study, we identified and characterized the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene by sequencing the genome of C. xiaoi. The GP60 protein of C. xiaoi had a signal peptide, a furin cleavage site of RSRR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, and over 100 O-glycosylation sites. Based on the gp60 sequence, a subtyping tool was developed and used in characterizing C. xiaoi in 355 positive samples from sheep and goats in China. A high sequence heterogeneity was observed in the gp60 gene, with 94 sequence types in 12 subtype families, namely XXIIIa to XXIIIl. Co-infections with multiple subtypes were common in these animals, suggesting that genetic recombination might be responsible for the high diversity within C. xiaoi. This was supported by the mosaic sequence patterns among the subtype families. In addition, a potential host adaptation was identified within this species, reflected by the exclusive occurrence of XXIIIa, XXIIIc, XXIIIg, and XXIIIj in goats. This subtyping tool should be useful in studies of the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of C. xiaoi. Full article
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Article
Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium cuniculus from Rabbits in Egypt
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060775 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Rabbits are increasingly farmed in Egypt for meat. They are, however, known reservoirs of infectious pathogens. Currently, no information is available on the genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in rabbits in Egypt. To understand the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in [...] Read more.
Rabbits are increasingly farmed in Egypt for meat. They are, however, known reservoirs of infectious pathogens. Currently, no information is available on the genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in rabbits in Egypt. To understand the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in these animals, 235 fecal samples were collected from rabbits of different ages on nine farms in El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia, and Damietta Provinces, Egypt during the period from July 2015 to April 2016. PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene was used to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. The overall detection rate was 11.9% (28/235). All 28 samples were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The 16 samples successfully subtyped by the sequence analysis of the partial 60 kDa glycoprotein gene belonged to two subtypes, VbA19 (n = 1) and VbA33 (n = 15). As C. cuniculus is increasingly recognized as a cause of human cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium spp. in rabbits from Egypt have zoonotic potential. Full article
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Article
Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Protist Infections in Hospital Inpatients in Southwestern China
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060684 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. infections have been frequently reported as etiological agents for gastroenteritis, but also as common gut inhabitants in apparently healthy individuals. Between July 2016 and March 2017, stool samples (n = 507) [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. infections have been frequently reported as etiological agents for gastroenteritis, but also as common gut inhabitants in apparently healthy individuals. Between July 2016 and March 2017, stool samples (n = 507) were collected from randomly selected individuals (male/female ratio: 1.1, age range: 38–63 years) from two sentinel hospitals in Tengchong City Yunnan Province, China. Molecular (PCR and Sanger sequencing) methods were used to detect and genotype the investigated protist species. Carriage/infection rates were: Blastocystis sp. 9.5% (95% CI: 7.1–12.4%), G. duodenalis 2.2% (95% CI: 1.1–3.8%); and E. histolytica 2.0% (95% CI: 0.9–3.6%). Cryptosporidium spp. was not detected at all. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI: 9.7–15.6) of the participants harbored at least one enteric protist species. The most common coinfection was E. histolytica and Blastocystis sp. (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.3–2.2). Sequence analyses revealed that 90.9% (10/11) of the genotyped G. duodenalis isolates corresponded to the sub-assemblage AI. The remaining sequence (9.1%, 1/11) was identified as sub-assemblage BIV. Five different Blastocystis subtypes, including ST3 (43.7%, 21/48), ST1 (27.1%, 13/48), ST7 (18.8%, 9/48), ST4 (8.3%, 4/48), and ST2 (2.1%, 1/48) were identified. Statistical analyses confirmed that (i) the co-occurrence of protist infections was purely random, (ii) no associations were observed among the four protist species found, and (iii) neither their presence, individually or jointly, nor the patient’s age was predictors for developing clinical symptoms associated with these infections. Overall, these protist mono- or coinfections are asymptomatic and do not follow any pattern. Full article
Article
Comparative Performance of Eight PCR Methods to Detect Cryptosporidium Species
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060647 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Diagnostic approaches based on PCR methods are increasingly used in the field of parasitology, particularly to detect Cryptosporidium. Consequently, many different PCR methods are available, both “in-house” and commercial methods. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of eight [...] Read more.
Diagnostic approaches based on PCR methods are increasingly used in the field of parasitology, particularly to detect Cryptosporidium. Consequently, many different PCR methods are available, both “in-house” and commercial methods. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of eight PCR methods, four “in-house” and four commercial methods, to detect Cryptosporidium species. On the same DNA extracts, performance was evaluated regarding the limit of detection for both C. parvum and C. hominis specificity and the ability to detect rare species implicated in human infection. Results showed variations in terms of performance. The best performance was observed with the FTD® Stool parasites method, which detected C. parvum and C. hominis with a limit of detection of 1 and 10 oocysts/gram of stool respectively; all rare species tested were detected (C. cuniculus, C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. chipmunk, and C. ubiquitum), and no cross-reaction was observed. In addition, no cross-reactivity was observed with other enteric pathogens. However, commercial methods were unable to differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and generally, we recommend testing each DNA extract in at least triplicate to optimize the limit of detection. Full article
Article
High Diversity of Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes Identified in Cryptosporidiosis Acquired in Sweden and Abroad
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050523 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The intestinal protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in Sweden to better understand transmission patterns and potential zoonotic sources. Cryptosporidium-positive [...] Read more.
The intestinal protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in Sweden to better understand transmission patterns and potential zoonotic sources. Cryptosporidium-positive fecal samples were collected between January 2013 and December 2014 from 12 regional clinical microbiology laboratories in Sweden. Species and subtype determination was achieved using small subunit ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein gene analysis. Samples were available for 398 patients, of whom 250 (63%) and 138 (35%) had acquired the infection in Sweden and abroad, respectively. Species identification was successful for 95% (379/398) of the samples, revealing 12 species/genotypes: Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 299), C. hominis (n = 49), C. meleagridis (n = 8), C. cuniculus (n = 5), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I (n = 5), C. felis (n = 4), C. erinacei (n = 2), C. ubiquitum (n = 2), and one each of C. suis, C. viatorum, C. ditrichi, and Cryptosporidium horse genotype. One patient was co-infected with C. parvum and C. hominis. Subtyping was successful for all species/genotypes, except for C. ditrichi, and revealed large diversity, with 29 subtype families (including 4 novel ones: C. parvum IIr, IIs, IIt, and Cryptosporidium horse genotype VIc) and 81 different subtypes. The most common subtype families were IIa (n = 164) and IId (n = 118) for C. parvum and Ib (n = 26) and Ia (n = 12) for C. hominis. Infections caused by the zoonotic C. parvum subtype families IIa and IId dominated both in patients infected in Sweden and abroad, while most C. hominis cases were travel-related. Infections caused by non-hominis and non-parvum species were quite common (8%) and equally represented in cases infected in Sweden and abroad. Full article
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Article
Molecular Characterisation of Cryptosporidium spp. in Mozambican Children Younger than 5 Years Enrolled in a Matched Case-Control Study on the Aetiology of Diarrhoeal Disease
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040452 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea and associated physical and cognitive impairment in low-resource settings. Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples (n = 190) from children aged ≤ 5 years enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Mozambique detected by [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea and associated physical and cognitive impairment in low-resource settings. Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples (n = 190) from children aged ≤ 5 years enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Mozambique detected by ELISA (11.5%, 430/3754) were successfully PCR-amplified and sequenced at the gp60 or ssu rRNA loci for species determination and genotyping. Three Cryptosporidium species including C. hominis (72.6%, 138/190), C. parvum (22.6%, 43/190), and C. meleagridis (4.2%, 8/190) were detected. Children ≤ 23 months were more exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. infections than older children. Both C. hominis and C. parvum were more prevalent among children with diarrhoeal disease compared to those children without it (47.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.007 and 23.7% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.014, respectively). A high intra-species genetic variability was observed within C. hominis (subtype families Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, and If) and C. parvum (subtype families IIb, IIc, IIe, and IIi) but not within C. meleagridis (subtype family IIIb). No association between Cryptosporidium species/genotypes and child’s age was demonstrated. The predominance of C. hominis and C. parvum IIc suggests that most of the Cryptosporidium infections were anthroponotically transmitted, although zoonotic transmission events also occurred at an unknown rate. The role of livestock, poultry, and other domestic animal species as sources of environmental contamination and human cryptosporidiosis should be investigated in further molecular epidemiological studies in Mozambique. Full article
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Article
Molecular Diversity of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis sp. in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Schoolchildren in Zambézia Province (Mozambique)
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030255 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Infections by the protist enteroparasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and, to a much lesser extent, Blastocystis sp. are common causes of childhood diarrhoea in low-income countries. This molecular epidemiological study assesses the frequency and molecular diversity of these pathogens in faecal samples [...] Read more.
Infections by the protist enteroparasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and, to a much lesser extent, Blastocystis sp. are common causes of childhood diarrhoea in low-income countries. This molecular epidemiological study assesses the frequency and molecular diversity of these pathogens in faecal samples from asymptomatic schoolchildren (n = 807) and symptomatic children seeking medical attention (n = 286) in Zambézia province, Mozambique. Detection and molecular characterisation of pathogens was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods coupled with Sanger sequencing. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent enteric parasite found [41.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8–44.7%], followed by Blastocystis sp. (14.1%, 95% CI: 12.1–16.3%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1.6%, 95% CI: 0.9–2.5%). Sequence analyses revealed the presence of assemblages A (7.0%, 3/43) and B (88.4%, 38/43) within G. duodenalis-positive children. Four Cryptosporidium species were detected, including C. hominis (30.8%; 4/13), C. parvum (30.8%, 4/13), C. felis (30.8%, 4/13), and C. viatorum (7.6%, 1/13). Four Blastocystis subtypes were also identified including ST1 (22.7%; 35/154), ST2 (22.7%; 35/154), ST3 (45.5%; 70/154), and ST4 (9.1%; 14/154). Most of the genotyped samples were from asymptomatic children. This is the first report of C. viatorum and Blastocystis ST4 in Mozambique. Molecular data indicate that anthropic and zoonotic transmission (the latter at an unknown rate) are important spread pathways of diarrhoea-causing pathogens in Mozambique. Full article
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Article
Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Mostly Asymptomatic Indigenous People from the Tapirapé Tribe, Brazilian Amazon
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020206 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Little information is available on the occurrence and genetic variability of the diarrhoea-causing enteric protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis in indigenous communities in Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey describes the frequency, genotypes, and risk associations for this pathogen in Tapirapé people (Brazilian Amazon) at [...] Read more.
Little information is available on the occurrence and genetic variability of the diarrhoea-causing enteric protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis in indigenous communities in Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey describes the frequency, genotypes, and risk associations for this pathogen in Tapirapé people (Brazilian Amazon) at four sampling campaigns during 2008–2009. Microscopy was used as a screening test, and molecular (PCR and Sanger sequencing) assays targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA, the glutamate dehydrogenase, the beta-giardin, and the triosephosphate isomerase genes as confirmatory/genotyping methods. Associations between G. duodenalis and sociodemographic and clinical variables were investigated using Chi-squared test and univariable/multivariable logistic regression models. Overall, 574 individuals belonging to six tribes participated in the study, with G. duodenalis prevalence rates varying from 13.5–21.7%. The infection was positively linked to younger age and tribe. Infected children <15 years old reported more frequent gastrointestinal symptoms compared to adults. Assemblage B accounted for three out of four G. duodenalis infections and showed a high genetic diversity. No association between assemblage and age or occurrence of diarrhoea was demonstrated. These data indicate that the most likely source of infection was anthropic and that different pathways (e.g., drinking water) may be involved in the transmission of the parasite. Full article
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Article
Occurrence and Multi-Locus Analysis of Giardia duodenalis in Coypus (Myocastor coypus) in China
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020179 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Giardia duodenalis is a major gastrointestinal parasite found globally in both humans and animals. This work examined the occurrence of G. duodenalis in coypus (Myocastor coypus) in China. Multi-locus analysis was conducted to evaluate the level of genetic variation and the [...] Read more.
Giardia duodenalis is a major gastrointestinal parasite found globally in both humans and animals. This work examined the occurrence of G. duodenalis in coypus (Myocastor coypus) in China. Multi-locus analysis was conducted to evaluate the level of genetic variation and the potential zoonotic role of the isolates. In total, 308 fecal samples were collected from seven farms in China and subjected to PCR screening to reveal G. duodenalis. Notably, G. duodenalis was detected in 38 (12.3%) specimens from assemblages A (n = 2) and B (n = 36). Positive samples were further characterized by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta giardin (bg), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Multi-locus genotyping yielded 10 novel multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) (one MLG and nine MLGs for assemblages A and B, respectively). Based on the generated phylogenetic tree, AI–novel 1 clustered more closely with MLG AI-2. Furthermore, within the assemblage B phylogenetic analysis, the novel assemblage B MLGs were identified as BIV and clustered in the MLG BIV branch. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in coypus in China. The presence of zoonotic genotypes and subtypes of G. duodenalis in coypus suggests that these animals can transmit human giardiasis. Full article
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Article
Subtype Characterization and Zoonotic Potential of Cryptosporidium felis in Cats in Guangdong and Shanghai, China
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020089 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Cryptosporidiumfelis is an important cause of feline and human cryptosporidiosis. However, the transmission of this pathogen between humans and cats remains controversial, partially due to a lack of genetic characterization of isolates from cats. The present study was conducted to examine the [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidiumfelis is an important cause of feline and human cryptosporidiosis. However, the transmission of this pathogen between humans and cats remains controversial, partially due to a lack of genetic characterization of isolates from cats. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic diversity of C. felis in cats in China and to assess their potential zoonotic transmission. A newly developed subtyping tool based on a sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was employed to identify the subtypes of 30 cat-derived C. felis isolates from Guangdong and Shanghai. Altogether, 20 C. felis isolates were successfully subtyped. The results of the sequence alignment showed a high genetic diversity, with 13 novel subtypes and 2 known subtypes of the XIXa subtype family being identified. The known subtypes were previously detected in humans, while some of the subtypes formed well-supported subclusters with human-derived subtypes from other countries in a phylogenetic analysis of the gp60 sequences. The results of this study confirmed the high genetic diversity of the XIXa subtype family of C. felis. The common occurrence of this subtype family in both humans and cats suggests that there could be cross-species transmission of C. felis. Full article
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Article
Cryptosporidium Species and C. parvum Subtypes in Farmed Bamboo Rats
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121018 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinensis) are widely farmed in Guangdong, China, but the distribution and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in them are unclear. In this study, 724 fecal specimens were collected from bamboo rats in Guangdong Province and analyzed for [...] Read more.
Bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinensis) are widely farmed in Guangdong, China, but the distribution and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in them are unclear. In this study, 724 fecal specimens were collected from bamboo rats in Guangdong Province and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp. using PCR and sequence analyses of the small subunit rRNA gene. The overall detection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was 12.2% (88/724). By age, the detection rate in animals under 2 months (23.2% or 13/56) was significantly higher than in animals over 2 months (11.2% or 75/668; χ2 = 6.95, df = 1, p = 0.0084). By reproduction status, the detection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. in nursing animals (23.1% or 27/117) was significantly higher than in other reproduction statuses (6.8% or 4/59; χ2 = 7.18, df = 1, p = 0.0074). Five Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were detected, including Cryptosporidium bamboo rat genotype I (n = 49), C. parvum (n = 31), Cryptosporidium bamboo rat genotype III (n = 5), C. occultus (n = 2), and C. muris (n = 1). The average numbers of oocysts per gram of feces for these Cryptosporidium spp. were 14,074, 494,636, 9239, 394, and 323, respectively. The genetic uniqueness of bamboo rat genotypes I and III was confirmed by sequence analyses of the 70 kDa heat shock protein and actin genes. Subtyping C. parvum by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene identified the presence of IIoA15G1 (n = 20) and IIpA6 (n = 2) subtypes. The results of this study indicated that Cryptosporidium spp. are common in bamboo rats in Guangdong, and some of the Cryptosporidium spp. in these animals are known human pathogens. Full article
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Article
Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium in Bactrian Camels (Camelus bactrianus) in Xinjiang, Northwestern China
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110946 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Cryptosporidium species are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens of vertebrates distributed worldwide. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the zoonotic potential and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Bactrian camels in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 476 fecal samples [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium species are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens of vertebrates distributed worldwide. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the zoonotic potential and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Bactrian camels in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 476 fecal samples were collected from 16 collection sites in Xinjiang and screened for Cryptosporidium by PCR. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 7.6% (36/476). Six Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni (n = 24), C. parvum (n = 6), C. occultus (n = 2), C. ubiquitum (n = 2), C. hominis (n = 1), and C. bovis (n = 1), were identified based on sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified six C. parvum isolates as subtypes, such as If-like-A15G2 (n = 5) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1), two C. ubiquitum isolates, such as subtype XIIa (n = 2), and one C. hominis isolate, such as Ixias IkA19G1 (n = 1). This is the first report of C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ubiquitum, and C. occultus in Bactrian camels in China. These results indicated that the Bactrian camel may be an important reservoir for zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. and these infections may be a public health threat in this region. Full article
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High Frequency of Cryptosporidium hominis Infecting Infants Points to A Potential Anthroponotic Transmission in Maputo, Mozambique
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030293 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in children less than 2 years of age. In this study, we report the frequency, risk factors and species of Cryptosporidium detected by molecular diagnostic methods in children admitted to two public hospitals [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in children less than 2 years of age. In this study, we report the frequency, risk factors and species of Cryptosporidium detected by molecular diagnostic methods in children admitted to two public hospitals in Maputo City, Mozambique. We studied 319 patients under the age of five years who were admitted due to diarrhea between April 2015 and February 2016. Single stool samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, microscopically by using a Modified Ziehl–Neelsen (mZN) staining method and by using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a target. Overall, 57.7% (184/319) were males, the median age (Interquartile range, IQR) was 11.0 (7–15) months. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 11.0% (35/319) by microscopy and in 35.4% (68/192) using PCR-RFLP. The most affected age group were children older than two years, [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 5.861; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.532–22.417; p-value < 0.05]. Children with illiterate caregivers had higher risk of infection (aOR: 1.688; 95% CI: 1.001–2.845; p-value < 0.05). An anthroponotic species C. hominis was found in 93.0% (27/29) of samples. Our findings demonstrated that cryptosporidiosis in children with diarrhea might be caused by anthroponomic transmission. Full article
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