Special Issue "Cytomegalovirus Infection"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Vaibhav Tiwari
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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology & Immunology Science, Midwestern University
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the betaherpesvirus family, is the leading cause of congenital neurological complications in neonates as a result of maternal infection. Among immunocompromised patients—especially those with an organ transplant, chemotherapy, or AIDS—the reactivation of virus causes life-threatening diseases, such as gastroenteritis, encephalitis, pneumonitis, and graft rejection. In addition, HCMV infection is also implicated in widespread ocular damage and potential vision loss from retinitis, anterior uveitis, and corneal endotheliitis. Because HCMV targets various type of ocular cells, therefore understanding the dynamics of viral infection at the molecular level becomes relevant to advance the field of viral pathogenesis in general to develop novel strategies to prevent blindness.Although HCMV entry into host cells is poorly understood, it is clearly a multistep process that requires complex interactions between viral envelope glycoproteins and the host cell receptors. It has been suggested that HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) binds to heparan sulfate (HS) during viral attachment, resulting in a high virion concentration at the cell surface and further binding to the cellular receptor. This interaction has been proposed to modulate immune responses. To date, three receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), and cellular integrins (α2β1, α6β1, and αvβ3), have been implicated during HCMV entry. In addition, recent studies have suggested the potential role of a sulfated form of heparan sulfate (HS) during HCMV entry. Therefore understanding overall mechanism is critical to develop novel therapeutic interventions.The special issue on ‘Human cytomegalovirus infection’ will focus on the current status of our understanding of the mechanism of HCMV in entry and spread to have an opportunities for future therapeutic intervention. We thus invite submission of research and review manuscripts that cover any aspect of the epidemiology, molecular and cell biology, immunology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infection-related HCMV. I look forward to your contributions and to a valuable edition that will promote further developments in this exciting field.Thank you for your collaboration.

Assoc. Prof. Vaibhav Tiwari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Herpes virus entry
  • viral entry
  • heparan sulfae
  • 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate
  • virus-cell fusion
  • virus cell-to-cell spread

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Navigating the Host Cell Response during Entry into Sites of Latent Cytomegalovirus Infection
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010030 - 16 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The host cell represents a hostile environment that viruses must counter in order to establish infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. However, during the very [...] Read more.
The host cell represents a hostile environment that viruses must counter in order to establish infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. However, during the very early stages of infection the virus relies on the outcome of interactions between virion components, cell surface receptors and host signalling pathways to promote an environment that supports infection. In the context of latent infection—where the virus establishes an infection in an absence of many gene products specific for lytic infection—these initial interactions are crucial events. In this review, we will discuss key host responses triggered by viral infection and how, in turn, the virus ameliorates the impact on the establishment of non-lytic infections of cells. We will focus on strategies to evade intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses and consider their impact on viral infection. Finally, we will consider the hypothesis that the very early events upon viral infection are important for dictating the outcome of infection and consider the possibility that events that occur during entry into non-permissive cells are unique and thus contribute to the establishment of latency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytomegalovirus Infection)
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Open AccessReview
On the Demographic and Selective Forces Shaping Patterns of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation within Hosts
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010016 - 28 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the β -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can [...] Read more.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the β -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can result in serious neurological sequelae. Recent work has revealed much about the demographic and selective forces shaping the evolution of congenitally transmitted HCMV both on the level of hosts and within host compartments, providing insight into the dynamics of congenital infection, reinfection, and evolution of HCMV with important implications for the development of effective treatments and vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytomegalovirus Infection)
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