Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series: HIV and Viral Co-infections

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 5914

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mental Health and Public Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: infectious diseases; epidemiological, virological, and clinical characteristics of hepatitis viruses (A, B, Delta, and C) infection; HIV infection; AIDS; hospitalization-associated infections; SARS-CoV-2 infection
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Guest Editor
Molecular and Cellular Biophysics Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80210, USA
Interests: superresolution imaging; single molecule imaging approaches; human immunodeficiency virus-1; lentiviruses; virus assembly; host-virus interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce this Collection titled “Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series: HIV and Viral Co-infections”, which will collect papers invited by the Editorial Board Members.

The aim of this Collection is to provide a venue for networking and communication between Journal Pathogens and scholars in the field of HIV and viral co-infections. All papers will be published in open access following peer review.

Prof. Dr. Nicola Coppola
Dr. Schuyler van Engelenburg
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Detectable Virological Load and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV on Antiretroviral Treatment: A Retrospective Study
by Pierpaolo Congedo, Raffaella Sedile, Marcello Guido, Federico Banchelli and Antonella Zizza
Pathogens 2024, 13(5), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13050359 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 829
Abstract
The complete and prolonged suppression of viral load is the primary objective of HAART in people living with HIV. Some people may experience therapeutic failure, while others may achieve virological suppression but are unable to maintain it, developing persistent or single detection of [...] Read more.
The complete and prolonged suppression of viral load is the primary objective of HAART in people living with HIV. Some people may experience therapeutic failure, while others may achieve virological suppression but are unable to maintain it, developing persistent or single detection of low-level viremia. This study aims to evaluate the determinants of a detectable viral load among patients on HAART to identify and address them promptly. In this retrospective study, all patients referring to the Infectious Disease Operative Unit of the Vito Fazzi Hospital in Lecce, Puglia, older than 18 years, receiving HAART for at least 12 months as of 30 June 2022, were included. For each patient, demographic characteristics such as age, sex, educational level, stable relationship, cohabitation, employment status, and information relating to habits and lifestyles such as physical activity, use of drugs, and substances or supplements for sport, abuse of alcohol, and smoking were collected. Degree of comorbidity was quantified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the presence of obesity and the COVID-19 infection was also considered. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between patients’ characteristics and the outcome. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the odds were lower for the duration of therapy (OR: 0.96; p = 0.0397), prescriber’s perception of adherence to therapy (OR: 0.50; p < 0.0001), and Nadir CD4+ T-cell count (OR: 0.85; p = 0.0329), and higher for the presence of AIDS (OR: 1.89; p = 0.0423) and COVID-19 (OR: 2.31; p = 0.0182). Our findings support the early initiation of HAART to achieve virological suppression. Additionally, measures to improve adherence to therapy should be adopted to ensure better outcomes for patients. Full article
8 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Ocular Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era
by Mingming Yang, Koju Kamoi, Yuan Zong, Jing Zhang, Yaru Zou and Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
Pathogens 2023, 12(12), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12121417 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Japan in 2008, the spectrum of ocular manifestations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed. This study, conducted at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital between January 2012 and August 2023, aimed [...] Read more.
Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Japan in 2008, the spectrum of ocular manifestations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed. This study, conducted at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital between January 2012 and August 2023, aimed to understand the epidemiology and clinical features of ocular manifestations in patients with HIV during the cART era. Of the 218 patients diagnosed with HIV, 23 (10.55%) exhibited ocular manifestations; all were male, aged 32–73. The most prevalent ocular complication was uveitis (60.67%). Notably, the prevalence of uveitis in this cART era has surged compared to earlier Japanese studies. Our data also suggest a potential direct link between uveitis and HIV, particularly in patients who have not yet undergone cART. However, cytomegalovirus retinitis, another prevalent ocular disease in our study, appeared more strongly associated with patients who commenced cART. Neither ocular condition was significantly correlated with CD4+ T-cell count. Importantly, our observed ocular manifestation prevalence (10.55%) was lower than that in previous studies, emphasizing the potential influence of cART and national healthcare support. These findings provide unique insights into the evolution of ocular manifestations in patients with HIV in Japan amidst cART availability. Full article
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9 pages, 865 KiB  
Article
Rates of Seroprotection against Vaccine-Preventable Infectious Diseases in HIV-Exposed and -Unexposed Malawian Infants
by Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Stefano Orlando, Maria Franca Pirillo, Richard Luhanga, Robert Mphwere, Thom Kavalo, Roberta Amici, Marco Floridia, Mauro Andreotti, Fausto Ciccacci, Paola Scarcella, Maria Cristina Marazzi and Marina Giuliano
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070938 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Background: The evaluation of seroprotection rates against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases allows for the identification of risk populations. HIV-exposed infants, even if not infected with HIV, have higher morbidity and mortality in comparison to unexposed counterparts. The aim of this study was to compare [...] Read more.
Background: The evaluation of seroprotection rates against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases allows for the identification of risk populations. HIV-exposed infants, even if not infected with HIV, have higher morbidity and mortality in comparison to unexposed counterparts. The aim of this study was to compare the specific IgG levels against Haemophilus influenzae type-B (HiB), Hepatitis-B (HBV), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) in two groups of infants (HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed) living in Malawi. Methods: Blood samples from 62 infants, 49 HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU), and born to women living with HIV and 13 HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU), were collected at 6 months, and specific IgG levels were determined using ELISA tests. Results: The antibody levels against HiB, HBV, and Spn were similar in the two groups. At six months, all HUU infants and 81.6% of HEU infants showed seroprotective levels against HiB, while a percentage of protection varying from 80.6 to 84.6% was observed for HBV and Spn regardless of HIV exposure. Only 59.2% of HEU and 69.2% of HUU infants showed antibody protection against all three pathogens. Conclusions: These results indicate similar rates of seroprotection among HEU and HUU infants but also suggest that a consistent fraction of infants received incomplete vaccinations. Strategies to enforce participation in immunization programs in Malawi should be a health priority. Full article
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9 pages, 474 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Lipid Profile and Intima Media Thickness in Antiretroviral-Experienced HIV-Infected Patients Treated with Protease Inhibitor-Based Regimens versus Protease Inhibitor-Sparing Regimens
by Salvatore Martini, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Antonio Russo, Maria Grazia Palamone, Maria Teresa Russo, Verdiana Zollo, Paolo Maggi and Nicola Coppola
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070925 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Background: Antiretroviral therapy has increasingly improved management of HIV infection, ensuring long-term efficacy and tolerability. Each class of antiretrovirals has, however, different characteristics and different tolerability profiles. The literature data show that protease inhibitors (PIs) are associated with a higher incidence of dyslipidemia. [...] Read more.
Background: Antiretroviral therapy has increasingly improved management of HIV infection, ensuring long-term efficacy and tolerability. Each class of antiretrovirals has, however, different characteristics and different tolerability profiles. The literature data show that protease inhibitors (PIs) are associated with a higher incidence of dyslipidemia. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether patients treated with PIs have both greater dyslipidemia and increased intima media thickness (IMT) and atheromatous plaques compared to patients treated without PIs. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-experienced patients screened with Doppler ultrasonography of the supra-aortic trunks in December 2019 were enrolled in a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Patients were divided into two groups: 59 in the PI-based group, treated with PIs, and 51 in the PI-sparing group. In the two groups, we evaluated lipids, cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, BMI, age, hypertension), increased pathological IMT (a value > 1 mm), and possible atheromatous plaque. Results: Serum LDL (p 0.04) and percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia (p 0.03) were higher in the PI-based than in the PI-sparing group. Doppler data showed a trend in increase of IMT > 1 in the PI-based group, which appeared statistically significant for the section of the left common carotid artery (p 0.03). However, in multivariate logistic regression models, none of the evaluated variables were significantly associated with IMT > 1. Conclusions: Our real-life data show that patients treated with PIs have a trend of developing both greater dyslipidemia and increased pathological IMT and atheromatous plaques These findings may be useful to optimize antiretrovirals for patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1913 KiB  
Review
Co-Infections and Superinfections between HIV-1 and Other Human Viruses at the Cellular Level
by Chiara Acchioni, Silvia Sandini, Marta Acchioni and Marco Sgarbanti
Pathogens 2024, 13(5), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13050349 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Co-infection or superinfection of the host by two or more virus species is a common event, potentially leading to viral interference, viral synergy, or neutral interaction. The simultaneous presence of two or more viruses, even distantly related, within the same cell depends upon [...] Read more.
Co-infection or superinfection of the host by two or more virus species is a common event, potentially leading to viral interference, viral synergy, or neutral interaction. The simultaneous presence of two or more viruses, even distantly related, within the same cell depends upon viral tropism, i.e., the entry of viruses via receptors present on the same cell type. Subsequently, productive infection depends on the ability of these viruses to replicate efficiently in the same cellular environment. HIV-1 initially targets CCR5-expressing tissue memory CD4+ T cells, and in the absence of early cART initiation, a co-receptor switch may occur, leading to the infection of naïve and memory CXCR4-expressing CD4+ T cells. HIV-1 infection of macrophages at the G1 stage of their cell cycle also occurs in vivo, broadening the possible occurrence of co-infections between HIV-1 and other viruses at the cellular level. Moreover, HIV-1-infected DCs can transfer the virus to CD4+ T cells via trans-infection. This review focuses on the description of reported co-infections within the same cell between HIV-1 and other human pathogenic, non-pathogenic, or low-pathogenic viruses, including HIV-2, HTLV, HSV, HHV-6/-7, GBV-C, Dengue, and Ebola viruses, also discussing the possible reciprocal interactions in terms of virus replication and virus pseudotyping. Full article
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