Special Issue "Advance in Gluten-Free Diet"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Paolo Usai-Satta
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Gastroenterology, Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Piazzale Alessandro Ricchi, 1, 09134 Cagliari CA, Italy
Interests: Celiac disease and alimentary intolerances; Irritable bowel syndrome; Chronic constipation; Gut motor disorders; Gastric emptying and functional dyspepsia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The only effective and safe treatment of celiac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders is a lifelong, strict exclusion of gluten—the so-called gluten-free diet (GFD). Although this treatment is highly successful, following a strict GFD causes difficulties to patients in social and working contexts. As a consequence, a strict adherence to the GFD is not so easy to achieve in some patients. These findings have led to an interest in drug development, either as an addition to the GFD or as a substitute. On the other hand, many subjects are following a GFD without a specific diagnosis, but, to date, no controlled studies support or exclude a positive health effect of a GFD. In addition, the increasing interest in the interaction between a GFD and microbiota can develop our understanding in the knowledge and management of gluten-related disorders. New insights into the GFD are an exciting scientific challenge for researchers.

Dr. Paolo Usai-Satta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gluten free diet
  • Celiac disease
  • Gluten related disorders
  • Diet adherence
  • Non celiac gluten/wheat sensitivity
  • Novel therapies
  • Gut microbiota

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Wheat Sensitivity and Functional Dyspepsia: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Dietary Crossover Trial with Novel Challenge Protocol
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071947 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Introduction: Functional dyspepsia (FD), characterised by symptoms of epigastric pain or early satiety and post prandial distress, has been associated with duodenal eosinophilia, raising the possibility that it is driven by an environmental allergen. Non-coeliac gluten or wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) has also been [...] Read more.
Introduction: Functional dyspepsia (FD), characterised by symptoms of epigastric pain or early satiety and post prandial distress, has been associated with duodenal eosinophilia, raising the possibility that it is driven by an environmental allergen. Non-coeliac gluten or wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) has also been associated with both dyspeptic symptoms and duodenal eosinophilia, suggesting an overlap between these two conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of wheat (specifically gluten and fructans) in symptom reduction in participants with FD in a pilot randomized double-blind, placebo controlled, dietary crossover trial. Methods: Patients with Rome III criteria FD were recruited from a single tertiary centre in Newcastle, Australia. All were individually counselled on a diet low in both gluten and fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) by a clinical dietitian, which was followed for four weeks (elimination diet phase). Those who had a >30% response to the run-in diet, as measured by the Nepean Dyspepsia Index, were then re-challenged with ‘muesli’ bars containing either gluten, fructan, or placebo in randomised order. Those with symptoms which significantly reduced during the elimination diet, but reliably reappeared (a mean change in overall dyspeptic symptoms of >30%) with gluten or fructan re-challenge were deemed to have wheat induced FD. Results: Eleven participants were enrolled in the study (75% female, mean age 43 years). Of the initial cohort, nine participants completed the elimination diet phase of whom four qualified for the rechallenge phase. The gluten-free, low FODMAP diet led to an overall (albeit non-significant) improvement in symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the diet elimination phase (mean NDI symptom score 71.2 vs. 47.1, p = 0.087). A specific food trigger could not be reliably demonstrated. Conclusions: Although a gluten-free, low-FODMAP diet led to a modest overall reduction in symptoms in this cohort of FD patients, a specific trigger could not be identified. The modified Salerno criteria for NCG/WS identification trialled in this dietary rechallenge protocol was fit-for-purpose. However, larger trials are required to determine whether particular components of wheat induce symptoms in functional dyspepsia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Gluten-Free Diet)
Open AccessArticle
Wheat Consumption Leads to Immune Activation and Symptom Worsening in Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever: A Pilot Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041127 - 17 Apr 2020
Abstract
We have identified a clinical association between self-reported non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) and Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Objectives: A) To determine whether a 2-week double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) cross-over wheat vs. rice challenge exacerbates the clinical manifestations of FMF; B) to evaluate innate immune [...] Read more.
We have identified a clinical association between self-reported non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) and Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Objectives: A) To determine whether a 2-week double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) cross-over wheat vs. rice challenge exacerbates the clinical manifestations of FMF; B) to evaluate innate immune responses in NCWS/FMF patients challenged with wheat vs. rice. The study was conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital of Palermo and the Hospital of Sciacca, Italy. Six female volunteers with FMF/NCWS (mean age 36 ± 6 years) were enrolled, 12 age-matched non-FMF, NCWS females, and 8 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. We evaluated: 1. clinical symptoms by the FMF-specific AIDAI (Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index) score; 2. serum soluble CD14 (sCD14), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SSA); 3. circulating CD14+ monocytes expressing interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The AIDAI score significantly increased in FMF patients during DBPC with wheat, but not with rice (19 ± 6.3 vs. 7 ± 1.6; p = 0.028). sCD14 values did not differ in FMF patients before and after the challenge, but were higher in FMF patients than in healthy controls (median values 11357 vs. 8710 pg/ml; p = 0.002). The percentage of circulating CD14+/IL-1β+ and of CD14+/TNF-α+ monocytes increased significantly after DBPC with wheat vs. baseline or rice challenge. Self-reported NCWS can hide an FMF diagnosis. Wheat ingestion exacerbated clinical and immunological features of FMF. Future studies performed on consecutive FMF patients recruited in centers for auto-inflammatory diseases will determine the real frequency and relevance of this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Gluten-Free Diet)
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Open AccessCommunication
Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Gluten-Related Disorders
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041117 - 17 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is frequently associated with celiac disease (CD) and nonceliac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCGS/NCWS), but epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects are still unclear. Furthermore, a gluten-free diet (GFD) can positively influence IBS symptoms. Methods: A comprehensive online search for [...] Read more.
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is frequently associated with celiac disease (CD) and nonceliac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCGS/NCWS), but epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects are still unclear. Furthermore, a gluten-free diet (GFD) can positively influence IBS symptoms. Methods: A comprehensive online search for IBS related to CD, NCGS and GFD was made using the Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane databases. Results: Although a systematic screening for CD in IBS is not recommended, CD prevalence can be increased in diarrhea-predominant IBS patients. On the other hand, IBS symptoms can be persistent in treated CD patients, and their prevalence tends to decrease on a GFD. IBS symptoms may overlap and be similar to those associated to nonceliac gluten and/or wheat sensitivity. Increased gut permeability could explain the gluten/wheat effects in IBS patients. Finally, a GFD could improve symptoms in a subgroup of IBS patients. Conclusions: The possible interplay between IBS and gluten-related disorders represents a scientifically and clinically challenging issue. Further studies are needed to confirm these data and better clarify the involved pathophysiological mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Gluten-Free Diet)
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