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Article

Gluten-Free Diet in Prisons in Poland: Nutrient Contents and Implementation of Dietary Reference Intake Standards

1
Study of Physical Education and Sport, Wroclaw Medical University, 51-601 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Plant Food Technology and Gastronomy, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092829
Received: 15 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Gluten-Free Diet)
The gluten-free diet (GFD) requires special attention from nutritionists due to the potential risk of nutrient deficiencies in its users. This risk may be greater when this type of nutrition is implemented in prisons due to the limited possibilities of external control, a low catering budget for meals, and insufficiently defined recommendations regulating nutrition for prisoners. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional value of GFD and regular diet meals served in some Polish prisons and to compare the values to the dietary reference intake (DRI) standards. Using a specialized computer program, 7-day menus of both types of diet provided in 10 prisons were analyzed. The percentage coverage of the DRI was calculated based on the recommendations of the Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute. GFD was characterized by lower average contents of energy and 11 out of 14 essential nutrients, i.e., protein, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, starch, ash, sodium, calcium, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B12. The average content of phosphorus, niacin, and riboflavin in the gluten-free diet was higher than that in the regular diet. It was shown that the meals in GFD and the regular diet did not provide the recommended amounts of calcium (38 and 44% DRI, respectively), vitamin D (29 and 30% DRI), vitamin C (86 and 76% DRI), and folate (51 and 56% DRI). In turn, the supply of sodium, phosphorus, copper, and vitamins A and B6 substantially exceeded the recommended levels. The results indicate a need for greater quality control of GFD meals served in catering facilities. It is also necessary to develop legal provisions that will regulate more specifically the nutrition for prisoners in terms of an adequate supply of minerals and vitamins. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free diet; celiac disease; dietary reference intake; prison diets gluten-free diet; celiac disease; dietary reference intake; prison diets
MDPI and ACS Style

Kosendiak, A.; Stanikowski, P.; Domagała, D.; Gustaw, W. Gluten-Free Diet in Prisons in Poland: Nutrient Contents and Implementation of Dietary Reference Intake Standards. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092829

AMA Style

Kosendiak A, Stanikowski P, Domagała D, Gustaw W. Gluten-Free Diet in Prisons in Poland: Nutrient Contents and Implementation of Dietary Reference Intake Standards. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092829

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kosendiak, Aureliusz, Piotr Stanikowski, Dorota Domagała, and Waldemar Gustaw. 2020. "Gluten-Free Diet in Prisons in Poland: Nutrient Contents and Implementation of Dietary Reference Intake Standards" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092829

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