Special Issue "Effects of Diet–Exercise Interaction on Human Health across the Lifespan"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 13672

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alba Gomez-Cabello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3. Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
4. Centro Universitario de la Defensa, 50090 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: physical fitness; sports science; exercise performance; exercise science; exercise physiology; strength and conditioning; exercise testing; resistance training; exercise intervention; athletic training
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences (FCSD), University of Zaragoza, Ronda Misericordia 5, 22001 Huesca, Spain
Interests: physical activity and health during life; exercise prescription; exercise–diet interaction for health; healthy and active aging; body composition; special populations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Specific exercise training programs, and physical activity more generally, have been reported as some of the best non-pharmacological ways to improve health-related factors throughout life (e.g., body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, even mortality). However, different types of exercise training may lead to distinct health benefits, and not all populations may respond in the same way. On the other hand, other important factors such as the status of several nutrients or poor nutrition are related to health issues and could also interfere with the benefits obtained throughout exercise programs. Moreover, the combined effects of nutrition and exercise on health have been investigated to a lesser extent. Therefore, in this Special Issue we are looking for original research articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses addressing the combined effects or associations of exercise training, physical activity, and diet parameters on health in several populations over the course of a lifetime.

Prof. Dr. Alba Gomez-Cabello
Prof. Dr. Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • nutritional status
  • energy intake
  • physical activity
  • training programs
  • physical fitness
  • health
  • quality of life

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Tracking of Dietary Patterns in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease after a Nutritional Intervention Program—A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4716; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224716 - 08 Nov 2022
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Individuals with a history of previous cardiovascular events have an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, so adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is essential. We aimed to evaluate and compare dietary patterns between the control and the experimental group from the BALANCE [...] Read more.
Individuals with a history of previous cardiovascular events have an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, so adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is essential. We aimed to evaluate and compare dietary patterns between the control and the experimental group from the BALANCE Program. A total of 2360 individuals aged 45 years or older with previous cardiovascular disease were included. The individuals were randomized into two groups: intervention (dietary prescription with nutritional recommendations, nutritional education program based on playful strategies, suggestions of typical and accessible Brazilian foods and intensive monitoring) and control (conventional nutritional counseling). The dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis with the principal component extraction method, and the t-Student tests and ANOVA test were performed to evaluate the associated factors. Four dietary patterns were identified for both groups: “Traditional”, “Snack”, “Western”, “Cardioprotective”. There was an increase in the variances of the “Cardioprotective” pattern in both groups. Regarding the “Western” pattern, there was a significant reduction in the variances of the experimental group (10.63% vs. 8.14%). Both groups had improvements in eating habits, especially in the first year of follow-up. The greater increase in adherence to the traditional and cardioprotective pattern in the experimental group justifies the initiative of the BALANCE program. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Depression with Physical Activity and Obesity in Older Diabetes Patients: Inflammation as a Mediator
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194200 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Obesity and physical activity (PA) may affect inflammation and are also related to depression. This study aimed to explore the association between depression, obesity, and PA in older diabetes patients mediated by inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 197 elderly diabetes patients [...] Read more.
Obesity and physical activity (PA) may affect inflammation and are also related to depression. This study aimed to explore the association between depression, obesity, and PA in older diabetes patients mediated by inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 197 elderly diabetes patients (≥65 y/o). Participants were interviewed to gather demographic and lifestyle data. Assessment of depression was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was used as a marker of inflammation. Participants with a body mass index (kg/m2) ≥ 27 were considered to be obese. Our data indicated that among all participants with (n = 57) and without (n = 140) depression, older diabetes patients with depression had a lower intake of energy and protein and a lower prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption than those without depression (p < 0.05). We also found that inflammation may be a partial mediator in the relationship between obesity and depression, and a significant mediator between PA and depression. Additionally, a regression model of obesity and PA showed that PA was a significant predictor of inflammation. However, the association between obesity and inflammation was not significant. When obesity, PA, and inflammation were included in a regression model together, inflammation significantly predicted depression (OR = 4.18, p = 0.004). The association between obesity and depression was also significant (OR = 2.45, p = 0.038). However, the association between PA and depression was not significant, and the mediating effect of inflammation was significant according to the Sobel test (z = −2.01, p = 0.045). In conclusion, the beneficial effects of PA may lower levels of inflammation produced by obesity, thus reducing inflammatory effects that may be related to depression. Overall, inflammation may mediate the relationship between depression and PA in older diabetes patients. Full article
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Article
Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Pattern, Physical Activity, and Physical Self-Concept in Spanish Older Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122404 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Background: The aging world population is accelerating rapidly. Physical self-concept (PSC) is one of the psychosocial factors with the greatest influence on an individual’s well-being and health. The traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it [...] Read more.
Background: The aging world population is accelerating rapidly. Physical self-concept (PSC) is one of the psychosocial factors with the greatest influence on an individual’s well-being and health. The traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it is nutritionally complete and easy to follow. Objective: To assess the adherence to MDP and its association with the practice of physical activity (PA) and PSC levels in the older adult Spanish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of Spanish older adults (n = 342; older than 55 years old). Their PSC was assessed using a previously validated PSC questionnaire. Adherence to an MDP was assessed using a validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Their PA was measured using the Spanish version of the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on age, sex, hypertension, cholesterol or diabetes suffered in the last 12 months, as well as weight, height, and BMI, were collected. Results: At the lowest levels of PSC, the percentage of individuals who were non-active and non-adhering to the MDP was lower compared to the highest levels (75.0% vs. 19.6; p = 0.001; Cramer’s V = 0.414, and 83.3% vs. 57.9%; p = 0.001; Cramer’s V = 0.221, respectively). This sample showed an abandonment of the most classic habits of the MDP, such as the consumption of olive oil, vegetables, fruits, nuts and fish. Conclusions: Non-adherence to the MDP and low levels of PA are associated with low levels of PSC in older adults. Full article
Article
Health-Related Quality of Life in Spanish Schoolchildren and Its Association with the Fitness Status and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112322 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) allows knowing the subject’s feelings in distress and well-being, as well as perception of current and future health. Objective: To assess associations between health-related quality of life, fitness status, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Spanish [...] Read more.
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) allows knowing the subject’s feelings in distress and well-being, as well as perception of current and future health. Objective: To assess associations between health-related quality of life, fitness status, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 305 (47.2% women) children and adolescents aged between 8 and 16 years, in the primary and secondary schools of the province of Ávila (central Spain) (NCT05380674). Subjects were classified according to their quality of life: group 1 (highest quality of life) > group 2 (medium quality of life) > group 3 (lowest quality of life). Results: More participants in group 1 showed higher adherence to Mediterranean diet (70.8%) than other groups (group 2: 55.0%; group 3: 43.4%). It was less likely to find optimal levels of muscle strength as quality of life decreased (OR; 95% CI: group 2: 0.535; 0.303–0.955; and group 3: 0.424; 0.234–0.768). Similar trends were found for speed and agility, but only group 3 showed significant results (OR; 95% CI: group 3: 0.297; 0.162–0.545). Flexibility was also the worst in groups 2 and 3 (OR; 95% CI: G2: 0.403; 0.213–0.762; and group 3: 0.520; 0.282–0.958). Conclusion: High fitness status and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with improved health-related quality of life in schoolchildren of central Spain. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Association with Physical Activity and Frailty Status in Spanish Older Adults with Decreased Functional Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112302 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of medical conditions associated with several health disorders. MetS and frailty can be related to prolonged physical deconditioning. There is a need to know whether there is concordance between the different ways of diagnosing it and to [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of medical conditions associated with several health disorders. MetS and frailty can be related to prolonged physical deconditioning. There is a need to know whether there is concordance between the different ways of diagnosing it and to know their prevalence in Spanish older adults. Thus, the aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of MetS; to analyse the concordance between different definitions to diagnose MetS; and to study the associations between MetS, frailty status, and physical activity (PA) in older adults with decreased functional capacity. This report is a cross-sectional study involving 110 Spanish older adults of ages ≥65 years with decreased functional capacity. Clinical criteria to diagnose MetS was defined by different expert groups. Anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical analysis, frailty status, functional capacity, and PA were assessed. The Kappa statistic was used to determine the agreement between the five MetS definitions used. Student’s t-test and the Pearson chi-square test were used to examine differences between sex, frailty, and PA groups. The sex-adjusted prevalence of MetS assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel was 39.4% in men and 32.5% in women. The International Diabetes Federation and the Harmonized definitions had the best agreement (k = 1.000). The highest odds ratios (ORs) of cardiometabolic risk factors to develop MetS were elevated triglycerides (37.5) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.3). Central obesity and hypertension prevalence were significantly higher in the non-active group (70.7% and 26.8%, respectively), compared to the active group (50.0% and 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, the active group (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.35, 2.04) and active women group (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.27, 2.20) appeared to show a lower risk of developing this syndrome. MetS is highly prevalent in this sample and changes according to the definition used. It seems that sex and frailty do not influence the development of MetS. However, PA appears to decrease central obesity, hypertension, and the risk of developing MetS. Full article
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Article
Association between Functional Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in the Balearic Islands’ Old Adults with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091798 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Research assessing the relationship between functional fitness (FF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is still scarce. The objective of this research is to assess the association between FF and HRQoL in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) from Balearic Islands (Spain). The [...] Read more.
Research assessing the relationship between functional fitness (FF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is still scarce. The objective of this research is to assess the association between FF and HRQoL in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) from Balearic Islands (Spain). The design is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and comparative study involving 209 participants (42.2% women). The sociodemographic data and medical history of the participants were collected. Physical activity was evaluated using the Spanish version of the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaire. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured. Glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride plasma levels were measured. A battery of functional fitness tests was applied. HRQoL was measured with the Spanish version of the SF-36 questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was assessed. In older subjects with MetS, a higher FF score and, within it, endurance, lower body strength, one-leg balance, and agility are positively associated with lower physical function (p < 0.001; d = 0.56), better general health (p = 0.019; d = 0.35), and better summary physical component of HRQoL (p < 0.001; d = 0.57). The FF score and HRQoL physical component are both positively associated with high levels of physical activity (ORadj = 10.3, IC 4.19–28.2, p < 0.001; ORadj = 3.25, IC 1.44–7.72, p < 0.005). Older adults with MetS should consider practicing physical activity above the general recommendations to improve their functional fitness and health status and quality of life. Full article
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Article
Association between Coffee Consumption/Physical Exercise and Gastric, Hepatic, Colon, Breast, Uterine Cervix, Lung, Thyroid, Prostate, and Bladder Cancer
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113927 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Although the effects of coffee consumption and physical exercise on the risk of cancer have been suggested, their interactions have not been investigated. The present cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the correlation of coffee consumption and physical exercise with cancer. Participants ≥40 years [...] Read more.
Although the effects of coffee consumption and physical exercise on the risk of cancer have been suggested, their interactions have not been investigated. The present cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the correlation of coffee consumption and physical exercise with cancer. Participants ≥40 years old in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study 2004–2016 were included (n = 162,220). Histories of gastric cancer, hepatic cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, uterine cervix cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer were analyzed according to the coffee consumption groups using logistic regression models. The odds among individuals in the >60 cups/month coffee group were lower for gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.80 (95% confidence intervals = 0.65–0.98)), hepatic cancer (0.32 (0.18–0.58)), colon cancer (0.53 (0.39–0.72)), breast cancer (0.56 (0.45–0.70)), and thyroid cancer (0.71 (0.59–0.85)) than for individuals in the no coffee group. Physical exercise of ≥150 min/week was correlated with higher odds for gastric cancer (1.18 (1.03–1.36)), colon cancer (1.52 (1.26–1.83)), breast cancer (1.53 (1.35–1.74)), thyroid cancer (1.42 (1.27–1.59)), and prostate cancer (1.61 (1.13–2.28)) compared to no exercise. Coffee consumption and physical exercise showed an interaction in thyroid cancer (p = 0.002). Coffee consumption was related to a decreased risk of gastric cancer, hepatic cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer in the adult population. Physical exercise was positively correlated with gastric cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and prostate cancer. Full article
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Article
Effects of Caloric Restriction and Rope-Skipping Exercise on Cardiometabolic Health: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial in Young Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093222 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of calorie restriction (CR), rope-skipping (RS) exercise, and their joint effects on cardiometabolic health in young adults. An 8-week randomized trial was conducted on 46 undergraduates aged 19–21 y from South China. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of calorie restriction (CR), rope-skipping (RS) exercise, and their joint effects on cardiometabolic health in young adults. An 8-week randomized trial was conducted on 46 undergraduates aged 19–21 y from South China. The participants were randomized into the following three groups: Calorie restriction (CR) group (n = 14), Rope-skipping (RS) group (n = 14), and CR plus RS (CR–RS) group (n = 12). At both allocation and the end of the intervention, data on anthropometry, serum metabolic, and inflammatory markers were collected. A total of 40 participants completed the intervention and were included in the analysis. After the 8-week intervention, the participants from the CR group and the CR–RS group reduced in body weight (−1.1 ± 1.7 kg, −1.3 ± 2.0 kg), body mass index (−0.4 ± 0.6 kg/m2, −0.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2), body fat percentage (−1.2 ± 1.6%, −1.7 ± 1.8%), and body fat mass (−1.1 kg (−2.2, −0.3), −1.1 kg (−2.5, −0.4)) compared to the baseline (p < 0.05 or p = 0.051). For metabolic and inflammatory factors, the participants in the CR–RS group showed significant decreases in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.40 mmol/L) and interleukin-8 (−0.73 mmol/L). While all the above markers showed no significant difference among the groups after intervention, in the subgroup of overweight/obese participants (n = 23), the CR–RS group had significantly lower blood pressure, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-8 levels than the CR or RS groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both CR and CR–RS could reduce weight and improve body composition in young adults. More importantly, in those with overweight or obesity, CR–RS intervention might be superior to either CR or RS in improving cardiometabolic health. Full article
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Article
Fat–Fit Patterns, Drug Consumption, and Polypharmacy in Older Adults: The EXERNET Multi-Center Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082872 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Background: Physical fitness levels and the amount of accumulated adipose tissue (fatness) relate to current and future individuals’ heath status. Nevertheless, the interrelationships of their combined patterns with polypharmacy and the types of medications consumed have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: This cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Background: Physical fitness levels and the amount of accumulated adipose tissue (fatness) relate to current and future individuals’ heath status. Nevertheless, the interrelationships of their combined patterns with polypharmacy and the types of medications consumed have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in six Spanish regions between 2008 and 2009 with a sample of older community-dwelling adults (≥65 years old) without dementia or cancer. Fitness was measured with one-leg balance and senior fitness tests, as well as by measuring weight and fat mass with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of five or more medications. An analysis of variance was performed for comparisons between the physical fitness and fatness patterns and the medication consumed. Results: A total of 1709 elders were included in the study (72.1 ± 5.2 years). The two unfit patterns were those with the highest drug consumption. The High-Fat–Unfit pattern was the one that had the most significant consumption and had the highest percentage of polymedicated subjects. The Low-Fat–Fit pattern had a significantly lower percentage of people that did not consume any medications. The highest percentages of drug consumption in 7 of the 10 groups that were included were concentrated in the two unfit patterns. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of fitness in older adults, as it is at least as important as the avoidance of accumulation of excess fat with respect to the consumption of a smaller number of medicines. Full article
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