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Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2021) | Viewed by 34060

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Research Center for Urban Health and Sports, Osaka Metropolitan University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi 558-8585, Osaka, Japan
2. Department of Environmental Physiology for Exercise, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka Metropolitan University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi 558-8585, Osaka, Japan
Interests: insulin resistance; metabolism; glucose metabolism; nutrition; obesity; frailty; elderly health; fall prevention; exercise; physical activity; para-athletes; physical disabilities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports nutrition is practiced not only for the improvement of athletes’ performance but also for conditioning, such as early recovery from fatigue, and for the prevention of sports injuries. In particular, the prevention and improvement of relative energy deficiency, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, known as the “female athlete triad”, are fields in which sports nutrition exactly shows its true value. However, it is difficult for youth athletes who are in the process of physical development and spending a lot of time training every day to acquire proper sports nutrition knowledge and to practice it. This Special Issue will focus on the current status of knowledge about sports nutrition among youth athletes in addition to their nutritional intake and dietary issues. Effective nutritional support methods for youth athletes are also the center of interest.

Dr. Hisayo Yokoyama
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Youth athlete
  • Sports nutrition
  • Nutrition knowledge
  • Energy intakes
  • Eating disorder
  • Low energy availability
  • Stress fractures

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
The Role of Diets and Dietitians for Para-Athletes: A Pilot Study Based on Interviews
by Hisayo Yokoyama, Miwako Deguchi and Nobuko Hongu
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183720 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Efforts to provide nutrition support to para-athletes have not been established to date, and are far behind those established for athletes without disabilities. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the actual situation regarding dietary challenges of para-athletes. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Efforts to provide nutrition support to para-athletes have not been established to date, and are far behind those established for athletes without disabilities. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the actual situation regarding dietary challenges of para-athletes. The aim of this study was to obtain clues to effective intervention methods that encourage the practice of sports nutrition. Six active elite para-athletes (30–70 years, four males) and a female physical therapist without physical disability participated in semi-structured interviews. All para-athletes had lower-limb disabilities and participated in the international wheelchair sports competitions (tennis, softball, and table tennis, with 2–26 years of player history). The interview items were on the ideal diet for improving competitive performance, evaluation of their typical diets, and the role of the dietitian as support. Responses obtained from participants were analyzed using quantitative content analysis by language analysis software. There are differences in the ideal diet based on the characteristics of the sport, but most participants believed that a nutritionally well-balanced diet with abundant vegetables was ideal for improving competitive performance. Para-athletes who use a wheelchair daily pay attention to their total calorie intake, because gaining weight is a critical issue for operating their wheelchairs and transferring themselves to and from their wheelchairs. Despite their world-class competition levels, none of them received routine dietary advice from dietitians. Some para-athletes did not even feel the need to engage with dietitians. Even for these para-athletes at a high level of competition, the “ideal diet” they considered was not always the optimal diet for improving their competitive performance. In addition, there are various barriers to practicing their optimal diet due to disability characteristics. Dietitians need to understand these barriers, their concerns and conflicts, and how to help them plan the optimal diet to improve their performance and maintain overall health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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13 pages, 1158 KiB  
Article
Body Composition Assessment and Mediterranean Diet Adherence in U12 Spanish Male Professional Soccer Players: Cross-Sectional Study
by Guillermo Santos-Sánchez, Ivan Cruz-Chamorro, José Luis Perza-Castillo and Néstor Vicente-Salar
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114045 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
Soccer is the most practiced team sport in the world. Due to the importance of nutrition in soccer performance, controlling the body composition and dietary guidelines of players takes place starting from lower categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate body [...] Read more.
Soccer is the most practiced team sport in the world. Due to the importance of nutrition in soccer performance, controlling the body composition and dietary guidelines of players takes place starting from lower categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate body composition and adherence to the Mediterranean diet of U12 players from a professional soccer team and to identify their dietary weak points. Seventy-one U12 male soccer players participated in the study. Weight, height, percentiles, skinfolds, and body fat were measured by a certified anthropometrist following the procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The Mediterranean diet adherence test (KIDMED) was the questionnaire used to evaluate eating habits. In addition, a comparison was made among field positions. The results showed percentiles and body fat percentages appropriate for their age. Furthermore, the average score on the KIDMED test showed that the players generally adhered well to the Mediterranean diet, although they should improve their consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as avoid skipping breakfast. Moreover, goalkeepers and defenders had a higher percentile BMI and percentage of fat than midfielders and forwards. In addition, these players had lower KIDMED values than midfielders and forwards. Although U12 soccer players have an appropriate body composition and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, there are differences between the different field positions that should be assessed by coaches, doctors, and nutritionists/dietitians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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10 pages, 847 KiB  
Article
The Personal Food Systems of Pre-Season NCAA Division 1 High-Contact, Low-Contact, and Non-Contact College Athletes
by Jennifer Peluso, Takudzwa A. Madzima, Shefali Christopher and Svetlana Nepocatych
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113670 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Previous research indicates that dietary habits may differ between athletes of different sports. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesize meal frequency, food choices, and food preferences will significantly differ between contact types. The participants were athletes (n = 92; men: n = [...] Read more.
Previous research indicates that dietary habits may differ between athletes of different sports. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesize meal frequency, food choices, and food preferences will significantly differ between contact types. The participants were athletes (n = 92; men: n = 57, body fat percent (BF%): 14.8 ± 8.4%, body mass index (BMI): 25.5 ± 5.5 kg·m−2; women: n = 36, BF%: 26.7 ± 7.3%, BMI: 22.3 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) from high-contact (HCS), low-contact (LCS), and non-contact (NCS) sports. Meal frequency, food preference, and food choice questionnaires assessed factors influencing dietary habits. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured lean body mass, fat mass, and body fat. A GLM multivariate analysis was used with significance accepted at p < 0.05. Significant body composition differences were observed between genders (p < 0.001) and among sports (p < 0.001). Dinner (83.7%), lunch (67.4%), and breakfast (55.4%) were the most frequently eaten meals, followed by evening snack (17.8%), afternoon snack (15.2%), and morning snack (8.7%). Greater preferences for starches were observed for HCS (p = 0.04; η2 = 0.07) and for a greater preference for vegetables was found for NCS (p = 0.02; η2 = 0.09). Significant differences also existed in the importance of health (p = 0.04; η2 = 0.07), weight control (p = 0.05; η2 = 0.11), natural content (p = 0.04; η2 = 0.07), and price (p = 0.04; η2 = 0.07). These results support our hypothesis that food choices and food preferences differ between contact types. This may help sports dieticians create more individualized nutrition programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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19 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
L-Carnitine Tartrate Supplementation for 5 Weeks Improves Exercise Recovery in Men and Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Matthew Stefan, Matthew Sharp, Raad Gheith, Ryan Lowery, Charlie Ottinger, Jacob Wilson, Shane Durkee and Aouatef Bellamine
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103432 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7937
Abstract
L-carnitine tartrate has been shown to improve relatively short-term recovery among athletes. However, there is a lack of research on the longer-term effects in the general population. Objective: The primary objectives of this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
L-carnitine tartrate has been shown to improve relatively short-term recovery among athletes. However, there is a lack of research on the longer-term effects in the general population. Objective: The primary objectives of this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were to evaluate the effects of daily L-carnitine tartrate supplementation for 5 weeks on recovery and fatigue. Method: In this study, eighty participants, 21- to 65-years-old, were recruited. Participants were split into two groups of forty participants each, a placebo, and a L-carnitine Tartrate group. Seventy-three participants completed a maintenance exercise training program that culminated in a high-volume exercise challenge. Results: Compared to placebo, L-carnitine tartrate supplementation was able to improve perceived recovery and soreness (p = 0.021), and lower serum creatine kinase (p = 0.016). In addition, L-carnitine tartrate supplementation was able to blunt declines in strength and power compared to placebo following an exercise challenge. Two sub-analyses indicated that these results were independent of gender and age. Interestingly, serum superoxide dismutase levels increased significantly among those supplementing with L-carnitine tartrate. Conclusions: These findings agree with previous observations among healthy adult subjects and demonstrate that L-carnitine tartrate supplementation beyond 35 days is beneficial for improving recovery and reducing fatigue following exercise across gender and age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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12 pages, 547 KiB  
Article
The Associations of Body Image Perception with Serum Resistin Levels in Highly Trained Adolescent Estonian Rhythmic Gymnasts
by Liina Remmel, Jaak Jürimäe, Anna-Liisa Tamm, Priit Purge and Vallo Tillmann
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093147 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Rhythmic gymnasts (RGs) are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body mass and shape compared to untrained controls (UCs). However, due to the lack of information, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations of body image perception (BIP) with [...] Read more.
Rhythmic gymnasts (RGs) are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body mass and shape compared to untrained controls (UCs). However, due to the lack of information, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations of body image perception (BIP) with body composition, daily energy consumption and different blood biochemical markers in adolescent RGs compared to UCs. Thirty-three highly trained RG girls and 20 UC girls aged 14–18 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Height, body mass, body composition, energy intake, resting energy expenditure, training volume and different blood biochemical markers were measured. The body attitude test (BAT) was used to evaluate the BIP of the participants. There were no differences in the total BAT scores between the groups. In RGs, the BAT score correlated positively with the serum resistin level (r = 0.35; p = 0.047). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that 40.8% of the variability in the BAT score was determined by resistin and BMI. The association of BIP with resistin values was observed only in RGs. In conclusion, our findings add to the increasing evidence that resistin may be a link between BIP and body composition, most likely through fat mass, in adolescent female RGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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17 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
Eating Perception, Nutrition Knowledge and Body Image among Para-Athletes: Practical Challenges in Nutritional Support
by Miwako Deguchi, Hisayo Yokoyama, Nobuko Hongu, Hitoshi Watanabe, Akira Ogita, Daiki Imai, Yuta Suzuki and Kazunobu Okazaki
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093120 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5057
Abstract
Limited information exists on dietary practices in para-athletes. The aim of this study was to clarify the actual situation of para-athletes’ dietary practice and to sort out the factors (i.e., eating perception, nutrition knowledge, and body image), that may hinder their dietary practices, [...] Read more.
Limited information exists on dietary practices in para-athletes. The aim of this study was to clarify the actual situation of para-athletes’ dietary practice and to sort out the factors (i.e., eating perception, nutrition knowledge, and body image), that may hinder their dietary practices, and explored the practical challenges in nutritional support and improving nutrition knowledge for para-athletes. Thirty-two Japanese para-athletes (22 men) and 45 collegiate student athletes without disabilities (27 men) participated in the online survey. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, eating perception, dietary practices, and nutrition knowledge. The Japanese version of the body appreciation scale was used to determine their body image. Para-athletes who answered that they knew their ideal amount and way of eating showed significantly higher body image scores (r = 0.604, p < 0.001). However, mean score for nutrition knowledge of para-athletes were significantly lower than collegiate student athletes (19.4 ± 6.8 vs. 24.2 ± 6.1 points, p = 0.001). Both groups did not identify a dietitian as the source of nutrition information or receiving their nutrition advice. The results indicate para-athletes have unique eating perceptions and inadequate nutrition knowledge. Future interventions are needed to examine nutritional supports and education in relation to the role of dietitians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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11 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Nutrition Knowledge Is Associated with Energy Availability and Carbohydrate Intake in Young Female Cross-Country Skiers
by Oona Kettunen, Maria Heikkilä, Vesa Linnamo and Johanna K. Ihalainen
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061769 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4587
Abstract
The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training camp. Nutrition knowledge was assessed via a validated questionnaire. EA was optimal in 11% of athletes at home (mean 33.7 ± 9.6 kcal·kgFFM−1·d−1) and in 42% at camp (mean 40.3 ± 17.3 kcal·kgFFM−1·d−1). Most athletes (74%) failed to meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake at home (mean 5.0 ± 1.2 g·kg−1·d−1) and 63% failed to do so at camp (mean 7.1 ± 1.6 g·kg−1·d−1). The lower threshold of the pre-exercise carbohydrate recommendations was met by 58% and 89% of athletes while percentages were 26% and 89% within 1 h after exercise, at home and at camp, respectively. None of the athletes met the recommendations within 4 h after exercise. Nutrition knowledge was associated with EA at home (r = 0.52, p = 0.023), and with daily carbohydrate intake at home (r = 0.62, p = 0.005) and at camp (r = 0.52, p = 0.023). Carbohydrate intake within 1 and 4 h post-exercise at home was associated with better nutrition knowledge (r = 0.65, p = 0.003; r = 0.53, p = 0.019, respectively). In conclusion, young female cross-county skiers had difficulties meeting recommendations for optimal EA and carbohydrate intake. Better nutrition knowledge may help young athletes to meet these recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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16 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status and Implementation of a Nutritional Education Program in Young Female Artistic Gymnasts
by Antoni Aguilo, Leticia Lozano, Pedro Tauler, Mar Nafría, Miquel Colom and Sonia Martínez
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051399 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3633
Abstract
Adolescent high-performance gymnasts are considered to be at risk for low energy intake. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of implementing a nutritional education program during the sports season on the nutritional status and nutrition knowledge of the [...] Read more.
Adolescent high-performance gymnasts are considered to be at risk for low energy intake. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of implementing a nutritional education program during the sports season on the nutritional status and nutrition knowledge of the female artistic gymnasts from the Technification Center of the Balearic Islands (n = 24; age, 14.1 ± 2.3 years). A quasi-experimental intervention design was applied, which consisted of implementing a nutritional education program of seven sessions given during eight months. Measurements of nutritional intake, nutrition knowledge, and anthropometric parameters, as well as hematological and biochemical blood parameters, were performed. Gymnasts reported low energy and carbohydrate intakes, with significant increases during the study (energy, 28.3 ± 1.4 vs. 32.8 ± 1.4 kcal kg−1, p = 0.015, carbohydrate 3.2 ± 0.2 vs. 3.9 ± 0.2 g kg−1, p = 0.004). The average values for parameters such as hemoglobin, ferritin, lipoprotein, and vitamin C and E levels in the plasma were within normal ranges. Low intakes of most of the food groups were observed during the study, with similar initial and final values. Nutrition knowledge did not change as a result of the study (28.0 ± 1.7 vs. 31.1 ± 1.3, p = 0.185). In conclusion, gymnasts reported low energy intakes. However, blood markers and most of the anthropometrical parameters measured were within normal ranges. The nutrition education program implemented did not produce significant improvements in the dietary habits or nutritional knowledge of gymnasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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Review

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11 pages, 1617 KiB  
Review
Regulatory Framework of Fortified Foods and Dietary Supplements for Athletes: An Interpretive Approach
by Susana Menal-Puey and Iva Marques-Lopes
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113858 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
A varied and well-planned diet can meet the nutritional needs of an athlete; however, in certain cases, it could be advisable to increase the intake of some vitamins, minerals or other components through the controlled intake of fortified foods or dietary supplements. In [...] Read more.
A varied and well-planned diet can meet the nutritional needs of an athlete; however, in certain cases, it could be advisable to increase the intake of some vitamins, minerals or other components through the controlled intake of fortified foods or dietary supplements. In the European Union, a high number of sport foods and supplements are marketed; athletes could at times consume them indiscriminately or even choose products that have not been evaluated and approved by scientific evidence. In this sense, it is necessary to know and interpret the specific regulations for these products in order to make adequate use of them. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the current status of the European regulatory framework, focusing on: (1) regulation of the marketing and labelling of both fortified foods and supplements; (2) regulation of the use of substances used as ingredients in fortified foods; and (3) regulation of nutritional claims and/or health properties associated with nutrients, ingredients and other related substances. This review can facilitate knowledgeable decision making by sports nutrition professionals in order to counsel or manage adequate food choices as well as help consumers make better-informed food decisions. Other experts, such as producers who ensure food safety, might also be interested in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability for Youth Athletes)
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