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Article

Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product

1
Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
2
Department of Applied and Human Sciences, Kingston University London, Penrhyn Road, Kingston-upon-Thames KT1 2EE, UK
3
Natural Product Analysis Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1901 N 21st Street, Lincoln, NE 68588-6205, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Loughborough, Epinal Way, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
5
Green Pasture Products, 416 E. Fremont Street, O’Neill, NE 68763, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030753
Received: 1 February 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
High-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was employed to molecularly screen the lipid, lipid oxidation product (LOP), and antioxidant compositions of four natural (unrefined) cod liver oil (CLO) products. Products 1–3 were non-fermented CLOs, whilst Product 4 was isolated from pre-fermented cod livers. Supporting analytical data that were acquired included biogenic amine, flavanone, tannin, phenolic antioxidant, α-tocopherol, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) determinations by recommended HPLC, LC/MS/MS, or spectrophotometric methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and 1H NMR analyses investigated and determined collagenous antioxidants and their molecular mass ranges. 1H NMR analysis of aldehydic LOPs was employed to explore the susceptibilities/resistivities of each CLO product to peroxidation that is induced by thermal stressing episodes (TSEs) at 180°C, or following prolonged (42 day) storage episodes at 4 and 23 °C. Product 4 displayed extremely high ORAC values, which were much greater than those of Products 1–3, and that were predominantly ascribable to significant levels of peroxidation-blocking and/or aldehyde-consuming collagenous polypeptides/peptides and ammoniacal agents therein. Significantly lower levels of toxic aldehydes were generated in the pre-fermented Product 4 during exposure to TSEs, or the above long-term storage episodes. These results confirmed the enhanced peroxidative resistivity of a fermented, antioxidant-fortified natural CLO product over those of non-fermented unrefined products. Product 4: Green Pasture Blue Ice™ Fermented Cod Liver Oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: cod liver oil; fermented foods; peroxidative susceptibility/resistivity; lipid oxidation products; aldehyde toxins; 1H NMR analysis; biogenic amines; antioxidants; flavanones; collagen-derived antioxidants; NMR-based Thermo-Oxidation Resistivity Assay (TORA) cod liver oil; fermented foods; peroxidative susceptibility/resistivity; lipid oxidation products; aldehyde toxins; 1H NMR analysis; biogenic amines; antioxidants; flavanones; collagen-derived antioxidants; NMR-based Thermo-Oxidation Resistivity Assay (TORA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Percival, B.C.; Wann, A.; Zbasnik, R.; Schlegel, V.; Edgar, M.; Zhang, J.; Ampem, G.; Wilson, P.; Le Gresley, A.; Naughton, D.; Grootveld, M. Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product. Nutrients 2020, 12, 753. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030753

AMA Style

Percival BC, Wann A, Zbasnik R, Schlegel V, Edgar M, Zhang J, Ampem G, Wilson P, Le Gresley A, Naughton D, Grootveld M. Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):753. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030753

Chicago/Turabian Style

Percival, Benita C., Angela Wann, Richard Zbasnik, Vicki Schlegel, Mark Edgar, Jie Zhang, Gilbert Ampem, Philippe Wilson, Adam Le Gresley, Declan Naughton, and Martin Grootveld. 2020. "Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 753. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030753

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