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Coffee Intake and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Dongguk University, Goyang 10325, Korea
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02138, USA
College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02138, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally as co-first authors.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1274;
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
PDF [1153 KB, uploaded 5 June 2019]


Many studies have explored the relationship between coffee—one of the most commonly consumed beverages today—and obesity. Despite inconsistent results, the relationship has not been systematically summarized. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis by compiling data from 12 epidemiologic studies identified from PubMed and Embase through February 2019. The included studies assessed obesity by body mass index (BMI, a measure of overall adiposity) or waist circumference (WC, a measure of central adiposity); analyzed the measure as a continuous outcome or binary outcome. Using random effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for continuous outcomes; summary relative risk (RR) and 95% CI for the highest vs. lowest categories of coffee intake were estimated for binary outcome. For BMI, WMD was −0.08 (95% CI −0.14, −0.02); RR was 1.49 (95% CI 0.97, 2.29). For WC, WMD was −0.27 (95% CI −0.51, −0.02) and RR was 1.07 (95% CI 0.84, 1.36). In subgroup analysis by sex, evidence for an inverse association was more evident in men, specifically for continuous outcome, with WMD −0.05 (95% CI −0.09, −0.02) for BMI and −0.21 (95% CI −0.35, −0.08) for WC. Our meta-analysis suggests that higher coffee intake might be modestly associated with reduced adiposity, particularly in men. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee intake; obesity; adiposity; body mass index; waist circumference; meta-analysis coffee intake; obesity; adiposity; body mass index; waist circumference; meta-analysis

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Lee, A.; Lim, W.; Kim, S.; Khil, H.; Cheon, E.; An, S.; Hong, S.; Lee, D.H.; Kang, S.-S.; Oh, H.; Keum, N.; Hsieh, C.-C. Coffee Intake and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1274.

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