Special Issue "Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emilio Sacanella
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Ctr Invest Biomedica Red Fisiopatol Obesidad & Nu, Inst Invest Biomed August Pi Sunyer IDIBAPS, Madrid, Spain
Interests: randomized controlled trials; clinical nutrition; sugars; dietary fibre; nuts; dietary patterns; Mediterranean diet; dyslipidemia; diabetes; metabolic syndrome; overweight/obesity; cardiometabolic risk; cardiovascular disease; aging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Rosa Casas
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
2. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: clinical nutrition; control and prevention; supplementation; chronic disease; dietary patterns; ultra-processed food consumption patterns; balanced diet; cardiometabolic risk; immune system; gut-associated microbiome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In western countries, processed food and drink consumption rich in free sugars is growing. As a result, a significant proportion of daily caloric intake comes from these components. In Europe, this proportion ranges from 15% to 26%, being mildly lower in adults compared to children. Thus, some dietary guidelines suggest limiting calories from added sugar to less than 10% per day. Recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews have confirmed the link between consumption of free sugars and weight gain in both children and adults. Additionally, other chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease have been linked to sugar intake. Finally, today, some investigators have also suggested a link between sugar intake and higher incidence of certain types of cancer, although this association is controversial for other researchers. On the other hand, current evidence suggests that decreasing sugar intake could help to keep us healthy.

Based on your expertise in this field, we think you could make an excellent contribution of either evidence-based original research or a review for the upcoming Special Issue.

Dr. Emilio Sacanella
Dr. Rosa M. Casas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sugar-containing beverages
  • Sugar-containing solid foods
  • Liquid sugars
  • Solid sugars
  • Sucrose
  • Fructose
  • Simple sugars
  • Added sugars
  • Overweight
  • Obesity
  • Body weight
  • BMI
  • Waist circumference
  • Adiposity
  • Visceral adipose tissue
  • Pregnancy
  • Microbiota
  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Reformulation

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
The Burden of Early Childhood Caries in Children under 5 Years Old in the European Union and Associated Risk Factors: An Ecological Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020455 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The associations among early childhood caries (ECC), socioeconomic status, and sugar consumption are of the utmost importance, due to their potential policy implications. The purpose of this study was to identify trends in ECC burden in children under 5 years old among European [...] Read more.
The associations among early childhood caries (ECC), socioeconomic status, and sugar consumption are of the utmost importance, due to their potential policy implications. The purpose of this study was to identify trends in ECC burden in children under 5 years old among European Union (EU) member states over time and to evaluate the relationship with its risk factors. Global Burden of Disease 2019 data were analyzed to estimate the burden of ECC over time, specifically incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for children under 5 years old. Four ecological variables with a potential effect on YLDs for ECC were used to investigate the association between 2014 and 2017. The YLDs rate was consistently higher among Eastern EU countries over time. Univariate models showed a positive significant association between at-risk-of-poverty rate and YLDs rate, while GDP per capita and urbanization were inversely associated with YLDs rate. In the multivariate analysis, sugar consumption, GDP per capita and urbanization showed significant association with YLDs rate. After stratification by region, association remained significant only in the Eastern EU countries between GDP, urbanization, and YLDs rate, while sugar consumption and at-risk-of-poverty rate had no significant impact on YLDs rates. This study found increasing ECC burden in the EU. The complexity of the problem indicates the need for innovative and personalized policy approaches to tackle the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Free Sugar Consumption and Obesity in European Adolescents: The HELENA Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123747 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Few studies have evaluated the association between dietary free sugars intake (FSI) and obesity in adolescents. We examined the relation between FSI and their contributors from the main food groups and obesity in European adolescents. We included 843 adolescents (51.6% male) from the [...] Read more.
Few studies have evaluated the association between dietary free sugars intake (FSI) and obesity in adolescents. We examined the relation between FSI and their contributors from the main food groups and obesity in European adolescents. We included 843 adolescents (51.6% male) from the cross-sectional HELENA study with two completed 24 h recalls and anthropometric data. Linear mixed models were applied to investigate the relation between FSI and different anthropometric indices. Odds ratios for having a high body mass index (BMI) were also estimated by multilevel ordinal regression. Total FSI was higher in males than females (102.60 g and 87.58 g, respectively, p < 0.001). No effect was observed between free sugar from the main food groups and BMI. Consumers of FSI from “cakes, pies and biscuits” in males (odd ratio (OR) = 0.455; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.251, 0.824) and from “breakfast cereals” in females had a lower probability of having obesity (OR = 0.423; 95%CI 0.204, 0.878), whereas females consuming FSI from ‘fruit and vegetables juices’ had a higher probability of obesity (OR= 2.733; 95% CI 1.286, 5.810). This study provides no evidence that increased FSI is associated with obesity in adolescents. Further studies are needed to assess the longitudinal exposure to FSI and their effect on obesity development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Article
Association of Free Sugars Intake with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Japanese Adults: The 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123624 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 740
Abstract
The relationship between free sugars intake and cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear in Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate this association using data from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. The percentage of energy intake from free sugars was [...] Read more.
The relationship between free sugars intake and cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear in Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate this association using data from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. The percentage of energy intake from free sugars was estimated based on the 1-day weighed dietary record data of Japanese men (n = 4071) and women (n = 5794) aged ≥ 20 years. Associations between free sugars intake and cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and levels of serum total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, were investigated using linear regression and Dunnett’s test, with the lowest category of quartiles as a reference. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, free sugars intake was inversely associated with blood pressures (men only) and HDL-cholesterol level (both sexes) and positively associated with total-cholesterol level (women only) and LDL-cholesterol level (both sexes), whereas no association was observed for BMI, WC, and HbA1c level. This study identified both positive and inverse associations of free sugars intake with cardiometabolic risk factors in Japanese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adolescents in Selangor, Malaysia
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3617; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123617 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
This study aims to examine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of adolescents towards sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), together with the associated factors that determine their KAP. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires that consisted of sociodemographic, the KAP for the SSB [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of adolescents towards sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), together with the associated factors that determine their KAP. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires that consisted of sociodemographic, the KAP for the SSB questionnaire, and the Beverage Intake Questionnaire (BEVQ). The respondents’ heights, weights, waist circumferences and body fat percentages were measured. This study involved 439 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old, in public secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia. The results reveal that 35% of the adolescents were overweight, 26% had a high waist circumference, and 45% had a high body fat percentage. Caffeinated drinks and full cream milk were the most frequently consumed SSBs. The KAP score revealed a good attitude (88.4%), a moderate knowledge (51.8%) and a poor practice (40.5%). Those with a higher body fat percentage showed significantly good attitude scores (p < 0.05). Low household income groups, females, adolescents aged 16–17 years old and being from an urban area demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) positive determinant towards the KAP score. In conclusion, high awareness of negative health outcomes associated with SSBs among adolescents was not in accordance with the level of their lifestyle choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Article
High-Sugar Diet Disrupts Hypothalamic but Not Cerebral Cortex Redox Homeostasis
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103181 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Despite several reports on the relationship between metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, the effect of a high-sugar diet (HSD) on brain function is still unknown. Given the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of these disorders, this study was the first to [...] Read more.
Despite several reports on the relationship between metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, the effect of a high-sugar diet (HSD) on brain function is still unknown. Given the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of these disorders, this study was the first to compare the effect of an HSD on the activity of prooxidative enzymes, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and protein oxidative damage in the brain structures regulating energy metabolism (hypothalamus) and cognitive functions (cerebral cortex). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10)—control diet (CD) and high-sugar diet (HSD)—for 8 weeks. We showed a decrease in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity and an increase in catalase activity in the hypothalamus of HSD rats compared to controls. The activity of xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase and the contents of oxidation (protein carbonyls), glycoxidation (dityrosine, kynurenine and N-formylkynurenine) and protein glycation products (advanced glycation end products and Amadori products) were significantly higher only in the hypothalamus of the study group. The HSD was also responsible for the disruption of antioxidant systems and oxidative damage to blood proteins, but we did not show any correlation between systemic redox homeostasis and the brain levels. In summary, HSD is responsible for disorders of enzymatic antioxidant defenses only at the central (plasma/serum) and hypothalamic levels but does not affect the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus is much more sensitive to oxidative damage caused by an HSD than the cerebral cortex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Trends in Beverage Consumption and Related Demographic Factors and Obesity among Korean Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092651 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
It is well known that reducing consumption of sugar is a global public health priority. Beverages were the primary source of total sugar intake from processed foods. However, there are few studies investigating the trend of beverage consumption among children and adolescents in [...] Read more.
It is well known that reducing consumption of sugar is a global public health priority. Beverages were the primary source of total sugar intake from processed foods. However, there are few studies investigating the trend of beverage consumption among children and adolescents in Korea. We examined the overall trend in beverage consumption among 11,996 participants aged 10–18 years who were enrolled in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (1998–2018). Further, we examined the effect of beverage types on beverage consumption-related demographic factors and obesity among 6121 participants using the recent 24 h dietary recall data (2010–2018) that captured the consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, soft drinks, milk and milk-based products and alcoholic beverages. Demographic characteristics, including sex, age, body mass index, household income level and residential area, were considered. Consumers’ overall beverage intake and the percentage of energy derived from fruit and vegetable juices and soft drinks steadily increased from 1998 to 2016–2018 (p-trend < 0.0001); in contrast, dairy product consumption declined since 2010–2012. The main sources of beverage-based calories were fruit and vegetable juices (107.5 kcal/day), soft drinks (145.2 kcal/day), dairy products (181.8 kcal/day) and alcoholic beverages (103.5 kcal/day). Also, Korean adolescents aged 16–18 years consumed more soft drinks, fewer dairy products and higher alcoholic drinks than other age groups; particularly, boys consumed more energy from beverages (p < 0.0001). The odds ratios of obesity prevalence tended to be higher for soft drink consumption than for other beverages but this was not significant. The consumption of fruit and vegetable juices and milk and milk products showed a marginal association with a reduced risk of obesity prevalence. Since beverage consumption has increased steadily among Korean children and adolescents, appropriate interventions are needed. In the future, data from a larger sample of Korean children and adolescents are necessary to identify significant differences and longitudinal studies are necessary to examine the causalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Carbohydrate Intake in Early Childhood and Body Composition and Metabolic Health: Results from the Generation R Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071940 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
High sugar intake in childhood has been linked to obesity. However, the role of macronutrient substitutions and associations with metabolic health remain unclear. We examined associations of carbohydrate intake and its subtypes with body composition and metabolic health among 3573 children participating in [...] Read more.
High sugar intake in childhood has been linked to obesity. However, the role of macronutrient substitutions and associations with metabolic health remain unclear. We examined associations of carbohydrate intake and its subtypes with body composition and metabolic health among 3573 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Intake of total carbohydrate, monosaccharides and disaccharides, and polysaccharides at age 1 year was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. We repeatedly measured children’s height and weight to calculate BMI between their ages of 1 and 10 years. At ages 6 and 10 years, fat and fat-free mass were measured with dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry and blood concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin were obtained. For all outcomes, we calculated age and sexspecific SD-scores. In multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models, we found no associations of intake of carbohydrates or its subtypes with children’s BMI or body composition. A higher intake of monosaccharides and disaccharides was associated with higher triglyceride concentrations (0.02 SDS per 10 g/day, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04). Higher monosaccharide and disaccharide intake was also associated with lower HDL-cholesterol (−0.03 SDS, 95% CI: −0.04; −0.01), especially when it replaced polysaccharides. Overall, our findings suggest associations of higher monosaccharide and disaccharide intake in early childhood with higher triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations, but do not support associations with body composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Article
Total and Free Sugars Consumption in a Slovenian Population Representative Sample
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061729 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Excessive free sugars consumption is associated with poor health outcomes. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends limiting free sugars intake to no more than 10% of total energy intake. To evaluate current intakes of dietary sugars and monitor the adherence to the [...] Read more.
Excessive free sugars consumption is associated with poor health outcomes. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends limiting free sugars intake to no more than 10% of total energy intake. To evaluate current intakes of dietary sugars and monitor the adherence to the guidelines, the objective of this study was to comprehensively assess total and free sugars consumption of different age groups within the Slovenian population. The Slovenian national food consumption survey SI.Menu 2017/18 was conducted on representative samples of adolescents (10–17 years), adults (18–64 years), and the elderly (65–74 years) using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The analyses were carried out on a sample of 1248 study participants. Free sugars content in food was estimated based on previously established databases. The population weighted median free sugars intake accounted for 10.1% of total energy intake (TEI) among adolescents, 6.4% among adults, and 6.5% in the elderly population. Both total and free sugars consumption in the percentage of TEI were higher among women than men, in participants with lower education, and those with higher family net income. The main sources of free sugars in adolescents were beverages, cakes, muffins, pastry, and dairy products; for adults and the elderly, the key sources of free sugars were beverages, cakes, muffins, pastry, and sugars, honey, and related products. A total of 56% of adolescents, 84% of adults, and 81% of the elderly population adhered to the WHO free sugars guidelines. Additional measures will be required to further decrease free sugars consumption among the teenage population, in which dietary patterns are still of greatest concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Overview of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and the Role of Sugary Food Consumption and Other Dietary Components in Its Development
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051442 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
NAFLD is the world’s most common chronic liver disease, and its increasing prevalence parallels the global rise in diabetes and obesity. It is characterised by fat accumulation in the liver evolving to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an inflammatory subtype that can lead to liver [...] Read more.
NAFLD is the world’s most common chronic liver disease, and its increasing prevalence parallels the global rise in diabetes and obesity. It is characterised by fat accumulation in the liver evolving to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an inflammatory subtype that can lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no effective pharmacotherapeutic treatment for NAFLD. Treatment is therefore based on lifestyle modifications including changes to diet and exercise, although it is unclear what the most effective form of intervention is. The aim of this review, then, is to discuss the role of specific nutrients and the effects of different dietary interventions on NAFLD. It is well established that an unhealthy diet rich in calories, sugars, and saturated fats and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, and micronutrients plays a critical role in the development and progression of this disease. However, few clinical trials have evaluated the effects of nutrition interventions on NAFLD. We, therefore, summarise what is currently known about the effects of macronutrients, foods, and dietary patterns on NAFLD prevention and treatment. Most current guidelines recommend low-calorie, plant-based diets, such as the Mediterranean diet, as the most effective dietary pattern to treat NAFLD. More clinical trials are required, however, to identify the best evidence-based dietary treatment approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Consumption of Sweet Beverages and Cancer Risk. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020516 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4477
Abstract
The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificial-sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ), is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases. It may also be linked to the development of certain types of tumors. We carried out a systematic [...] Read more.
The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificial-sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ), is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases. It may also be linked to the development of certain types of tumors. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at examining the association between sweet beverage intake and cancer risk. Suitable articles published up to June 2020 were sourced through PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. Overall, 64 studies were identified, of which 27 were selected for the meta-analysis. This was performed by analyzing the multivariable-adjusted OR, RR or HR of the highest sweet beverage intake categories compared to the lowest one. Random effects showed significant positive association between SSB intake and breast (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.30) and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10–1.27) and also between FJs and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.05). Although the statistically significant threshold was not reached, there tended to be positive associations for the following: SSBs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; FJs and breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; and ASBs and pancreatic cancer risk. This study recommends limiting sweet beverage consumption. Furthermore, we propose to establish a homogeneous classification of beverages and investigate them separately, to better understand their role in carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Impact of Sugary Food Consumption on Pregnancy: A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113574 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Obesity in pregnancy has been directly associated with an increased risk of almost all pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and premature delivery. Thereby, according to current evidence available, life-style interventions to prevent pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in [...] Read more.
Obesity in pregnancy has been directly associated with an increased risk of almost all pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and premature delivery. Thereby, according to current evidence available, life-style interventions to prevent pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in women of fertile age are necessary to reduce the negative impact of obesity on mother and child health. Unhealthy dietary patterns, together with the increased consumption of processed foods rich in simple sugar and sweeteners are some of the responsible, among others, for the increase in obesity rates during the last years. Nevertheless, how its consumption can affect pregnancy outcomes and long-term children’s health is still uncertain. This review aims to collate the available evidence about the consequences of unhealthy dietary patterns and sugary products consumption, including sweeteners, during pregnancy for obesity in childhood and mid-childhood. High simple sugar intake during gestation may contribute to an excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) as well as to develop other pregnancy complications such as GDM, preeclampsia and preterm birth. The heterogeneity of study populations, sample size, different approaches to measure GWG, GMD, preeclampsia, and birth weight, among other conditions, might explain the divergences observed among studies. Therefore, large, well-designed intervention-controlled trials with biological biomarkers to ensure dietary adherence are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in order to provide effective nutritional advice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop