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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Impact of Carbohydrate Quality in Diet

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, Unit of Endocrinology, Università degli Studi di Roma “Foro Italico”, 00135 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071549
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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PDF [228 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as “glucose intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy”. Mothers with GDM and their infants may experience both short and long term complications. Dietary intervention is the first therapeutic strategy. If good glycaemic control is not achieved, insulin therapy is recommended. There is no consensus on which nutritional approach should be used in GDM. In the last few years, there has been growing evidence of the benefits of a low glycaemic index (LGI) diet on diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The effect of a LGI diet on GDM incidence has been investigated as well. Several studies observed a lower incidence of GDM in LGI diet arms, without adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The main positive effect of the LGI diet was the reduction of 2-h post-prandial glucose (PPG). Several studies have also evaluated the effect of the LGI diet in GDM treatment. Overall, the LGI diet might have beneficial effects on certain outcomes, such as 2-h PPG, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile in patients with GDM. Indeed, most studies observed a significant reduction in insulin requirement. Overall, according to current evidence, the LGI nutritional approach is safe and it might therefore be considered in clinical care for GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; GDM; low glycaemic index; low glycaemic load; low glycaemic index diet; low-GI diet; LGI diet; incidence of GDM; GDM outcomes gestational diabetes mellitus; GDM; low glycaemic index; low glycaemic load; low glycaemic index diet; low-GI diet; LGI diet; incidence of GDM; GDM outcomes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Filardi, T.; Panimolle, F.; Crescioli, C.; Lenzi, A.; Morano, S. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Impact of Carbohydrate Quality in Diet. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1549.

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