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The Sex–Gender Effects in the Road to Tailored Botanicals

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2
Laboratory of Sex–gender Medicine, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, 07100 Sassari, Italy
3
Laboratorio PHYTOLAB (Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Food supplement Technology and Analysis)-DiSIA Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50019 Firenze, Italy
4
Laboratorio di Qualità delle Merci e Affidabilità di Prodotto Università degli Studi di Firenze, 59100 Firenze, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071637
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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PDF [1229 KB, uploaded 21 July 2019]
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Abstract

Phenols are a wide family of phytochemicals that are characterized by large chemical diversity and are considered to bioactive molecules of foods, beverages, and botanicals. Although they have a multitude of biological actions, their beneficial effects are rarely evidenced in clinical research with high scientific rigor. This may occur due to the presence of numerous confounders, such as the modulation of phenol bioavailability, which can be regulated by microbiota, age, sex-gender. Sex-gender is an important determinant of health and well-being, and has an impact on environmental and occupational risks, access to health care, disease prevalence, and treatment outcomes. In addition, xenobiotic responses may be strongly influenced by sex-gender. This review describes how sex–gender differentially influences the activities of phenols also in some critical periods of women life such as pregnancy and lactation, considering also the sex of fetuses and infants. Thus, sex–gender is a variable that must be carefully considered and should be used to propose directions for future research on the road to tailored medicine and nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex–gender; phenols; pharmacokinetics; microbiota; pregnancy; lactation; developmental trajectory sex–gender; phenols; pharmacokinetics; microbiota; pregnancy; lactation; developmental trajectory
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Campesi, I.; Romani, A.; Franconi, F. The Sex–Gender Effects in the Road to Tailored Botanicals. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1637.

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