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Natural Hydrogen Sulfide Donors from Allium sp. as a Nutraceutical Approach in Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Therapy

1
Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
CIMER Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00166 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Medicine Tirana, rruga Dibra, 371 Tirana, Albania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071581
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Nutrition)
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PDF [19676 KB, uploaded 15 July 2019]
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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a socially relevant chronic disease with high prevalence worldwide. DM may lead to several vascular, macrovascular, and microvascular complications (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy), often accelerating the progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary therapy is generally considered to be the first step in the treatment of diabetic patients. Among the current therapeutic options, such as insulin therapy and hypoglycemic drugs, in recent years, attention has been shifting to the effects and properties—that are still not completely known—of medicinal plants as valid and inexpensive therapeutic supports with limited side effects. In this review, we report the relevant effects of medicinal plants and nutraceuticals in diabetes. In particular, we paid attention to the organosulfur compounds (OSCs) present in plant extracts that due to their antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, can contribute as cardioprotective agents in type 2 DM. OSCs derived from garlic (Allium sp.), due to their properties, can represent a valuable support to the diet in type 2 DM, as outlined in this manuscript based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, a relevant characteristic of garlic OSCs is their ability to produce the gasotransmitter H2S, and many of their effects can be explained by this property. Indeed, in recent years, several studies have demonstrated the relevant effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in human DM, including by in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials; therefore, here, we summarize the effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of H2S and natural H2S donors. View Full-Text
Keywords: OSCs; garlic; phytochemicals; inflammation; oxidative stress; H2S; diabetes; plants; nutraceuticals OSCs; garlic; phytochemicals; inflammation; oxidative stress; H2S; diabetes; plants; nutraceuticals
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Melino, S.; Leo, S.; Toska Papajani, V. Natural Hydrogen Sulfide Donors from Allium sp. as a Nutraceutical Approach in Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1581.

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