Special Issue "Olive Oil and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José J. Gaforio
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Center for Advanced Studies in Olive Grove and Olive Oils, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: virgin olive oil; inflammation; cancer; nutritional immunology; antioxidants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Egeria Scoditti
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
National Research Council –Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce Section, Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Nutrigenomics, Ecotekne Campus, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Olive oil is recognized as one of the evidence-based healthiest dietary fats, contributing to the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet against chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, cancer and neurodegeneration. The fatty acid composition and the minor components including polyphenols are the most studied and best-known for their contribution to the health benefits of olive oil consumption. Human evidence and studies in experimental models have claimed the pleiotropic action of olive oil in humans, with suggested different mechanisms underlining its protective effects that include, besides the known antioxidant action, regulation of gene expression, cell signaling, and protein functions. However, many aspects of olive oil bioactivities remain to be elucidated and more studies are needed, also using a multi-omics approach, to establish or further confirm, among others, the novel health effects, the cause–effect relationships, the importance of olive oil quality, the molecular targets, the contributory role of individual components versus their synergistic combination, the reciprocal influences between olive oil and host microbiota, the bioavailability of its components, and the extent and related determinants of inter-individual variability in the biological response to olive oil consumption.

Dr. José J. Gaforio
Dr. Egeria Scoditti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Virgin Olive oil
  • Chronic disease
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Oxidative DNA damage
  • Food safety

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols Oleocanthal and Oleacein Counteract Inflammation-Related Gene and miRNA Expression in Adipocytes by Attenuating NF-κB Activation
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122855 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Inflammation of the adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of several chronic diseases associated with obesity. Polyphenols of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), such as the secoiridoids oleocanthal (OC) and oleacein (OA), have many nutraceutical proprieties. However, their roles in [...] Read more.
Inflammation of the adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of several chronic diseases associated with obesity. Polyphenols of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), such as the secoiridoids oleocanthal (OC) and oleacein (OA), have many nutraceutical proprieties. However, their roles in obesity-associated adipocyte inflammation, the NF-κB pathway and related sub-networks have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated impact of OC and OA on the activation of NF-κB and the expression of molecules associated with inflammatory and dysmetabolic responses. To this aim, fully differentiated Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes were pre-treated with OC or OA before stimulation with TNF-α. EVOO polyphenols significantly reduced the expression of genes implicated in adipocyte inflammation (IL-1β, COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF/KDR, MMP-2), oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPX), leukocytes chemotaxis and infiltration (MCP-1, CXCL-10, MCS-F), and improved the expression of the anti-inflammatory/metabolic effector PPARγ. Accordingly, miR-155-5p, miR-34a-5p and let-7c-5p, tightly connected with the NF-κB pathway, were deregulated by TNF-α in both cells and exosomes. The miRNA modulation and NF-κB activation by TNF-α was significantly counteracted by EVOO polyphenols. Computational studies suggested a potential direct interaction between OC and NF-κB at the basis of its activity. This study demonstrates that OC and OA counteract adipocyte inflammation attenuating NF-κB activation. Therefore, these compounds could be novel dietary tools for the prevention of inflammatory diseases associated with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxytyrosol Modulates Adipocyte Gene and miRNA Expression Under Inflammatory Condition
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102493 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue (AT) is a major contributor to obesity-associated cardiometabolic complications. The olive oil polyphenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) contributes to Mediterranean diet cardiometabolic benefits through mechanisms still partially unknown. We investigated HT (1 and 10 μmol/L) effects on gene expression [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue (AT) is a major contributor to obesity-associated cardiometabolic complications. The olive oil polyphenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) contributes to Mediterranean diet cardiometabolic benefits through mechanisms still partially unknown. We investigated HT (1 and 10 μmol/L) effects on gene expression (mRNA and microRNA) related to inflammation induced by 10 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human Simpson–Golabi–Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. At real-time PCR, HT significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced mRNA levels, of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, C-X-C Motif Ligand-10, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cyclooxygenase-2, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and reverted the TNF-α-mediated inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α, and glucose transporter-4. We found similar effects in adipocytes stimulated by macrophage-conditioned media. Accordingly, HT significantly counteracted miR-155-5p, miR-34a-5p, and let-7c-5p expression in both cells and exosomes, and prevented NF-κB activation and production of reactive oxygen species. HT can therefore modulate adipocyte gene expression profile through mechanisms involving a reduction of oxidative stress and NF-κB inhibition. By such mechanisms, HT may blunt macrophage recruitment and improve AT inflammation, preventing the deregulation of pathways involved in obesity-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Olive Oil Intake Associated with Increased Attention Scores in Women Living with HIV: Findings from the Chicago Women’s Interagency HIV Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081759 - 31 Jul 2019
Abstract
Women aging with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to cognitive decline. Recent studies have highlighted the potential protective effects of olive oil on cognition in persons living without HIV. We sought to evaluate the association between olive oil consumption and domain-specific [...] Read more.
Women aging with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to cognitive decline. Recent studies have highlighted the potential protective effects of olive oil on cognition in persons living without HIV. We sought to evaluate the association between olive oil consumption and domain-specific cognitive performance (dCog) t-scores (adjusted for age, race, education, reading level, practice effects) in women living with HIV (WLWH) and sociodemographically similar women living without HIV. A total of 166 women (113 WLWH and 53 women living without HIV) participating in the Cook County Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) completed cognitive testing and a Block 2014 Food Frequency Questionnaire within 18 months. Use of olive oil was associated with a 4.2 point higher attention/concentration (p = 0.02), 4.0 point higher for verbal learning (p = 0.02), and 1.91 point higher for verbal memory (p = 0.05). Associations between using olive oil and attention/concentration cognitive domain were seen in WLWH but not in women living without HIV. Associations between olive oil and verbal learning and memory were only seen in women without HIV. Our data suggest that using olive oil as a primary cooking oil may contribute to differential effects in attention/concentration, verbal learning, and verbal memory between women living with and without HIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil and Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Virgin Olive Oil and Health: Summary of the III International Conference on Virgin Olive Oil and Health Consensus Report, JAEN (Spain) 2018
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092039 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet is considered as the foremost dietary regimen and its adoption is associated with the prevention of degenerative diseases and an extended longevity. The preeminent features of the Mediterranean diet have been agreed upon and the consumption of olive oil stands [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet is considered as the foremost dietary regimen and its adoption is associated with the prevention of degenerative diseases and an extended longevity. The preeminent features of the Mediterranean diet have been agreed upon and the consumption of olive oil stands out as the most peculiar one. Indeed, the use of olive oil as the nearly exclusive dietary fat is what mostly characterizes the Mediterranean area. Plenty of epidemiological studies have correlated that the consumption of olive oil was associated with better overall health. Indeed, extra virgin olive oil contains (poly)phenolic compounds that are being actively investigated for their purported biological and pharma-nutritional properties. On 18 and 19 May 2018, several experts convened in Jaen (Spain) to discuss the most recent research on the benefits of olive oil and its components. We reported a summary of that meeting (reviewing several topics related to olive oil, not limited to health) and concluded that substantial evidence is accruing to support the widespread opinion that extra virgin olive oil should, indeed, be the fat of choice when it comes to human health and sustainable agronomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Nutraceutical Value of Olive Oil and Its Bioactive Constituents on the Cardiovascular System. Focusing on Main Strategies to Slow Down Its Quality Decay during Production and Storage
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091962 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases represent the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is well-known that oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are strongly implicated in their pathogenesis; therefore, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agents can represent effective tools. In recent years a large number of scientific [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases represent the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is well-known that oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are strongly implicated in their pathogenesis; therefore, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agents can represent effective tools. In recent years a large number of scientific reports have pointed out the nutraceutical and nutritional value of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO), strongholds of the Mediterranean diet, endowed with a high nutritional quality and defined as functional foods. In regard to EVOO, it is a food composed of a major saponifiable fraction, represented by oleic acid, and a minor unsaponifiable fraction, including a high number of vitamins, polyphenols, and squalene. Several reports suggest that the beneficial effects of EVOO are linked to the minor components, but recently, further studies have shed light on the health effects of the fatty fraction and the other constituents of the unsaponifiable fraction. In the first part of this review, an analysis of the clinical and preclinical evidence of the cardiovascular beneficial effects of each constituent is carried out. The second part of this review is dedicated to the main operating conditions during production and/or storage that can directly influence the shelf life of olive oil in terms of both nutraceutical properties and sensory quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Olive Oil and Its Minor Components on Cardiovascular Diseases, Inflammation, and Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081826 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Olive oil is one of the main ingredients in the Mediterranean diet, being an important ally in disease prevention. Its nutritional composition is comprised of mainly monounsaturated fatty acids, with oleic being the major acid, plus minor components which act as effective antioxidants, [...] Read more.
Olive oil is one of the main ingredients in the Mediterranean diet, being an important ally in disease prevention. Its nutritional composition is comprised of mainly monounsaturated fatty acids, with oleic being the major acid, plus minor components which act as effective antioxidants, such as hydroxytyrosol. Studies have shown that the consumption of olive oil, as well as its isolated components or in synergism, can be a primary and secondary protective factor against the development of cardiovascular diseases since it reduces the concentrations of low-density lipoproteins and increases the concentration of high-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, it exerts an influence on the inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor, which are pro-inflammatory agents in the body. The components present in olive oil are also associated with the promotion of intestinal health since they stimulate a higher biodiversity of beneficial gut bacteria, enhancing their balance. The objective of this review is to present recent data on investigated effects of olive oil and its components on the metabolism, focused on cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and gut biota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil and Human Health)
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