Special Issue "Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Daniela Bonofiglio
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Guest Editor
Full Professor of Biotechnology and Methods in Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: breast cancer; natural products; iodine deficiency
Prof. Stefania Catalano
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Guest Editor
Full professor of Clinical Pathology, Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: breast cancer; adipokines; iodine deficiency

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Iodine, a key component of thyroid hormones, is considered to be an essential micronutrient for proper health at all life stages. Indeed, an inadequate dietary intake of iodine is responsible for several functional and developmental abnormalities. The most serious consequences of iodine deficiency include hypothyroidism, early abortion, low birth weight, preterm delivery, neuro-cognitive impairment, and mental retardation. On the other hand, the consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, such as goiter, are less well understood but represent an important priority for research and public health practice. Over the last several decades, many countries across the globe have introduced mandatory salt iodization programmes, which have dramatically reduced the number of iodine-deficient countries. However, although substantial progress has been made worldwide, mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. Thus, the ongoing monitoring of the population iodine status remains crucially important, and attention may need to be paid to vulnerable life stage groups.

This Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health” welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerning this important topic.


Prof. Daniela Bonofiglio
Prof. Stefania Catalano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Dietary iodine intake
  • Iodine status
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Iodine supplementation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Relationship with 24 h Urinary Iodine Concentrations of Young Adults in the Mountain West Region of the United States
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010121 - 01 Jan 2020
Abstract
Background: Iodine deficiency is not seen as a public health concern in the US. However certain subpopulations may be vulnerable due to inadequate dietary sources. The purpose of the present study was to determine the dietary habits that influence iodine status in young [...] Read more.
Background: Iodine deficiency is not seen as a public health concern in the US. However certain subpopulations may be vulnerable due to inadequate dietary sources. The purpose of the present study was to determine the dietary habits that influence iodine status in young adult men and women, and to evaluate the relationship between iodine status and thyroid function. Methods: 111 participants (31.6 ± 0.8 years, 173.2 ± 1.0 cm, 74.9 ± 1.7 kg) provided 24 h urine samples and completed an iodine-specific Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessment of urinary iodine content (UIC) as a marker of iodine status and habitual iodine intake, respectively. Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) concentration was evaluated as a marker of thyroid function. Spearman correlational and regression analysis were performed to analyze the associations between iodine intake and iodine status, and iodine status and thyroid function. Results: 50.4% of participants had a 24 h UIC < 100 µg/L). Dairy (r = 0.391, p < 0.000) and egg intake (r = 0.192, p = 0.044) were the best predictors of UIC, accounting for 19.7% of the variance (p ≤ 0.0001). There was a significant correlation between UIC and serum TSH (r = 0.194, p < 0.05) but TSH did not vary by iodine status category (F = 1.087, p = 0.372). Discussion: Total dairy and egg intake were the primary predictors of estimated iodine intake, as well as UIC. Iodized salt use was not a significant predictor, raising questions about the reliability of iodized salt recall. These data will be useful in directing public health and clinical assessment efforts in the US and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Sodium, Potassium and Iodine Intake, in a National Adult Population Sample of the Republic of Moldova
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122896 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
In the Republic of Moldova, more than half of all deaths due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Excess salt (sodium) and inadequate potassium intakes are associated with high CVD. Moreover, salt iodisation is the preferred policy to prevent [...] Read more.
In the Republic of Moldova, more than half of all deaths due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Excess salt (sodium) and inadequate potassium intakes are associated with high CVD. Moreover, salt iodisation is the preferred policy to prevent iodine deficiency and associated disorders. However, there is no survey that has directly measured sodium, potassium and iodine consumption in adults in the Republic of Moldova. A national random sample of adults attended a screening including demographic, anthropometric and physical measurements. Sodium, potassium and iodine intakes were assessed by 24 h urinary sodium (UNa), potassium (UK) and iodine (UI) excretions. Knowledge, attidues and behaviours were collected by questionnaire. Eight-hundred and fifty-eight participants (326 men and 532 women, 18–69 years) were included in the analysis (response rate 66%). Mean age was 48.5 years (SD 13.8). Mean UNa was 172.7 (79.3) mmoL/day, equivalent to 10.8 g of salt/day and potassium excretion 72.7 (31.5) mmoL/day, equivalent to 3.26 g/day. Only 11.3% met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended salt targets of 5 g/day and 39% met potassium targets (>90 mmoL/day). Whilst 81.7% declared limiting their consumption of processed food and over 70% not adding salt at the table, only 8.8% looked at sodium content of food, 31% still added salt when cooking and less than 1% took other measures to control salt consumption. Measures of awareness were significantly more common in urban compared to rural areas. Mean urinary iodine was 225 (SD: 152; median 196) mcg/24 h, with no difference between sexes. According to WHO criteria, 41.0% had adequate iodine intake. Iodine content of salt table was 21.0 (SD: 18.6) mg/kg, lower in rural than urban areas (16.7, SD = 18.6 vs. 28.1, SD = 16.5 mg/kg, p < 0.001). In most cases participants were not using iodised salt as their main source of salt, more so in rural areas. In the Republic of Moldova, salt consumption is unequivocally high, potassium consumption is lower than recommended, both in men and in women, whilst iodine intake is still inadequate in one in three people, although severe iodine deficiency is rare. Salt consumed is often not iodised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Iodine Nutrition Status and Thyroid Disease-Related Hormone in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013–2015)
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112757 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to observe the relationship between iodine nutrition status (dietary iodine intake and estimated iodine intake based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC)) and thyroid disease-related hormones. This study involved 6090 subjects >19 years old with valid UIC, assessed between 2013 and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to observe the relationship between iodine nutrition status (dietary iodine intake and estimated iodine intake based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC)) and thyroid disease-related hormones. This study involved 6090 subjects >19 years old with valid UIC, assessed between 2013 and 2015 by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using a stratified, multistage, clustered probability-sampling design. The estimated iodine intake in participants was measured using UIC and urine creatinine. To examine the effect of iodine intake on thyroid disease, the iodine intake was divided into Korean Dietary Reference Intakes groups, and logistic regression analysis was performed via the surveylogistic procedure to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The estimated iodine intake showed a significant positive correlation with dietary iodine intake (r = 0.021, p < 0.001), UIC (r = 0.918, p < 0.001), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (r = 0.043, p < 0.001), but a significant negative correlation with free thyroxine (FT4) (r = −0.037, p < 0.001). Additionally, as the estimated iodine intake increased, age, TSH, and UIC increased, but FT4 decreased (p for trend < 0.0001). The risk of thyroid disease was higher in the “≥tolerable upper intake level (UL ≥ 2400 µg/day)” group than in the “<estimated average requirement (EAR < 150 µg/day)” group in females (OR: 2.418; 95% CI: 1.010–5.787). Also, as iodine intake increased, the risk of thyroid disease increased (p for trend < 0.038). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Joint Role of Thyroid Function and Iodine Status on Risk of Preterm Birth and Small for Gestational Age: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study of Finnish Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112573 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
Normal maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is essential for fetal development and depends upon an adequate supply of iodine. Little is known about how iodine status is associated with preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) in mildly iodine insufficient populations. Our [...] Read more.
Normal maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is essential for fetal development and depends upon an adequate supply of iodine. Little is known about how iodine status is associated with preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) in mildly iodine insufficient populations. Our objective was to evaluate associations of early pregnancy serum iodine, thyroglobulin (Tg), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with odds of preterm birth and SGA in a prospective, population-based, nested case-control study from all births in Finland (2012–2013). Cases of preterm birth (n = 208) and SGA (n = 209) were randomly chosen from among all singleton births. Controls were randomly chosen from among singleton births that were not preterm (n = 242) or SGA (n = 241) infants during the same time period. Women provided blood samples at 10–14 weeks’ gestation for serum iodide, Tg and TSH measurement. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preterm birth and SGA. Each log-unit increase in serum iodide was associated with higher odds of preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02–1.40), but was not associated with SGA (adjusted OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.86–1.18). Tg was not associated with preterm birth (OR per 1 log-unit increase = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73–1.05), but was inversely associated with SGA (OR per log-unit increase = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.65–0.94). Neither high nor low TSH (versus normal) were associated with either outcome. These findings suggest that among Finnish women, iodine status is not related to SGA, but higher serum iodide may be positively associated with preterm birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
Open AccessCommunication
Endemic Goiter and Iodine Prophylaxis in Calabria, a Region of Southern Italy: Past and Present
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102428 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Iodine, a micronutrient that plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone synthesis, is essential for proper health at all life stages. Indeed, an insufficient iodine intake may determine a thyroid dysfunction also with goiter, or it may be associated to clinical features such [...] Read more.
Iodine, a micronutrient that plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone synthesis, is essential for proper health at all life stages. Indeed, an insufficient iodine intake may determine a thyroid dysfunction also with goiter, or it may be associated to clinical features such as stunted growth and mental retardation, referred as iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs). Iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in many countries, including Italy. The effective strategy for the prevention and control of IDDs is universal salt iodization, which was implemented in Italy in 2005 as a nationwide program adopted after the approval of an Italian law. Despite an improvement in the iodine intake, many regions in Italy are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency. In this review, we provide an overview of the historical evolution of the iodine status in the Calabria region, located in the South of Italy, during the past three decades. In particular, we have retraced an itinerary from the first epidemiological surveys at the end of the 1980s to the establishment of the Regional Observatory of Endemic Goiter and Iodine Prophylaxis, which represents an efficient model for the surveillance of IDDs and monitoring the efficacy of iodine prophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
Iodine Status in Schoolchildren and Pregnant Women of Lazio, a Central Region of Italy
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071647 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
The inhabitants of Lazio, similarly to those of other Italian regions, have been historically exposed to the detrimental effects of an inadequate intake of iodine. The latter is a micronutrient essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (TH). Iodine deficiency is responsible for [...] Read more.
The inhabitants of Lazio, similarly to those of other Italian regions, have been historically exposed to the detrimental effects of an inadequate intake of iodine. The latter is a micronutrient essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (TH). Iodine deficiency is responsible for a number of adverse effects on human health known as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), the most common of which worldwide are goiter and hypothyroidism. In order to reduce IDD, a national salt iodination program was started in Italy in 2005. In this article we reviewed the available data regarding iodine intake in the Lazio population before and after the introduction of the national salt iodination program, in order to evaluate its efficacy and the eventual problem(s) limiting its success. On the whole, the information acquired indicates that, following the introduction of the program, the dietary iodine intake in the Lazio population is improved. There is, however, still much work ahead to ameliorate the iodine prophylaxis in this region. In fact, although a generally adequate iodine intake in school-age children has been observed, there are still areas where a mild iodine insufficiency is present. Moreover, two independent epidemiological surveys on pregnant women evidenced a low urinary iodine concentration with respect to the reference range conceived by the World Health Organization. These findings demonstrate the need for greater attention to the iodine prophylaxis by health care providers (i.e., obstetricians, gynecologists, pediatricians, etc.), and the implementation of effective advertising campaigns aimed at increasing the knowledge and awareness of the favorable effects of iodine supplementation on population health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nutraceutical Supplements in the Thyroid Setting: Health Benefits beyond Basic Nutrition
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092214 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in nutraceuticals, which may be considered as an efficient, preventive, and therapeutic tool in facing different pathological conditions, including thyroid diseases. Although iodine remains the major nutrient required for the functioning of the thyroid [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in nutraceuticals, which may be considered as an efficient, preventive, and therapeutic tool in facing different pathological conditions, including thyroid diseases. Although iodine remains the major nutrient required for the functioning of the thyroid gland, other dietary components play important roles in clinical thyroidology—these include selenium, l-carnitine, myo-inositol, melatonin, and resveratrol—some of which have antioxidant properties. The main concern regarding the appropriate and effective use of nutraceuticals in prevention and treatment is due to the lack of clinical data supporting their efficacy. Another limitation is the discrepancy between the concentration claimed by the label and the real concentration. This paper provides a detailed critical review on the health benefits, beyond basic nutrition, of some popular nutraceutical supplements, with a special focus on their effects on thyroid pathophysiology and aims to distinguish between the truths and myths surrounding the clinical use of such nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
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