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Effects of Iodine Intake and Nutraceuticals in Thyroidology: Update and Prospects
Open AccessReview

Interference on Iodine Uptake and Human Thyroid Function by Perchlorate-Contaminated Water and Food

1
ASL Brindisi, Unit of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Clinical Nutrition, Hospital “A. Perrino”, Strada per Mesagne 7, 72100 Brindisi, Puglia, Italy
2
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine—Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, School of Medicine, Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Puglia, Italy
3
Clinic of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Conversano Hospital, Via Edmondo de Amicis 36, 70014 Conversano, Bari, Puglia, Italy
4
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Section of Internal Medicine and Clinical Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Puglia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061669
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 31 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
Background: Perchlorate-induced natrium-iodide symporter (NIS) interference is a well-recognized thyroid disrupting mechanism. It is unclear, however, whether a chronic low-dose exposure to perchlorate delivered by food and drinks may cause thyroid dysfunction in the long term. Thus, the aim of this review was to overview and summarize literature results in order to clarify this issue. Methods: Authors searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, institutional websites and Google until April 2020 for relevant information about the fundamental mechanism of the thyroid NIS interference induced by orally consumed perchlorate compounds and its clinical consequences. Results: Food and drinking water should be considered relevant sources of perchlorate. Despite some controversies, cross-sectional studies demonstrated that perchlorate exposure affects thyroid hormone synthesis in infants, adolescents and adults, particularly in the case of underlying thyroid diseases and iodine insufficiency. An exaggerated exposure to perchlorate during pregnancy leads to a worse neurocognitive and behavioral development outcome in infants, regardless of maternal thyroid hormone levels. Discussion and conclusion: The effects of a chronic low-dose perchlorate exposure on thyroid homeostasis remain still unclear, leading to concerns especially for highly sensitive patients. Specific studies are needed to clarify this issue, aiming to better define strategies of detection and prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: perchlorate; Natrium/Iodide symporter; iodine; endocrine disruptors; review; drinking and Food; Hypothyroidism perchlorate; Natrium/Iodide symporter; iodine; endocrine disruptors; review; drinking and Food; Hypothyroidism
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Lisco, G.; De Tullio, A.; Giagulli, V.A.; De Pergola, G.; Triggiani, V. Interference on Iodine Uptake and Human Thyroid Function by Perchlorate-Contaminated Water and Food. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1669.

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