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Nutraceuticals in Thyroidology: A Review of in Vitro, and in Vivo Animal Studies

1
Master Program on Childhood, Adolescent and Women’s Endocrine Health, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina
2
Interdepartmental Program of Molecular & Clinical Endocrinology, and Women’s Endocrine Health, University Hospital, Policlinico Universitario G. Martino, 98125 Messina, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
5
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051337
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
Nutraceuticals are defined as a food, or parts of a food, that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention of different pathological conditions, and thyroid diseases, or the treatment of them. Nutraceuticals have a place in complementary medicines, being positioned in an area among food, food supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The market of certain nutraceuticals such as thyroid supplements has been growing in the last years. In addition, iodine is a fundamental micronutrient for thyroid function, but also other dietary components can have a key role in clinical thyroidology. Here, we have summarized the in vitro, and in vivo animal studies present in literature, focusing on the commonest nutraceuticals generally encountered in the clinical practice (such as carnitine, flavonoids, melatonin, omega-3, resveratrol, selenium, vitamins, zinc, and inositol), highlighting conflicting results. These experimental studies are expected to improve clinicians’ knowledge about the main supplements being used, in order to clarify the potential risks or side effects and support patients in their use. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutraceuticals; thyroid; carnitine; flavonoids; melatonin; omega-3; resveratrol; selenium; vitamins; zinc nutraceuticals; thyroid; carnitine; flavonoids; melatonin; omega-3; resveratrol; selenium; vitamins; zinc
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benvenga, S.; Ferrari, S.M.; Elia, G.; Ragusa, F.; Patrizio, A.; Paparo, S.R.; Camastra, S.; Bonofiglio, D.; Antonelli, A.; Fallahi, P. Nutraceuticals in Thyroidology: A Review of in Vitro, and in Vivo Animal Studies. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1337. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051337

AMA Style

Benvenga S, Ferrari SM, Elia G, Ragusa F, Patrizio A, Paparo SR, Camastra S, Bonofiglio D, Antonelli A, Fallahi P. Nutraceuticals in Thyroidology: A Review of in Vitro, and in Vivo Animal Studies. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5):1337. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benvenga, Salvatore; Ferrari, Silvia M.; Elia, Giusy; Ragusa, Francesca; Patrizio, Armando; Paparo, Sabrina R.; Camastra, Stefania; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak. 2020. "Nutraceuticals in Thyroidology: A Review of in Vitro, and in Vivo Animal Studies" Nutrients 12, no. 5: 1337. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051337

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